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Dr Alok Tripathi
Department of Biotechnology
aquaimmuno@yahoo.co.in
Cells of Immune Response
• Specifically recognizes
• Effectively Attack
• selectively eliminates
• displays a long-term memory
What
immune
System does?
Juncture point for Non Specific & Specific Immune
Response ↑
Showing the Significance of Specific & Non Specific IR
Introductions to immunology
Is it The Environment which decides weather the
disease will occur or not ?
Host
Patho
gens
Environm
ent
Diseases
Immune
Response
VirulencyInteraction
meta
bolis
m
Components of immune system
Nonspecific
Cellular
Response
Nonspecific
Humoral
Specific
Humoral
Specific
Cellular
Properties •Present from birth
•Operate against any nonself
•Unaffected to prior exposure
•Acquired & Adoptive
•Tailored against individual
pathogens
•Enhanced by prior exposure
Who do it? Cells:
Macrophages,
Monocytes, PMN
Acute phase
proteins, like
CRP,
Ceruloplasmin,
Transferrine
Lysozymes etc
Immunoglobulin
e
T-Lymphocytes
What they do?Phagocytosis The whole
components
cause hindrance
in establishment
of pathogen
Form Ag-Ab
complex to
neutralized the
harmful
components
Apoptosis, Killing
by Cytotoxic
Lymphocytes
Disease
Virulency of
pathogen
Non Specific
Humoral
Immune
responses
Physiological
condition of
the
Interfaces
In order to establish , invade and thrive inside host the host A Pathogen has
to overcome the Nonspecific Immune Response of HOST
P
• 1-establishement of pathogen at
skin surface,
• 2- penetrate in side the host skin
Invasion
includes two
steps
Hindered in
establishment of
pathogen
Now if a
Pathogen
succeeded to
penetrate it
cause
Damage of Skin
release of certain
chemottaractents Phagocytosis
Introductions to immunology
Release of chemoattractant instigate →Inflammation
Non specific Vs Specific Immune Response
• to complement the
Immune Response
Complement
System:
Definition
• A group of 20 serum
thermolabile proteins,
along with cells of the
immune system work
together to eliminate
foreign cells.
Introduction
• Cooperate with
antibodies to eliminate
bacteria, viruses, and
other pathogens
• Prevent the lysis of
normal host cells by
pathogens .
• It operates as a cascade
mechanism, just like
the blood-clotting
system.
• This sequential
activation usually
Introductions to immunology
Extraction of peptide from pathogen
/antigen is key point between Non
specific & Specific Immune
Response
Elicits the Processing &
Presentation of Antigen
• Preparing a peptide from
pathogen (antigen) which
can be fix on peptide
presenting cleft of MHC
molecule
Ag
Processing
• The degraded peptide then
associated with MHC,
transported to membrane
surface and where they are
displayed to TCR
Antigen
Presentation
• Exogenous Pathways
• Endogenous pathways
Ag can be processed
in 2 ways:
Outline of Acquired
Immune Response
T Cell Activation
Kill
Endogenous
Antigen
Activate
CTL
Kill Infected
Cell
Exogenous
Antigen
Activate
Th
Stimulate
Macro
phage
Endosomal
Pathogens
APC [B-Cell]
Th
Cell
Y
Ag
MHC-II P
B7 CD-28
TCR
CD-40 CD-40L
CK
CO-STIMULATORY SIGNALS
Nucleus
Singling
Cascades
P-
Effect=Pathogen
Effect; H-Effect=
Host Effect; APP=
Acute Phage
Proteins;
Whole Process is Manifested as Inflammation
Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Result
Humoral (APP) Cellular (Phagocytosis) Processing Presentation T Cell Response B-Cell Response
P-Effect H-Effect P-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect
1
External–internalenvironmentinterface
  X X X X X X Immunotolerence
2   X X X X X X Immunotolerence
3 
4        Normal IR
5        Normal IR
6        Normal IR
7        Normal IR
80       Autoimmunity
90        Hypersenstivity
100        Hypersenstivity
110       Autoimmunity
12        Normal IR
13        Normal IR
14        Normal IR
15        Normal IR
16 C C C C C C C
17 C C C C C C C
18 C C C C C C C
Graphical representation of
IR under different conditions
Pathogens
NsHR
NsCR
SHR
SCR
Complement
Inflammation
-600
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Pathogens
NsHR
NsCR
SHR
SCR
Complement
Inflammation
Thus Immunology can be defined as……………….
Sum of responses offered
by the host body against
any invading pathogen to
nullify the impact exerted
by the pathogen/s
Thank you
Wliwni ni Moltes gràcies Juspajarkätam Hvala Betam amesegënallô Asante Tangkiu tumas Yin acaa muoc
Wliwni Mercès Juspaxar Puno hvala Quialva' Sikomo kwejinji Ta Mersi
Oliwni Uan tabuan Yuspagara Hvala lijepa Ashoge Asante sana Ang hmèn yá Emitekati
Mantiox chawe Si yuus maasi Dios pagarakátam Dêkuji Áshood Yokoke Nitsíniiyi'taki Daarim
Maketai Si yu'os ma'ase' Yusulupay Dik' Ihe edn Yakoke Baraka Pounsikou
Yuuminsame
Ngua tsaa xlay'be
hii Yuspagarkàtam Barka Ahíyi'ee Wokolix awölö Hvala Dank u
Wapsaw Barkal Yuspagaràtam Puorra bebe la Mvto Wokol a wala Hvala vam Dank je
Thawerapsaw Barkalla Sayol Pidamayado Ahoo Ch'ahp'ei'x ta'p'a Trugarez Dank u wel
Gadda ge Wa'-do Sag olun Pidamaya yedo Ahó Yuj wal dios Trugarez deoc'h Dank je wel
Dankie Néá'eshe Tæshækkür elæyiræm Pidamaya ye Ahókacira Kili so Trugarez dit Bedankt
Baie dankie Néá'êshemeno Chokh sag olun Tak Shukran Kili so chapur Mersi dit I ni che
Ntyox teru' Hahóo Masuma Mange tak Shukran gazilan Kini so Ho trugarekaat Kadinche
Seé Zikomo Na somi saisai Lac jak Mamnuun Kini so chapur Boche' Kadinche la
Tsin'aen Zikomo kwambiri Tiang matur suksama Lac jak ko ih lu SaHHa Tavtapuch Sa-aun Ù rú èsé
Iyayraykere Zikomo kwambili Matu suksama Dogedinh El-hamdullah Tav Nasima Dua Netjer en ek
Hioy'oy Zikomo Matur suksme Xisrigidisddhinh Barak llahu fik Tavssi Orio muno Dua Netjer en etj
Gui lah hui te ha Zikomo kwambili Tai merbani Musi Grazias Limlemtsch Webaale Imbuya mono
Gui lah hui mi a de Zikomo I ni ce Musicho Shnorhagallem Ura Wanyala Tángeyoo
Gui lah hui dui dui
ma Masiem Aw ni ce Snachailya Shterakravetsun Urako Blagodarya Thank you
Ghu long khu me-ah Mahsie Nba Snachalhuya Shenorhagal em Marahaba Mersi Thanks
Gu lah hu ma de Zikomo Nse Nahnachailya Shad shenorhagal em Marahabha Mnogo blagodarya Ta
Saeamat kimo Zikomo kwambiri Rekhmet Nahnachalhuya Sh'norhakal em
Dew re-dallo dheugh-
why Akeva Cheers
Alíila Ndatenda Eskerrik asko Nenachailya Shnorhakalutjun Durdala dywy Uninang Thenks
Kano Ndinotenda Mila esker Nenachalhuya Merci Durdaladawhy Maraba Enks
Kanobi Tatenda Esker mila Snachailya Multsãnjescu Gwra'massi Chezu ba Ic þancas do
Tá Tinotenda Esker aunitz Snachalhya Meda w'asé Merastawhy Chezu tinbade Ic þancie þe
Alíilamoolo Mazviita Eskerrik anitx Nenachailya Meda wo ase Meur ras
Amyaji chezu
tinbade
Ic sæcge eow
þancas
Kanoomoolo Maita basa Mauliate Nenachalhya
Meda wo ase paa paa
paa Meur ras dhis Juu na Thank ya
Kanopalammoolo Maita zvenyu Dziakuju Snachailya Basima Grazia Juu goor maniSh Dankon
Ju falem nderit Yewo Dziákuj Snachalhuya Basimta À ringraziè vi Shukria Dankon al vi
Faleminderit Yewo chemene Tsikomo Nahnachailya Basimeh À ringraziavvi Bakhshish Tänan
Faleminderit shumë Twalumba Twa to te la Nahnachalhuya Mesi Kinanâskomitin 'Ácha-ma Aitäh
Bïyan bolzïn Yewo Dhanyabad Nenachailya Hawit basima chim raba Kinanâskomitinawaw Matiosh chawe Ole meheks
Ondapandula unene Yewo chemene Ozasro dhanyabad Nenachalhuya Taudi E'kosi Gràsce Aitih
Amesegënallô Yewo chomene Tangkiu Shukuriyyaa Gracies Têniki Doh je Aiteh

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Introductions to immunology

  • 1. Dr Alok Tripathi Department of Biotechnology aquaimmuno@yahoo.co.in
  • 2. Cells of Immune Response
  • 3. • Specifically recognizes • Effectively Attack • selectively eliminates • displays a long-term memory What immune System does? Juncture point for Non Specific & Specific Immune Response ↑ Showing the Significance of Specific & Non Specific IR
