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■ These are liquid extracts which are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of
non-volatile drug of vegetable and chemical origin.
■ Contain 1 part of drug in 5 parts of solvent.
■ Alcohol content may vary from 25-60 % ( US proof )
1. Opium tincture : 17-21%
2. Benzoin tincture : 74-80%
■ In herbal medicine, alcoholic tinctures are made with various ethanol concentrations,
25% being the most common.
■ Alcoholic concentration could be as high as 90–95%
Tincture of calendula is commonly tinctured at either 25% or 90% ethanol.The
alcohol content also acts as a preservative. It is widely employed as solvent for extraction.
There are three basic menstrums, or solvents used to extract the chemical compounds of herbs
in tinctures, alcohol, glycerin, and vinegar.
The alcohol content acts as a preservative.
Alcohol is the most used solvent because it can extract :
• Most alkaloids
• Some volatile oils
• Many other plant compounds.
The alcohol also helps the herbs to assimilate quickly into your body
and preserves the formula , which gives it an almost indefinite shelf
life (over 5 years).
Alcohol can be use orally as well as topically.
Oral: Orange peel tincture.
Topical: Iodine tincture
Most drugs are only soluble in alcohol but not in water.
Diosgenin in Discorea villousa (wild yam) is only soluble in alcohol
and not in water.
Using an 80 to 100 proof alcohol such as vodka, brandy provides the alcohol-water ratio you
need without having to add anything.
Disadvantages of Alcohol:
Ethanol has a tendency to denature some organic compounds, rendering them so changed as to be
If biologically viable component is denatured, it will reduce or negate its prior biological viability.
Common among them is:
• Aromatic components
Ether and propylene glycol based tinctures are not suitable for internal consumption, although they
are used in preparations for external use, such as personal care creams and ointments.
Glycerin tinctures are similar to standard tinctures, the solvent employed being a solution of
glycerin (glycerin, glycerol), and water.
Used in the formulations for non-alcoholic patients.
A better solvent for tannins rather than alcohols.
A poorer preservative
Allowing for the higher concentration required, glycerin tinctures cost more only suitable for
small scale production.
Tinctures can be classified on the basis of:
Tinctures can be prepared by three methods :
By this process we can prepare
• Tincture of Orange
• Tincture of Benzoin
• Tincture of Opium
We can prepare the following
• Tincture of Ginger
• Tincture of Belladona
• Tincture of Digitalis
• Tincture of Opium
By simple solution
Can be formulated by chemical reaction or by dilution.
• Tincture of Iodine
Some pharmaceutical important tinctures are:
Tincture of Orange:
Sweet Orange PeelTincture is prepared from sweet orange peel , which is the outer rind
of the non-artificially colored , fresh, riped fruit.
• Take fresh peel of orange use 90% alcohol as menstruum.
• Maecerate for 7 days.
• Press the marc.
• Mix the strained and expressed liquid.
• Filter the impurities.
•Employed exclusively as a flavoring agent.
Tincture of Benzoin:
Tincture of Benzoin is a pungent solution of benzoin resin in alcohol.
• Crush the benzoin in suitable particles.
• Macerate it for 24 hours with 90% alcohol.
• Do not press the marc
• Filter it to remove gummy substances or components.
• Adjust the volume by adding alcohol to the marc.
It is used:
• As stimulant
• To treat acute and chronic laryngitis and bronchitis it is inhaled after dilution.
• Applied with advantage to irritable ulcers, bed-sores and allay itching of eczema.
• In dentistry, benzoin is used for swollen gums and herpes sores in the mouth
Tincture of Opium:
Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium.
• Crush the opium into slices so it become exposed to solvent.
• In boiling water add 90% of alcohol to precipitate the gummy substances.
• Mecerate it and press the marc.
• Filter it and standerdize the tincture.
It is used as:
Tincture of Iodine:
It is usually 2–7% elemental iodine, along with potassium iodide or sodium iodide,
dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water.
Iodine Tincture contains , in each 100ml
<1.8g and not >2.2g of iodine (I)
< 2.1g and not > 2.6g of sodium iodide (NaI).
• Dissolve 20g of Iodine and 24g of Sodium Iodide in 500ml of Alcohol
• Mix it properly
• Add Purified Water to make the product measure 1000mL
• As a disinfectant for
• Sanitizing surface of fruits and vegetables.
• Store at cool and dry place.
• Keep it away from sunlight.
• Store in air tight containers.
• Use amber coloured bottles.
• Active ingredient used
• Label states the Latin binomial and the official name.
• Method of application.
• If it is for topical application do mention
FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY