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LEADERSHIP
Introduction
Leadership is the ability to develop a vision that motivates
others to move with a passion toward a common goal.
So,
Leadership is a process by which a person influences
others to accomplish an objective and
directs the organization in a way that makes it more
cohesive and coherent.
Definition
 leadership is the “process of social
influence in which one person can
enlist the aid and support of others in
the accomplishment of a common
task”.
M Chemers.
 "Leadership is ultimately about
creating a way for people to
contribute to making something
extraordinary happen."
Alan Keith.
What is leadership?
Leading people
Influencing people
Commanding people
Guiding people
Types of Leaders
 Leader by the position achieved
 Leader by personality, charisma
 Leader by moral example
 Leader by power held
 Intellectual leader
 Leader because of ability to
accomplish things
Managers vs. Leaders
Managers
 Focus on things
 Do things right
 Plan
 Organize
 Direct
 Control
 Follows the rules
Leaders
 Focus on people
 Do the right things
 Inspire
 Influence
 Motivate
 Build
 Shape entities
Four factors of leadership
 Leader - You must have an honest
understanding of who you are, what you
know and what you can do. To be successful
you have to convince your followers not your
superiors, that you are worthy of being
followed.
 Follower -You must know your people. The
fundamental starting point is having a good
understanding of human nature, such as
needs, emotions and motivation.
 Communication-The nonverbal
communication is leading. E.g.- when you
set example that communicates to your
people that you would not ask them to
perform anything that you would not be
willing to do. Bad communication harm the
relation between leader and employee.
 Situation-We must use our judgment to
decide the best course of action and the
leadership style needed for each situation.
What we do in one situation will not always
work in another.
Seven Basic Principles
 Have two to three years to make
measurable financial and cultural
progress
 Come in knowing current strategy,
goals, and challenges. Form
hypothesis on operating priorities
 Balance intense focus on priorities
with flexibility on implementation….
Seven Basic Principles, con’t
 Decide about new organization
architecture
 Build personal credibility and
momentum
 Earn right to transform entity
 Remember there is no “one” way to
manage a transition
Styles of leadership
The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook,
1973) :
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
Autocratic –The authoritarian leader makes decisions
alone as power is centralized in one person. Decisions
are enforced using rewards and the fear of
punishment. it is an abusive, unprofessional style called
“bossing people around.”
Democratic-The participative leader include one
or more employees in the decision making process.
Communication flow freely; suggestions are made in
both directions. The participation encourages
member commitment to the final decision.
Laissez-faire-The free-rein leader gives power to
subordinates to make the decisions. However, the
leader is still responsible for the decisions that are
made.This is used when employees are able to
analyze the situation. Deligative style is generally not
useful.
Theories of leadership
TRAIT
THEORY
CONTINGENCY
THEORY
BEHAVIRALTHEORY
SITUATIONAL
THEORY
Trait theory-
TheTrait Approach arose from the “Great Man” theory as a
way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders.
It was believed that through this theory critical leadership
traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could
then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership
positions.This theory was common in the military and is still
used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions.
 Five-Factor Personality Model and
Leadership
 Over the past 25 years, a consensus has
emerged among researchers regarding the
basic factors that make up what we call
personality (Goldberg,1990; McCrae &
Costa, 1987).These factors, commonly
called the Big Five, are:
 Neuroticism, extraversion , openness
(intellect), agreeableness, and
conscientiousness.
Advantages of Trait Theory -
 It is naturally pleasing theory.
 It serves as a yardstick against which the
leadership traits of an individual can be
assessed.
 It gives a detailed knowledge and
understanding of the leader element in the
leadership process.
Limitations ofTheTraitTheory –
 There is bound to be some subjective judgment
in determining who is regarded as a „good‟ or
„successful‟ leader.
 There is also a disagreement over which traits
are the most important for an effective leader
Behavioral Theory-
 These theories of leadership are based
upon the belief that great leaders are made,
not born.
 Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership
theory focuses on the actions of leaders not
on mental qualities or internal states.
 According to this theory, people can learn to
become leaders through teaching and
observation.
 The behavior approach says that anyone
who adopts the appropriate behavior can be
a good leader.
Studies of Behavioral theory
 Ohio state leadership university
studies.
 Managerial Grid
 University of Michigan studies
1. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
 A group of people from Ohio State
University developed a list of 150
statements from their generated
responses that included 1,800 hundred
statements.The list was designed to
measure nine different behavioral
leadership dimensions.The resulting
questionnaire is now well-known as the
LBDQ or the Leaders Behavior
Description Questionnaire
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
 After compiling and analyzing the results,
the study led to the conclusion that there
were two groups of behaviors that were
strongly correlated.These were defined as
Consideration(People Oriented
behavioral Leaders) and Initiating
Structure (Task Oriented Leaders).