  • 5. Is it The Environment which decides weather the disease will occur or not ? Host Patho gens Environm ent Diseases Immune Response VirulencyInteraction meta bolis m
  • 6. Components of immune system Nonspecific Cellular Response Nonspecific Humoral Specific Humoral Specific Cellular Properties •Present from birth •Operate against any nonself •Unaffected to prior exposure •Acquired & Adoptive •Tailored against individual pathogens •Enhanced by prior exposure Who do it? Cells: Macrophages, Monocytes, PMN Acute phase proteins, like CRP, Ceruloplasmin, Transferrine Lysozymes etc Immunoglobulin e T-Lymphocytes What they do?Phagocytosis The whole components cause hindrance in establishment of pathogen Form Ag-Ab complex to neutralized the harmful components Apoptosis, Killing by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes
  • 7. Disease Virulency of pathogen Non Specific Humoral Immune responses Physiological condition of the Interfaces In order to establish , invade and thrive inside host the host A Pathogen has to overcome the Nonspecific Immune Response of HOST
  • 8. P • 1-establishement of pathogen at skin surface, • 2- penetrate in side the host skin Invasion includes two steps Hindered in establishment of pathogen Now if a Pathogen succeeded to penetrate it cause Damage of Skin release of certain chemottaractents Phagocytosis
  • 10. Release of chemoattractant instigate →Inflammation
  • 11. Non specific Vs Specific Immune Response
  • 12. • to complement the Immune Response Complement System: Definition • A group of 20 serum thermolabile proteins, along with cells of the immune system work together to eliminate foreign cells. Introduction • Cooperate with antibodies to eliminate bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens • Prevent the lysis of normal host cells by pathogens . • It operates as a cascade mechanism, just like the blood-clotting system. • This sequential activation usually
  • 14. Extraction of peptide from pathogen /antigen is key point between Non specific & Specific Immune Response Elicits the Processing & Presentation of Antigen • Preparing a peptide from pathogen (antigen) which can be fix on peptide presenting cleft of MHC molecule Ag Processing • The degraded peptide then associated with MHC, transported to membrane surface and where they are displayed to TCR Antigen Presentation
  • 15. • Exogenous Pathways • Endogenous pathways Ag can be processed in 2 ways:
  • 17. T Cell Activation Kill Endogenous Antigen Activate CTL Kill Infected Cell Exogenous Antigen Activate Th Stimulate Macro phage Endosomal Pathogens
  • 18. APC [B-Cell] Th Cell Y Ag MHC-II P B7 CD-28 TCR CD-40 CD-40L CK CO-STIMULATORY SIGNALS Nucleus Singling Cascades
  • 19. P- Effect=Pathogen Effect; H-Effect= Host Effect; APP= Acute Phage Proteins; Whole Process is Manifested as Inflammation Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Result Humoral (APP) Cellular (Phagocytosis) Processing Presentation T Cell Response B-Cell Response P-Effect H-Effect P-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect H-Effect 1 External–internalenvironmentinterface   X X X X X X Immunotolerence 2   X X X X X X Immunotolerence 3  4        Normal IR 5        Normal IR 6        Normal IR 7        Normal IR 80       Autoimmunity 90        Hypersenstivity 100        Hypersenstivity 110       Autoimmunity 12        Normal IR 13        Normal IR 14        Normal IR 15        Normal IR 16 C C C C C C C 17 C C C C C C C 18 C C C C C C C
