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Ref :
Physical Pharmacy by Myrtin., Chapter 09., Buffered and Isotonic
Solutions., Page No 209 onward.
&
The Science and practice of pharmacy “Remingtons” Ed 21st 17th Chapter
., part 2, page no 250 onward.
 A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or
more substances. One of the substances is
called a solvent (a substance in which other
substance or substances are dissolved). The
substances dissolved in a solvent are called
solutes.

 A solution can exist in a solid, liquid or gas
form depending on mixed substances and
external conditions such as temperature and
pressure.
 Solutions to be applied to tissues or administered
parenterally are liable, to cause irritation if their pH is
greatley different from the normal pH of the relevant
body fluid.
 Consequently the pharmacist must consider this point
when formulating OPTHALMEIC SOLUTIONS,
parenteral products and fluids to abraded surfaces.
 Tissue Irritation due to large pH differences b/w the
solution being applied/administered will be minimal ;
if the said Solution {to be applied} is ISOTONIC IN
NATURE.
 IN_VIVO_Buffer such as Blood., Lacrimal
Fluids having capacity to manage pH of the
relevant biological fluids.
 Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure (as defined by the water
potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a
semipermeable membrane.
 It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in
an external solution.
 Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot
cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure.
 Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because
they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the
membrane.
 Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to
prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.
 Hypertonicity
A hypertonic solution is a solution having a greater solute concentration
than the cytosol.
A hypertonic solution is used in osmotherapy[1] to treat cerebral
hemorrhage.
 Hypotonicity
 A hypotonic solution is a solution having a lesser solute concentration than
the cytosol.
Isotonicity
 A condition or property of a solution in which its solute concentration is the
same as the solute concentration as in CYTOSOL or another solution with
which it is compared.
 .
 Terms isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic are usually used
when a reference to cell of a living organizm is made, but it
can be generally used to compare concentration of a solute
in two solutions.
 Isotonic solutions
 Isotonic solutions are two solutions that have the same
concentration of a solute.
 Hypertonic solution
 Hypertonic solution is one of two solutions that has a higher
concentration of a solute.
 Hypotonic solution
 Hypotonic solution is one of two solutions that has a lower
concentration of a solute.
 A solution that has no effect on the volume of
tissues and cells. Thus, a cell, when placed in
an isotonic solution tends neither to gain or
lose water.
 Isotonic sports drinks have the same
concentration as the body fluids.
 Red blood cell membrane is not impermeable to all drugs; that is, it is not
a perfect semipermiable membrane.
 Thus, it will permit the passage of not only water molecules, but also
solutes such as UREA., Ammonium Chloride., Alcohol and Boric Acid.
 A 2% BORIC ACID SOLUTION HAS SAME OSMOTIC PRESSURE AS THE
BLOOD CELLS CONTENTS. Such solution called as ISOSOMATIC
SOLUTION with Blood.
 The molecule of Boric acid can pass through the Erythrocyte membrane easily.
 It is interesting here that the mucous lining of the EYE acts as a true
semipermiable membrane to boric acid in solution.
 2% BORIC ACID SOLUTION SERVES AS AN ISOTONIC
OPTHALMIC PREPRATION.
 Husa suggested that the term isotonic solution
should be restricted to solutions having equal
osmotic pressure w.r.t a particular membrane.
 Goyan and Reck introduced a new term as
“ISOTONICITY VALUE” defined as
concentration of an Aqueous sodium chloride
solution having the same colligative properties
as solution in question.
 0.9g of NacL per 100 ml of solution needed not necessarily be
isotonic with respect to the living membrane concerned. {Roughly
Isotonic}
 Normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl) is
considered isotonic with blood (although it actually has a slightly
higher degree of osmolality).
 Ringers lactate is also considered
isotonic.
 5% Dextrose solution is also considered
hypotonic compared with blood, because although it is isotonic
while infusing, the dextrose is metabolized and free water is left,
which is hypotonic.
 ISOTONIC SOLUTION(s)
 0.9% NaCl (normal saline) isotonic
Lactated Ringer's solution isotonic
Hypo TONIC SOLUTION(s)
 0.25% NaCl hypotonic
0.45% NaCl hypotonic
2.5% dextrose hypotonic
D5W (acts as a hypotonic solution in body)
 Hyper TONIC SOLUTION(s)
 D5 NaCl hypertonic
D5 in Lactated Ringer's hypertonic
D5 0.45% NaCl hypertonic
 Isotonic Fluid Volume Deficit Type of Loss:
 solute and water loss.,serum sodium level is decreased to 125-150 mEq/L.
 The cause of the fluid loss is GI fluid loss, urine loss and decreased oral intake.
Clinical signs:
 poor skin;
 cold, dry dusky skin;
 sunken eyes; dry mucous membranes;
 rapid pulse; low B/P; irritability or lethargy
Fluid Replacement Guidelines:
Initially, a bolus of 0.9% sodium chloride or Ringer's lactate is given followed by 5%
Dextrose in water and 0.45% sodium chloride.