PEOPLE ORIENTED LEADERS
 The people oriented leaders are focusing their
behaviors on ensuring that the inner needs of the
people are satisfied.Thus they will seek to
motivate their staff through emphasizing the
human relation. People oriented leaders still focus
on the task and the results; they just achieve them
through different means. Leaders with a people
focus will have behaviors that are in line with:
 Encouraging
 Observing
 Listening
 Coaching and Mentoring
TASK ORIENTED LEADERS
 The task concerned leaders are focusing
their behaviors on the organizational
structure, the operating procedures and they
like to keep control.Task-oriented leaders
are still concern with their staff motivation;
however it's not their main concern.They
will favor behaviors that are in line with:
 Initiating
 Organizing
 Clarifying
 Information Gathering
2. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
 Lead by the famous organizational psychologist,
Dr. Rensis Likert, the leadership studies at the
University of Michigan identified three
characteristics of effective leadership; two of
which were previously observed in studies that
had been conducted at Ohio State University.The
study showed that task and relationship-oriented
behaviors weren't of major significance within the
world of organizational psychology. However it
was the third observation that introduced a new
concept, one of participative leadership!
PARTICIPATED LEADERSHIP
 Participative leadership also known as
Democratic Leadership Style is a method of
leadership that involves all team members in
terms of identifying important goals as well as
developing strategies and procedures to achieve
the goals. From this point of view, participative
style of leadership can be perceived as a
leadership style that rely primarily on functioning
as facilitator that the one who simply issues
commands or orders or making assignment for
each member of the team. This kind of leadership
style could be utilized in volunteer setting,
business setting and even in home.
PARTICIPATED LEADERSHIP
 Finally, successful participative leaders
permits the skills and talents of every
member of the team to be employed in
arriving to the best decision, which is
beneficial. Even though the team leader is
typically responsible for making the best
final decision, which shares the function
within the team, sharing ideas, opinions,
skills and talent is still effective for the
whole team to be efficient and successful.
3. MANAGERIAL GRID MODEL
 At conception, the managerial grid model
was composed of five different leadership
styles.These styles were a relation between
a manager's concern for people, concern for
production and his motivation.The
motivation dimension really provides the
underlying motive of the leader behind a
successful leadership style. Various schemes
appeared, designed to diagnose and develop
people’s style of working. Despite different
names, the basic ideas were very similar.The
four main styles that appear are:
MANAGERIAL GRID MODEL
 Concern for task. Here leaders emphasize the
achievement of concrete objectives.They look for
high levels of productivity, and ways to organize
people and activities in order to meet those
objectives.
 Concern for people. In this style, leaders look upon
their followers as people – their needs, interests,
problems, development and so on.They are not
simply units of production or means to an end.
 Directive leadership.This style is characterized by
leaders taking decisions for others – and expecting
followers or subordinates to follow instructions.
 Participative leadership. Here leaders try to share
decision-making with others.(Wright 1996: 36-7)
Contingency theory-
In Contingency theory of leadership, the success
of the leader is a function of various
contingencies in the form of subordinate, task,
and/or group variables. The Leaders who are
very effective at one place and time may
become unsuccessful either when transplanted
to another situation or when the factors around
them change.
This helps to explain how some leaders who
seem for a while to have the 'Midas touch'
suddenly appear to go off the boil and make
very unsuccessful decisions.
Different Sets/theories of contingency
theory :
FIEDLER‟S CONTIINGENCY MODEL
HARSEY & BLANCHARD‟S SITUATIONAL THEORY
PATH GOAL THEORY
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL
Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends
on:
 Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation
and relationship motivation.
Situational favourableness, determined by three factors:
a) Leader-member relations - Degree to which a
leader is accepted and supported by the group
members.
b) Task structure - Extent to which the task is
structured and defined, with clear goals and
procedures.
c) Position power - The ability of a leader to control
subordinates through reward and punishment.
Blanchard's situational theory-
The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
Theory was created by Dr Paul Hersey and Ken
Blanchard. The theory states that instead of
using just one style, successful leaders should
change their leadership styles based on the
maturity of the people they're leading and the
details of the task. Using this theory, leaders
should be able to place more or less emphasis
on the task.
According to Hersey and Blanchard, there are four main
leadership styles:
Telling (S1) – Leaders tell their people exactly what to
do, and how to do it.