  • 20. Graphical representation of IR under different conditions Pathogens NsHR NsCR SHR SCR Complement Inflammation -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Pathogens NsHR NsCR SHR SCR Complement Inflammation
  • 21. Thus Immunology can be defined as………………. Sum of responses offered by the host body against any invading pathogen to nullify the impact exerted by the pathogen/s
  • 22. Thank you Wliwni ni Moltes gràcies Juspajarkätam Hvala Betam amesegënallô Asante Tangkiu tumas Yin acaa muoc Wliwni Mercès Juspaxar Puno hvala Quialva' Sikomo kwejinji Ta Mersi Oliwni Uan tabuan Yuspagara Hvala lijepa Ashoge Asante sana Ang hmèn yá Emitekati Mantiox chawe Si yuus maasi Dios pagarakátam Dêkuji Áshood Yokoke Nitsíniiyi'taki Daarim Maketai Si yu'os ma'ase' Yusulupay Dik' Ihe edn Yakoke Baraka Pounsikou Yuuminsame Ngua tsaa xlay'be hii Yuspagarkàtam Barka Ahíyi'ee Wokolix awölö Hvala Dank u Wapsaw Barkal Yuspagaràtam Puorra bebe la Mvto Wokol a wala Hvala vam Dank je Thawerapsaw Barkalla Sayol Pidamayado Ahoo Ch'ahp'ei'x ta'p'a Trugarez Dank u wel Gadda ge Wa'-do Sag olun Pidamaya yedo Ahó Yuj wal dios Trugarez deoc'h Dank je wel Dankie Néá'eshe Tæshækkür elæyiræm Pidamaya ye Ahókacira Kili so Trugarez dit Bedankt Baie dankie Néá'êshemeno Chokh sag olun Tak Shukran Kili so chapur Mersi dit I ni che Ntyox teru' Hahóo Masuma Mange tak Shukran gazilan Kini so Ho trugarekaat Kadinche Seé Zikomo Na somi saisai Lac jak Mamnuun Kini so chapur Boche' Kadinche la Tsin'aen Zikomo kwambiri Tiang matur suksama Lac jak ko ih lu SaHHa Tavtapuch Sa-aun Ù rú èsé Iyayraykere Zikomo kwambili Matu suksama Dogedinh El-hamdullah Tav Nasima Dua Netjer en ek Hioy'oy Zikomo Matur suksme Xisrigidisddhinh Barak llahu fik Tavssi Orio muno Dua Netjer en etj Gui lah hui te ha Zikomo kwambili Tai merbani Musi Grazias Limlemtsch Webaale Imbuya mono Gui lah hui mi a de Zikomo I ni ce Musicho Shnorhagallem Ura Wanyala Tángeyoo Gui lah hui dui dui ma Masiem Aw ni ce Snachailya Shterakravetsun Urako Blagodarya Thank you Ghu long khu me-ah Mahsie Nba Snachalhuya Shenorhagal em Marahaba Mersi Thanks Gu lah hu ma de Zikomo Nse Nahnachailya Shad shenorhagal em Marahabha Mnogo blagodarya Ta Saeamat kimo Zikomo kwambiri Rekhmet Nahnachalhuya Sh'norhakal em Dew re-dallo dheugh- why Akeva Cheers Alíila Ndatenda Eskerrik asko Nenachailya Shnorhakalutjun Durdala dywy Uninang Thenks Kano Ndinotenda Mila esker Nenachalhuya Merci Durdaladawhy Maraba Enks Kanobi Tatenda Esker mila Snachailya Multsãnjescu Gwra'massi Chezu ba Ic þancas do Tá Tinotenda Esker aunitz Snachalhya Meda w'asé Merastawhy Chezu tinbade Ic þancie þe Alíilamoolo Mazviita Eskerrik anitx Nenachailya Meda wo ase Meur ras Amyaji chezu tinbade Ic sæcge eow þancas Kanoomoolo Maita basa Mauliate Nenachalhya Meda wo ase paa paa paa Meur ras dhis Juu na Thank ya Kanopalammoolo Maita zvenyu Dziakuju Snachailya Basima Grazia Juu goor maniSh Dankon Ju falem nderit Yewo Dziákuj Snachalhuya Basimta À ringraziè vi Shukria Dankon al vi Faleminderit Yewo chemene Tsikomo Nahnachailya Basimeh À ringraziavvi Bakhshish Tänan Faleminderit shumë Twalumba Twa to te la Nahnachalhuya Mesi Kinanâskomitin 'Ácha-ma Aitäh Bïyan bolzïn Yewo Dhanyabad Nenachailya Hawit basima chim raba Kinanâskomitinawaw Matiosh chawe Ole meheks Ondapandula unene Yewo chemene Ozasro dhanyabad Nenachalhuya Taudi E'kosi Gràsce Aitih Amesegënallô Yewo chomene Tangkiu Shukuriyyaa Gracies Têniki Doh je Aiteh