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Mobile Devices in Education:
    A Literature Review
         Charlotte King
          ITEC 8133
           Fall 2012
Introduction
Mobile devices are ever-present in today’s society
 and schools are joining the trend. Devices such
 as iPods, iPads, MP3 players, mobile phones,
 and e-readers are being used across the world
 for educational purposes. The literature and
 research, while forthcoming as this is a fairly
 new topic, offers a variety of studies as well as
 recommendations for implementing mobile
 devices into the classroom. The literature
 reviewed will provide awareness into how and
 why mobile devices are being used in education
 and how they are enhancing learning.
Mobile Devices: Introduction
M-learning is the delivery of learning through mobile devices (Peters, 2007)
 – Also includes e-learning
Mobile devices allow learners to learn any time, anywhere (Caudill, 2007)
Learners can easily carry and access reference tools in the real world with
mobile devices (Koole, McQuilkin & Ally, 2010 )
Students are already using these devices in their daily lives; applying them
in the classroom can make learning more motivating
 – Students in Hooft, Kratcoski, Swan, and Unger’s (2005) study reported enjoying
   using the devices for educational purposes, especially because they could take
   the devices with them and access the information anywhere
“Digital Natives”
 – Students presently in school
 – Have grown up in a world of technology
 – Are accustomed to communicating with others at any time
   and any place
 – Learners who, when faced with a question or obstacle in their everyday lives, find
   the answer immediately (through mobile technology); educators must utilize
   technology to apply this “demand to know” characteristic of digital natives in the
   classroom (McCaffrey, 2011)
Mobile devices are allowing and encouraging students to learn outside the
classroom setting
 – “Ubiquitous computing”: mobile devices being used all the time and on a regular
   basis (Purcell, 2005)
The use of these mobile devices begins with the teachers
Mobile Devices:
How are schools using them?
 English Language Learners (ELL)
  – Language acquisition
  – Listen to podcasts, lessons, etc. with limitless replay; learn new
    vocabulary through listening, reading, and viewing pictures (Lacina,
    2008)
  – Translation and dictionary applications; self-recorded reading for
    teacher feedback and self-monitoring (Demski, 2011)
  – Students receive text messages on mobile phones with English learning
    materials for use outside the classroom (Thornton & Houser, 2005)
 Special Needs Students
  – AT (Assistive Technology)
         Special needs students are more willing to use AT in the classroom because
         mobile devices are commonplace, for all students, not just those with special
         needs
  – Alleviate distractions by being able to hold the device and use
    headphones to block out environmental noise (Blaisdell, 2006)
  – Writing tools: easier for students to type than write if they have motor
    skill issues; students are also more willing to do the writing because it is
    physically easier (Vahey & Crawford, 2002)
Mobile Devices:
               How are schools using them?

Curriculum Learning and Cognition
 – Dialoguing with teachers and peers, monitoring comprehension, self-assessing,
   and accessing information all the time, including outside the classroom and
   applying this knowledge in their everyday lives (Koole, et al., 2010)
 – Note-taking, test review, calculations—all which assist with organization skills
   (Hooft, et al., 2005)
 – Apply up-to-date information from numerous sources to learning and share that
   information in a variety of formats (McCaffrey, 2011)
 – Problem-based learning
        Playing simulation games with real-life scenarios in which students are required to
        conduct outside research to solve problems (Peters, 2007).
 – Staff utilization with iPads and iPods: monitor and assess students without direct
   observation (Koole, et al., 2010) and stay organized (Purcell, 2005)
 – Content sharing with iPads and iPods: students are able to use podcasts and
   other methods to share their knowledge and information with the entire world
   (Caudill, 2007; Lacina, 2008; Saine, 2012)
 – E-readers supply level-appropriate texts for students and include additional
   features such as dictionary, highlighting, and note-taking abilities
 – Mobile phones used for messaging (Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Jones, Edwards, &
   Reid, 2009)
        Faster than e-mail—students were more apt to use messaging because of the fast
        response time
 – Mobile phones are used for online discussions, chatting, file transfer, and library
   access and usage (Kadirire, 2007; Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Caudill, 2007)
Mobile Devices:
    How are schools using them?