Half of the deficit should be replaced in the first 8 hours and the remaining half over the
next 16 hours
 Hypertonic Fluid Volume Deficit Type of Loss:
 There is greater water loss than solute loss. Volume moves from the ICF to the ECF.
 Sodium levels are maintained at over 150 mEq/L.
 The cause is GI fluid loss with hypertonic oral intake,
 diabetes insipidus, fever and hyperventilation.
 Clinical Signs: Include cold, thick and doughy skin; sunken eyes; a moderately rapid pulse;
moderately low blood pressure; hyperirritability; high-pitched crying in babies; seizures.
 Fluid Replacement Guidelines:
 5% Dextrose in water and 0.225% or 0.45% sodium chloride. If the patient is hypertensive
Ringer's lactate should be given at a rate of 20mL/kg over one hour.
 Fluid replacement should be given slow and gradual over 48 hours. 2 to 3 mEq/kg of potassium
should be given per 24 hours.
 At least 2 mEq/L/hour of sodium should also be included in the IV fluids that are used.
 Ophthalmic Medication
 Ophthalmic prep’s are intended for the administration into cul-de-sac of
the eye must be isotonic to avoid any irritation.
 Abnormal tonicity of the CONTACT LENSE solutions can cause the lens
to adhere to the eye and or cause burning or dryness/photophobia.
 Parenteral Medication
 Solution differ in Osmoticity/tonicity w.r.t serum may
cause irritation_pain at the site of injection_Electrolyte
Shifts., the severity depends upon the degree of variation
from TONICITY.
 Alcohol  21.7 ml of H20
 Ascorbic Acid 6.0 ml of H2o
 Boric Acid 16.7 ml of H2o
 Dextrose Anhydrous  6.0 ml of H2o
 Ephedrine Hcl  10.0 ml of H2o
 Glycerin  11.7 ml of H2o
 Penicillin G Na and K  6.0 ml of H2o
 Silver Nitrate  11.0 ml of H2o
 Zinc Chloride  20.3 ml of H2o
 The term osmolality express the OSMOLAL
Concentration.
 Emphasis on w/w relationship.
 Not influenced by temperature.
 A solution has an osmolal concentration of one
when it contains 1 osmol of solute/kg of water.
 The term osmolarity express the OSMOLAR
Concentration.
 Emphasis on w/v relationship.
 influenced by temperature.
 A solution has an osmolar concentration of one
when it contains 1 osmol of solute/liter of water.
 0.9 % w/v solution of Nacl in water contains 9
gram of sodium chloride in 996.5 gram of wtaer
equivalent to 0.309 osmolal value.
 Class I Methods
 Cryoscopic Method
 Sodium Chloride Eq Method
 Freezing Point Depression Method
Class II Methods
 White –Vincent Method
 The Sprowls Methods

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Isotonic solution and application in pharmacy slideshare

  • 1. Ref : Physical Pharmacy by Myrtin., Chapter 09., Buffered and Isotonic Solutions., Page No 209 onward. & The Science and practice of pharmacy “Remingtons” Ed 21st 17th Chapter ., part 2, page no 250 onward.
  • 2.  A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. One of the substances is called a solvent (a substance in which other substance or substances are dissolved). The substances dissolved in a solvent are called solutes.   A solution can exist in a solid, liquid or gas form depending on mixed substances and external conditions such as temperature and pressure.
  • 3.  Solutions to be applied to tissues or administered parenterally are liable, to cause irritation if their pH is greatley different from the normal pH of the relevant body fluid.  Consequently the pharmacist must consider this point when formulating OPTHALMEIC SOLUTIONS, parenteral products and fluids to abraded surfaces.  Tissue Irritation due to large pH differences b/w the solution being applied/administered will be minimal ; if the said Solution {to be applied} is ISOTONIC IN NATURE.
  • 4.  IN_VIVO_Buffer such as Blood., Lacrimal Fluids having capacity to manage pH of the relevant biological fluids.
  • 5.  Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.  It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution.  Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure.  Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane.  Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.
  • 6.  Hypertonicity A hypertonic solution is a solution having a greater solute concentration than the cytosol. A hypertonic solution is used in osmotherapy[1] to treat cerebral hemorrhage.  Hypotonicity  A hypotonic solution is a solution having a lesser solute concentration than the cytosol. Isotonicity  A condition or property of a solution in which its solute concentration is the same as the solute concentration as in CYTOSOL or another solution with which it is compared.  .
  • 7.  Terms isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic are usually used when a reference to cell of a living organizm is made, but it can be generally used to compare concentration of a solute in two solutions.  Isotonic solutions  Isotonic solutions are two solutions that have the same concentration of a solute.  Hypertonic solution  Hypertonic solution is one of two solutions that has a higher concentration of a solute.  Hypotonic solution  Hypotonic solution is one of two solutions that has a lower concentration of a solute.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.  A solution that has no effect on the volume of tissues and cells. Thus, a cell, when placed in an isotonic solution tends neither to gain or lose water.  Isotonic sports drinks have the same concentration as the body fluids.