Selling (S2) – Leaders still provide information and
direction, but there's more communication with followers.
Leaders "sell" their message to get the team on board.
Participating (S3) – Leaders focus more on the
relationship and less on direction.The leader works with
the team, and shares decision-making responsibilities.
Delegating (S4) – Leaders pass most of the
responsibility onto the follower or group.The leaders still
monitor progress, but they're less involved in decisions.
Path-Goal theory-
According to path-goal theory, the leader’s responsibility is to
increase subordinates’ motivation to attain personal and
organizational goal.A person may do these by adopting a
certain leadership style, according to the situation:
Directive leadership – it tells subordinates exactly what
they are supposed to do, which includes planning, making
schedules, setting performance goals and behaviour standards.
Supportive leadership - it shows concern for
subordinates’ well being and personal needs.
Participative leadership - Decision making is based on group
consultation and information is shared with the group.
Achievement-oriented leadership - Challenging goals are set
and high performance is encouraged while showing confidence in the
groups' ability.

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Leadership Styles

  • 2. Introduction Leadership is the ability to develop a vision that motivates others to move with a passion toward a common goal. So, Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.
  • 3. Definition  leadership is the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. M Chemers.  "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen." Alan Keith.
  • 4. What is leadership? Leading people Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
  • 5. Types of Leaders  Leader by the position achieved  Leader by personality, charisma  Leader by moral example  Leader by power held  Intellectual leader  Leader because of ability to accomplish things
  • 6. Managers vs. Leaders Managers  Focus on things  Do things right  Plan  Organize  Direct  Control  Follows the rules Leaders  Focus on people  Do the right things  Inspire  Influence  Motivate  Build  Shape entities
  • 7. Four factors of leadership
  • 8.  Leader - You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know and what you can do. To be successful you have to convince your followers not your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.  Follower -You must know your people. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions and motivation.
  • 9.  Communication-The nonverbal communication is leading. E.g.- when you set example that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. Bad communication harm the relation between leader and employee.  Situation-We must use our judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. What we do in one situation will not always work in another.
  • 10. Seven Basic Principles  Have two to three years to make measurable financial and cultural progress  Come in knowing current strategy, goals, and challenges. Form hypothesis on operating priorities  Balance intense focus on priorities with flexibility on implementation….
  • 11. Seven Basic Principles, con’t  Decide about new organization architecture  Build personal credibility and momentum  Earn right to transform entity  Remember there is no “one” way to manage a transition
  • 12. Styles of leadership The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973) : Authoritarian or autocratic Participative or democratic Delegative or Free Reign
  • 13. Autocratic –The authoritarian leader makes decisions alone as power is centralized in one person. Decisions are enforced using rewards and the fear of punishment. it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.”
  • 14. Democratic-The participative leader include one or more employees in the decision making process. Communication flow freely; suggestions are made in both directions. The participation encourages member commitment to the final decision.
  • 15. Laissez-faire-The free-rein leader gives power to subordinates to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation. Deligative style is generally not useful.
  • 17. Trait theory- TheTrait Approach arose from the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders. It was believed that through this theory critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions.This theory was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions.
  • 18.
  • 19.  Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership  Over the past 25 years, a consensus has emerged among researchers regarding the basic factors that make up what we call personality (Goldberg,1990; McCrae & Costa, 1987).These factors, commonly called the Big Five, are:  Neuroticism, extraversion , openness (intellect), agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
  • 20.
  • 21. Advantages of Trait Theory -  It is naturally pleasing theory.  It serves as a yardstick against which the leadership traits of an individual can be assessed.  It gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leader element in the leadership process.
  • 22. Limitations ofTheTraitTheory –  There is bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who is regarded as a „good‟ or „successful‟ leader.  There is also a disagreement over which traits are the most important for an effective leader
  • 23. Behavioral Theory-  These theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born.  Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states.  According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.  The behavior approach says that anyone who adopts the appropriate behavior can be a good leader.
  • 24. Studies of Behavioral theory  Ohio state leadership university studies.  Managerial Grid  University of Michigan studies
  • 25. 1. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY  A group of people from Ohio State University developed a list of 150 statements from their generated responses that included 1,800 hundred statements.The list was designed to measure nine different behavioral leadership dimensions.The resulting questionnaire is now well-known as the LBDQ or the Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire
  • 26. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY  After compiling and analyzing the results, the study led to the conclusion that there were two groups of behaviors that were strongly correlated.These were defined as Consideration(People Oriented behavioral Leaders) and Initiating Structure (Task Oriented Leaders).