Motivation
– Students are more motivated because they feel using
  the mobile devices (as opposed to pen and paper
  writing assignments) is “easier and more fun” (Hooft,
  et al., 2005)
– Used as a reward (Price, 2011)
– Students already know
  how to use the mobile
  phones; using them for
  educational purposes
  allows them to use the
  device in a new way
  (Vahey & Crawford, 2002)
Mobile Devices: Benefits
 Instructional
  – Students
         Organized; willing to collaborate and self-assess; more writing; engaged (Hooft, et al.,
         2005)
         Feel more connected to the course, classmates, and instructors (Kadirire, 2007; Jones
         et al., 2009; Vahey, Crawford, 2002)
         Motivated to use them, even after encountering problems (Couse & Chen, 2010
  – Teachers
         Differentiate instruction (Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012)
            – Able to send different text messages on mobile phones to different students based on ability
              level (Lim & Wang, 2005)
  – Easy navigation for people of all ages, including young children (Geist, 2011)
  – E-books cost less than traditional texts (Shurtz & Isenburg, 2011)
 Technological
  – Portability; social interactivity; connection to other technologies and networks;
    multiple inputs (keyboarding, drawing) (Hooft et al., 2005; Peters, 2007; Purcell,
    2005)
  – Cost compared to computers; ease of carrying and accessing information
    (Crichton et al., 2012; Geist, 2011)
  – Anytime access
         Students reported language progress partially due to accessibility of information during
         everyday life (Cavus & Ibriham, 2009)
Mobile Devices: Drawbacks/Issues
Instructional
 – Cost; ubiquity (in remote areas) (Koole, et al., 2010; Purcell, 2005)

Technological
 – Small screen size
 – Difficulty for input/output of text
 – Technology is ever-changing: the devices of today could be replaced
   tomorrow
 – When using multiple devices, syncing them together can be difficult
   (Crichton et al., 2012)
 – Internet connections are unavailable without Wi-Fi (Rekkedel & Dye,
   2007)
 – Mobile phones: battery life and small screens and buttons (Milrad &
   Spikol, 2007; Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Vahey, Crawford, 2002)
Recommendations for Implementing
Mobile Devices into the Classroom
    Teacher Training
     –   Need several course and numerous hours of training to use devices successfully (Blaisdell,
         2006; Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012; Demski, 2011; Geist, 2011; Koole, McQuilkin & Ally,
         2010; Lacina, 2008; Purcell, 2005)
     –   Need time after training to further familiarize themselves and plan for specific instruction
         (Lacina, 2008; Purcell, 2005)
     –   Allow teachers to use the mobile devices outside the classroom, motivating them to find new
         ways to utilize them (Newton & Dell, 2011)
    Acceptable Use
     –   Policies need to be established and maintained (Blaisdell, 2006)
     –   Administrators and instructors need to explain digital citizenship, how to use the devices
         properly, and blocking necessary items from students (Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012)
    Instruction
     –   Use mobile technology as often as possible (Briggs, 2012)
     –   Use in meaningful and justifiable ways, not just to “use” the technology (Crichton et al.,
         2012)
     –   Encourage students to be creative and take ownership of learning and outcomes (Lacina,
         2008)
     –   Provide explicit instructions and modeling when appropriate (Lacina, 2008)
     –   Observe other teachers utilizing the technology; integrate the use of technology when
         applicable to the instruction and when the instructor feels comfortable using the technology
         (Lacina, 2008)
    Other
     –   Access to high bandwidth networks for unlimited, constant internet access for all users
         (Rekkedal & Dye, 2007)
Conclusion
Overall, the research shows that using mobile devices in
  the classroom is beneficial. Conversely, there is not
  much research out there on this topic; most of the
  research that is available is qualitative in nature.
More research needs to be completed in order for further
  conclusions to be made. This can only happen if
  teachers are motivated to use mobile technologies and
  researchers are willing to conduct studies.