  • 15.  Red blood cell membrane is not impermeable to all drugs; that is, it is not a perfect semipermiable membrane.  Thus, it will permit the passage of not only water molecules, but also solutes such as UREA., Ammonium Chloride., Alcohol and Boric Acid.  A 2% BORIC ACID SOLUTION HAS SAME OSMOTIC PRESSURE AS THE BLOOD CELLS CONTENTS. Such solution called as ISOSOMATIC SOLUTION with Blood.  The molecule of Boric acid can pass through the Erythrocyte membrane easily.  It is interesting here that the mucous lining of the EYE acts as a true semipermiable membrane to boric acid in solution.  2% BORIC ACID SOLUTION SERVES AS AN ISOTONIC OPTHALMIC PREPRATION.
  • 16.  Husa suggested that the term isotonic solution should be restricted to solutions having equal osmotic pressure w.r.t a particular membrane.  Goyan and Reck introduced a new term as “ISOTONICITY VALUE” defined as concentration of an Aqueous sodium chloride solution having the same colligative properties as solution in question.  0.9g of NacL per 100 ml of solution needed not necessarily be isotonic with respect to the living membrane concerned. {Roughly Isotonic}
  • 17.  Normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl) is considered isotonic with blood (although it actually has a slightly higher degree of osmolality).  Ringers lactate is also considered isotonic.  5% Dextrose solution is also considered hypotonic compared with blood, because although it is isotonic while infusing, the dextrose is metabolized and free water is left, which is hypotonic.
  • 18.  ISOTONIC SOLUTION(s)  0.9% NaCl (normal saline) isotonic Lactated Ringer's solution isotonic Hypo TONIC SOLUTION(s)  0.25% NaCl hypotonic 0.45% NaCl hypotonic 2.5% dextrose hypotonic D5W (acts as a hypotonic solution in body)  Hyper TONIC SOLUTION(s)  D5 NaCl hypertonic D5 in Lactated Ringer's hypertonic D5 0.45% NaCl hypertonic
  • 19.  Isotonic Fluid Volume Deficit Type of Loss:  solute and water loss.,serum sodium level is decreased to 125-150 mEq/L.  The cause of the fluid loss is GI fluid loss, urine loss and decreased oral intake. Clinical signs:  poor skin;  cold, dry dusky skin;  sunken eyes; dry mucous membranes;  rapid pulse; low B/P; irritability or lethargy Fluid Replacement Guidelines: Initially, a bolus of 0.9% sodium chloride or Ringer's lactate is given followed by 5% Dextrose in water and 0.45% sodium chloride. Half of the deficit should be replaced in the first 8 hours and the remaining half over the next 16 hours
  • 20.  Hypertonic Fluid Volume Deficit Type of Loss:  There is greater water loss than solute loss. Volume moves from the ICF to the ECF.  Sodium levels are maintained at over 150 mEq/L.  The cause is GI fluid loss with hypertonic oral intake,  diabetes insipidus, fever and hyperventilation.  Clinical Signs: Include cold, thick and doughy skin; sunken eyes; a moderately rapid pulse; moderately low blood pressure; hyperirritability; high-pitched crying in babies; seizures.  Fluid Replacement Guidelines:  5% Dextrose in water and 0.225% or 0.45% sodium chloride. If the patient is hypertensive Ringer's lactate should be given at a rate of 20mL/kg over one hour.  Fluid replacement should be given slow and gradual over 48 hours. 2 to 3 mEq/kg of potassium should be given per 24 hours.  At least 2 mEq/L/hour of sodium should also be included in the IV fluids that are used.
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  • 23.  Ophthalmic Medication  Ophthalmic prep’s are intended for the administration into cul-de-sac of the eye must be isotonic to avoid any irritation.  Abnormal tonicity of the CONTACT LENSE solutions can cause the lens to adhere to the eye and or cause burning or dryness/photophobia.  Parenteral Medication  Solution differ in Osmoticity/tonicity w.r.t serum may cause irritation_pain at the site of injection_Electrolyte Shifts., the severity depends upon the degree of variation from TONICITY.
  • 24.  Alcohol  21.7 ml of H20  Ascorbic Acid 6.0 ml of H2o  Boric Acid 16.7 ml of H2o  Dextrose Anhydrous  6.0 ml of H2o  Ephedrine Hcl  10.0 ml of H2o  Glycerin  11.7 ml of H2o  Penicillin G Na and K  6.0 ml of H2o  Silver Nitrate  11.0 ml of H2o  Zinc Chloride  20.3 ml of H2o
  • 25.  The term osmolality express the OSMOLAL Concentration.  Emphasis on w/w relationship.  Not influenced by temperature.  A solution has an osmolal concentration of one when it contains 1 osmol of solute/kg of water.
  • 26.  The term osmolarity express the OSMOLAR Concentration.  Emphasis on w/v relationship.  influenced by temperature.  A solution has an osmolar concentration of one when it contains 1 osmol of solute/liter of water.  0.9 % w/v solution of Nacl in water contains 9 gram of sodium chloride in 996.5 gram of wtaer equivalent to 0.309 osmolal value.
  • 27.  Class I Methods  Cryoscopic Method  Sodium Chloride Eq Method  Freezing Point Depression Method Class II Methods  White –Vincent Method  The Sprowls Methods