  • 27. PEOPLE ORIENTED LEADERS  The people oriented leaders are focusing their behaviors on ensuring that the inner needs of the people are satisfied.Thus they will seek to motivate their staff through emphasizing the human relation. People oriented leaders still focus on the task and the results; they just achieve them through different means. Leaders with a people focus will have behaviors that are in line with:  Encouraging  Observing  Listening  Coaching and Mentoring
  • 28. TASK ORIENTED LEADERS  The task concerned leaders are focusing their behaviors on the organizational structure, the operating procedures and they like to keep control.Task-oriented leaders are still concern with their staff motivation; however it's not their main concern.They will favor behaviors that are in line with:  Initiating  Organizing  Clarifying  Information Gathering
  • 29. 2. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN  Lead by the famous organizational psychologist, Dr. Rensis Likert, the leadership studies at the University of Michigan identified three characteristics of effective leadership; two of which were previously observed in studies that had been conducted at Ohio State University.The study showed that task and relationship-oriented behaviors weren't of major significance within the world of organizational psychology. However it was the third observation that introduced a new concept, one of participative leadership!
  • 30. PARTICIPATED LEADERSHIP  Participative leadership also known as Democratic Leadership Style is a method of leadership that involves all team members in terms of identifying important goals as well as developing strategies and procedures to achieve the goals. From this point of view, participative style of leadership can be perceived as a leadership style that rely primarily on functioning as facilitator that the one who simply issues commands or orders or making assignment for each member of the team. This kind of leadership style could be utilized in volunteer setting, business setting and even in home.
  • 31. PARTICIPATED LEADERSHIP  Finally, successful participative leaders permits the skills and talents of every member of the team to be employed in arriving to the best decision, which is beneficial. Even though the team leader is typically responsible for making the best final decision, which shares the function within the team, sharing ideas, opinions, skills and talent is still effective for the whole team to be efficient and successful.
  • 32. 3. MANAGERIAL GRID MODEL  At conception, the managerial grid model was composed of five different leadership styles.These styles were a relation between a manager's concern for people, concern for production and his motivation.The motivation dimension really provides the underlying motive of the leader behind a successful leadership style. Various schemes appeared, designed to diagnose and develop people’s style of working. Despite different names, the basic ideas were very similar.The four main styles that appear are:
  • 33. MANAGERIAL GRID MODEL  Concern for task. Here leaders emphasize the achievement of concrete objectives.They look for high levels of productivity, and ways to organize people and activities in order to meet those objectives.  Concern for people. In this style, leaders look upon their followers as people – their needs, interests, problems, development and so on.They are not simply units of production or means to an end.  Directive leadership.This style is characterized by leaders taking decisions for others – and expecting followers or subordinates to follow instructions.  Participative leadership. Here leaders try to share decision-making with others.(Wright 1996: 36-7)
  • 34. Contingency theory- In Contingency theory of leadership, the success of the leader is a function of various contingencies in the form of subordinate, task, and/or group variables. The Leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change. This helps to explain how some leaders who seem for a while to have the 'Midas touch' suddenly appear to go off the boil and make very unsuccessful decisions.
  • 35. Different Sets/theories of contingency theory : FIEDLER‟S CONTIINGENCY MODEL HARSEY & BLANCHARD‟S SITUATIONAL THEORY PATH GOAL THEORY
  • 36. FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on:  Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. Situational favourableness, determined by three factors: a) Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. b) Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. c) Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment.
  • 37. Blanchard's situational theory- The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory was created by Dr Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. The theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they're leading and the details of the task. Using this theory, leaders should be able to place more or less emphasis on the task.
  • 38. According to Hersey and Blanchard, there are four main leadership styles: Telling (S1) – Leaders tell their people exactly what to do, and how to do it. Selling (S2) – Leaders still provide information and direction, but there's more communication with followers. Leaders "sell" their message to get the team on board. Participating (S3) – Leaders focus more on the relationship and less on direction.The leader works with the team, and shares decision-making responsibilities. Delegating (S4) – Leaders pass most of the responsibility onto the follower or group.The leaders still monitor progress, but they're less involved in decisions.
  • 39. Path-Goal theory- According to path-goal theory, the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation to attain personal and organizational goal.A person may do these by adopting a certain leadership style, according to the situation: Directive leadership – it tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do, which includes planning, making schedules, setting performance goals and behaviour standards. Supportive leadership - it shows concern for subordinates’ well being and personal needs.
  • 40. Participative leadership - Decision making is based on group consultation and information is shared with the group. Achievement-oriented leadership - Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while showing confidence in the groups' ability.