Mobile devices in education is a phenomenon that will
  continue to grow as the digital natives do; teachers must
  strive to meet the expectations and challenges of
  working with mobile technology in the classroom and
  fostering lifelong, meaningful learning in their students.
References
Blaisdell, M. (2006). In ipod we trust. T.H.E. journal, 33(8).
                                                journal, 33(8).
Crichton, S., Pegler, K., & White , D. (2012). Personal devices in public settings: Lessons learned from an ipod touch / ipad
project. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 10(1), 23-31.
                                    e-Learning, 10(1),
Culén, A., & Gasparini, A. (2011). ipad: A new classroom technology? a report from two pilot studies. Informally published
                                                                                                   studies.
manuscript, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Demski, J. (2011). Ell to go . T.H.E. journal, 38(5).
                                       journal, 38(5).
Geist, E. (2011). The game changer: Using ipads in college teacher education classes. College Student Journal, 758-768.
                                                                                                              Journal,
Hooft, M., Kratcoski, A., Swan, K., & Unger, D. (2005). Uses and effects of mobile computing devices in k-8 classrooms.
Journal of research on technology in education, 38(1), 99-112.
                                        education, 38(1),
Jones, G., Edwards, G., & Reid, A. (2009). How can mobile sms communication support and enhance a first year
undergraduate learning environment?. ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology, 17(3), 201-218.
                                                                         Technology, 17(3),
Kadirire, J. (2007). Instant messaging for creating interactive and collaborative m-learning environments. International Review
of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-14.
                                     Learning,
Koole, M., McQuilkin, J., & Ally, M. (2010). Mobile learning in distance education: Utility or futility?. JOURNAL OF DISTANCE
EDUCATION, 24(2), 59-82.
EDUCATION, 24(2),
Lacina, J. (2008). Technology in the classroom: Learning English with ipods. Childhood Education, 84(4), 247-249.
                                                                                            Education, 84(4),
Lim, K., & Wang, J. (2005). Collaborative handheld gaming in education. Educational Media International, 42(4), 351-359.
                                                                                                  International, 42(4),
McCaffrey, M. (2011). Why mobile is a must. T.H.E. Journal, 38(2), 21-2.
                                                         Journal, 38(2),
Milrad, M., & Spikol, D. (2007). Anytime, Anywhere Learning Supported by Smart Phones: Experiences and Results from the
MUSIS Project. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (4), 62-70.
Newton, D., & Dell, A. (2011). Assistive technology. Journal of special education technology, 26(2), 55-60.
                                                                                                   26(2),
Peters, K. (2007). m-learning: Positioning educators for a mobile, connected future. International Review of Research in Open
and Distance Learning, 8(2),
               Learning,
Preciado-Babb, P. (2012). Incorporating the ipad2 in the mathematics classroom: Extending the mind into the collective .
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy , 2(2), 23-29.
Price, A. (2011). Making a difference with smart tablets are ipads really beneficial for students with autism?. Teacher librarian,
                                                                                                                             librarian,
39(1), 31-34.
39(1),
Purcell, S. (2005). Educators' acceptance of and resistance to handheld technologies. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 79-
                                                                                                                        Dialogue,
93.
Rekkedal, T., & Dye, A. (2007). Mobile distance learning with pdas: Development and testing of pedagogical and system
solutions supporting mobile distance learners. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-21.
                                                                                                             Learning,
Saine, P. (2012). ipods, ipads, and the smartboard: Transforming literacy instruction and student learning. NERA journal,journal,
47(2), 74-79.
47(2),
Shurtz, S., & Isenburg, M. (2011). Exploring e-readers to support clinical medical education: two case studies. J Med Libr
Assoc, 99(2), 110-117. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.99.2.002
Assoc, 99(2),
Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in english education in japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Learning,
21, 217-228.
21,
Vahey, P. & Crawford, V. (2002). Palm Education Pioneers Program Final Evaluation Report. Menlo Park, CA: SRI
                                                                                          Report.
International.
Photo References
Apple, Inc. (Photographer). (2012). hero. [Web Photo].
CGS. (Photographer). (2012). Ipad for blog post. [Web Photo].
Crump, M. (Photographer). (2010). ipadeducation. [Web Photo].
Dale, J. (Photographer). (2009). Ipods in special education2. [Web
Photo].
Hode, J. (Photographer). (2012). Phones by jr hode. [Web Photo].
Joe. (Photographer). (2011). Mobile classroom. [Web Photo].
Shear, A. (Photographer). (2011). Ipad in education classroom.
[Web Photo].
Anonymous. (Photographer). (2010). China. [Web Photo].
Anonymous. (Photographer). (2011). Ipad learning. [Web Photo].

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King-Mobile Technology in Education.ppt

  • 1. Mobile Devices in Education: A Literature Review Charlotte King ITEC 8133 Fall 2012
  • 2. Introduction Mobile devices are ever-present in today’s society and schools are joining the trend. Devices such as iPods, iPads, MP3 players, mobile phones, and e-readers are being used across the world for educational purposes. The literature and research, while forthcoming as this is a fairly new topic, offers a variety of studies as well as recommendations for implementing mobile devices into the classroom. The literature reviewed will provide awareness into how and why mobile devices are being used in education and how they are enhancing learning.
  • 3. Mobile Devices: Introduction M-learning is the delivery of learning through mobile devices (Peters, 2007) – Also includes e-learning Mobile devices allow learners to learn any time, anywhere (Caudill, 2007) Learners can easily carry and access reference tools in the real world with mobile devices (Koole, McQuilkin & Ally, 2010 ) Students are already using these devices in their daily lives; applying them in the classroom can make learning more motivating – Students in Hooft, Kratcoski, Swan, and Unger’s (2005) study reported enjoying using the devices for educational purposes, especially because they could take the devices with them and access the information anywhere “Digital Natives” – Students presently in school – Have grown up in a world of technology – Are accustomed to communicating with others at any time and any place – Learners who, when faced with a question or obstacle in their everyday lives, find the answer immediately (through mobile technology); educators must utilize technology to apply this “demand to know” characteristic of digital natives in the classroom (McCaffrey, 2011) Mobile devices are allowing and encouraging students to learn outside the classroom setting – “Ubiquitous computing”: mobile devices being used all the time and on a regular basis (Purcell, 2005) The use of these mobile devices begins with the teachers
  • 4. Mobile Devices: How are schools using them? English Language Learners (ELL) – Language acquisition – Listen to podcasts, lessons, etc. with limitless replay; learn new vocabulary through listening, reading, and viewing pictures (Lacina, 2008) – Translation and dictionary applications; self-recorded reading for teacher feedback and self-monitoring (Demski, 2011) – Students receive text messages on mobile phones with English learning materials for use outside the classroom (Thornton & Houser, 2005) Special Needs Students – AT (Assistive Technology) Special needs students are more willing to use AT in the classroom because mobile devices are commonplace, for all students, not just those with special needs – Alleviate distractions by being able to hold the device and use headphones to block out environmental noise (Blaisdell, 2006) – Writing tools: easier for students to type than write if they have motor skill issues; students are also more willing to do the writing because it is physically easier (Vahey & Crawford, 2002)
  • 5. Mobile Devices: How are schools using them? Curriculum Learning and Cognition – Dialoguing with teachers and peers, monitoring comprehension, self-assessing, and accessing information all the time, including outside the classroom and applying this knowledge in their everyday lives (Koole, et al., 2010) – Note-taking, test review, calculations—all which assist with organization skills (Hooft, et al., 2005) – Apply up-to-date information from numerous sources to learning and share that information in a variety of formats (McCaffrey, 2011) – Problem-based learning Playing simulation games with real-life scenarios in which students are required to conduct outside research to solve problems (Peters, 2007). – Staff utilization with iPads and iPods: monitor and assess students without direct observation (Koole, et al., 2010) and stay organized (Purcell, 2005) – Content sharing with iPads and iPods: students are able to use podcasts and other methods to share their knowledge and information with the entire world (Caudill, 2007; Lacina, 2008; Saine, 2012) – E-readers supply level-appropriate texts for students and include additional features such as dictionary, highlighting, and note-taking abilities – Mobile phones used for messaging (Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Jones, Edwards, & Reid, 2009) Faster than e-mail—students were more apt to use messaging because of the fast response time – Mobile phones are used for online discussions, chatting, file transfer, and library access and usage (Kadirire, 2007; Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Caudill, 2007)
  • 6. Mobile Devices: How are schools using them? Motivation – Students are more motivated because they feel using the mobile devices (as opposed to pen and paper writing assignments) is “easier and more fun” (Hooft, et al., 2005) – Used as a reward (Price, 2011) – Students already know how to use the mobile phones; using them for educational purposes allows them to use the device in a new way (Vahey & Crawford, 2002)
  • 7. Mobile Devices: Benefits Instructional – Students Organized; willing to collaborate and self-assess; more writing; engaged (Hooft, et al., 2005) Feel more connected to the course, classmates, and instructors (Kadirire, 2007; Jones et al., 2009; Vahey, Crawford, 2002) Motivated to use them, even after encountering problems (Couse & Chen, 2010 – Teachers Differentiate instruction (Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012) – Able to send different text messages on mobile phones to different students based on ability level (Lim & Wang, 2005) – Easy navigation for people of all ages, including young children (Geist, 2011) – E-books cost less than traditional texts (Shurtz & Isenburg, 2011) Technological – Portability; social interactivity; connection to other technologies and networks; multiple inputs (keyboarding, drawing) (Hooft et al., 2005; Peters, 2007; Purcell, 2005) – Cost compared to computers; ease of carrying and accessing information (Crichton et al., 2012; Geist, 2011) – Anytime access Students reported language progress partially due to accessibility of information during everyday life (Cavus & Ibriham, 2009)
  • 8. Mobile Devices: Drawbacks/Issues Instructional – Cost; ubiquity (in remote areas) (Koole, et al., 2010; Purcell, 2005) Technological – Small screen size – Difficulty for input/output of text – Technology is ever-changing: the devices of today could be replaced tomorrow – When using multiple devices, syncing them together can be difficult (Crichton et al., 2012) – Internet connections are unavailable without Wi-Fi (Rekkedel & Dye, 2007) – Mobile phones: battery life and small screens and buttons (Milrad & Spikol, 2007; Rekkedal & Dye, 2007; Vahey, Crawford, 2002)
  • 9. Recommendations for Implementing Mobile Devices into the Classroom Teacher Training – Need several course and numerous hours of training to use devices successfully (Blaisdell, 2006; Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012; Demski, 2011; Geist, 2011; Koole, McQuilkin & Ally, 2010; Lacina, 2008; Purcell, 2005) – Need time after training to further familiarize themselves and plan for specific instruction (Lacina, 2008; Purcell, 2005) – Allow teachers to use the mobile devices outside the classroom, motivating them to find new ways to utilize them (Newton & Dell, 2011) Acceptable Use – Policies need to be established and maintained (Blaisdell, 2006) – Administrators and instructors need to explain digital citizenship, how to use the devices properly, and blocking necessary items from students (Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012) Instruction – Use mobile technology as often as possible (Briggs, 2012) – Use in meaningful and justifiable ways, not just to “use” the technology (Crichton et al., 2012) – Encourage students to be creative and take ownership of learning and outcomes (Lacina, 2008) – Provide explicit instructions and modeling when appropriate (Lacina, 2008) – Observe other teachers utilizing the technology; integrate the use of technology when applicable to the instruction and when the instructor feels comfortable using the technology (Lacina, 2008) Other – Access to high bandwidth networks for unlimited, constant internet access for all users (Rekkedal & Dye, 2007)
  • 10. Conclusion Overall, the research shows that using mobile devices in the classroom is beneficial. Conversely, there is not much research out there on this topic; most of the research that is available is qualitative in nature. More research needs to be completed in order for further conclusions to be made. This can only happen if teachers are motivated to use mobile technologies and researchers are willing to conduct studies. Mobile devices in education is a phenomenon that will continue to grow as the digital natives do; teachers must strive to meet the expectations and challenges of working with mobile technology in the classroom and fostering lifelong, meaningful learning in their students.
  • 11. References Blaisdell, M. (2006). In ipod we trust. T.H.E. journal, 33(8). journal, 33(8). Crichton, S., Pegler, K., & White , D. (2012). Personal devices in public settings: Lessons learned from an ipod touch / ipad project. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 10(1), 23-31. e-Learning, 10(1), Culén, A., & Gasparini, A. (2011). ipad: A new classroom technology? a report from two pilot studies. Informally published studies. manuscript, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Demski, J. (2011). Ell to go . T.H.E. journal, 38(5). journal, 38(5). Geist, E. (2011). The game changer: Using ipads in college teacher education classes. College Student Journal, 758-768. Journal, Hooft, M., Kratcoski, A., Swan, K., & Unger, D. (2005). Uses and effects of mobile computing devices in k-8 classrooms. Journal of research on technology in education, 38(1), 99-112. education, 38(1), Jones, G., Edwards, G., & Reid, A. (2009). How can mobile sms communication support and enhance a first year undergraduate learning environment?. ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology, 17(3), 201-218. Technology, 17(3), Kadirire, J. (2007). Instant messaging for creating interactive and collaborative m-learning environments. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-14. Learning, Koole, M., McQuilkin, J., & Ally, M. (2010). Mobile learning in distance education: Utility or futility?. JOURNAL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION, 24(2), 59-82. EDUCATION, 24(2), Lacina, J. (2008). Technology in the classroom: Learning English with ipods. Childhood Education, 84(4), 247-249. Education, 84(4), Lim, K., & Wang, J. (2005). Collaborative handheld gaming in education. Educational Media International, 42(4), 351-359. International, 42(4), McCaffrey, M. (2011). Why mobile is a must. T.H.E. Journal, 38(2), 21-2. Journal, 38(2), Milrad, M., & Spikol, D. (2007). Anytime, Anywhere Learning Supported by Smart Phones: Experiences and Results from the MUSIS Project. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (4), 62-70. Newton, D., & Dell, A. (2011). Assistive technology. Journal of special education technology, 26(2), 55-60. 26(2), Peters, K. (2007). m-learning: Positioning educators for a mobile, connected future. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), Learning, Preciado-Babb, P. (2012). Incorporating the ipad2 in the mathematics classroom: Extending the mind into the collective . International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy , 2(2), 23-29. Price, A. (2011). Making a difference with smart tablets are ipads really beneficial for students with autism?. Teacher librarian, librarian, 39(1), 31-34. 39(1), Purcell, S. (2005). Educators' acceptance of and resistance to handheld technologies. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 79- Dialogue, 93. Rekkedal, T., & Dye, A. (2007). Mobile distance learning with pdas: Development and testing of pedagogical and system solutions supporting mobile distance learners. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-21. Learning, Saine, P. (2012). ipods, ipads, and the smartboard: Transforming literacy instruction and student learning. NERA journal,journal, 47(2), 74-79. 47(2), Shurtz, S., & Isenburg, M. (2011). Exploring e-readers to support clinical medical education: two case studies. J Med Libr Assoc, 99(2), 110-117. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.99.2.002 Assoc, 99(2), Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in english education in japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Learning, 21, 217-228. 21, Vahey, P. & Crawford, V. (2002). Palm Education Pioneers Program Final Evaluation Report. Menlo Park, CA: SRI Report. International.
  • 12. Photo References Apple, Inc. (Photographer). (2012). hero. [Web Photo]. CGS. (Photographer). (2012). Ipad for blog post. [Web Photo]. Crump, M. (Photographer). (2010). ipadeducation. [Web Photo]. Dale, J. (Photographer). (2009). Ipods in special education2. [Web Photo]. Hode, J. (Photographer). (2012). Phones by jr hode. [Web Photo]. Joe. (Photographer). (2011). Mobile classroom. [Web Photo]. Shear, A. (Photographer). (2011). Ipad in education classroom. [Web Photo]. Anonymous. (Photographer). (2010). China. [Web Photo]. Anonymous. (Photographer). (2011). Ipad learning. [Web Photo].