SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 12
ALKALOIDS
Mr Nandakishor B. Deshmukh.
Assistant Professor
Shraddha Institute Of Pharmacy, Kondala Zambre ,
Washim.
Subject - Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
Class- B-pharm- II Sem IV
1
2
SR NO Content
01 Introduction
02 Function Of Alkaloids
03 Properties Of Alkaloids
04 Classification Of Alkaloids
05 Chemical Tests
ALKALOIDS
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic
compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
This group also includes some related compounds with neutral
and even weakly acidic properties.
Alkaloids are derived from plant sources they are basic they
contain one or more nitrogen atoms (usually in a heterocyclic
ring) and they usually have a marked physiological action.
3
Function of alkaloids
they may function as stimulants or regulators
in activities like growth, metabolism and
reproduction.
They may act as reservoirs for protein
synthesis.
4
Properties of alkaloids
Alkaloids are colourless, crystalline, non-volatile, solids, a few
such as coniine and nicotine are liquids and a few even coloured,
viz. berberine is yellow.
The free bases (i.e. alkaloids themselves) are insoluble in water
but soluble in most of the organic solvents. Most of the alkaloids
are laevorotatory (optically active), although a few are
dextrorotatory (e.g. coniine), while a few are even optically
inactive, viz. papaverine.
the alkaloids are bitter in taste and have pronounced physiological
activity.
5
Classification of alkaloids
a. Taxonomic classification- On the basis of taxonomic profile of the
drug. For ex. Solanaceous alkaloids.
b. Biogenetic classification- On the basis of amino acid precursor. For
ex. Phenylalanine, Tyrosine alkaloids
c. Pharmacological classification- On the basis therapeutic activity of
the alkaloid For ex. Morphine as analgesic, Quinine as antimalarial.
6
d. Chemical classification- On the basis of basic chemical structure of alkaloid. It is of
further three types-
1. True alkaloid- The alkaloids which have all basic properties of alkaloids, derived from
amino acid and contain Nitrogen in heterocyclic ring. Ex. Atropine, Morphine.
2. Proto alkaloid- The alkaloid in which nitrogen atom is not present in the ring, but it is
present outside the ring I form of amino group, so also called amino alkaloids or
biological amines. Ex. Ephedrine.
3. Pseudo alkaloids- Actually these are not alkaloids. These are not derived from amino
acid and not give basic identification tests of alkaloids. These are Steroidal (Solanine),
Terpenoidal (Diterpene alkaloid) and Purine alkaloid (Caffeine).
7
chemical classification of alkaloids
1. Non-Heterocyclic Alkaloids
Groups Example Source Uses
Phenyl ethyl amine
alkaloid
Ephedrine, Mescaline
Hordenine
Ephedra sp.
Lophophora wiliamsoil
Asthama
Tropolone alkaloids Colchicine Colchicum sp. Gout
Modified diterpene Taxol Taxus sp. Anti cancer
8
2. Heterocyclic Alkaloids
A. Mono-nuclear Heterocyclic Alkaloids
Groups Example Source Uses
Pyridine Lobeline Lobelia sp. Asthama
Piperidine Piperine Piper sp Antioxidant
Pyrrole Hygrine Coca sp. CNS Stimulant
Pyrrolidine Nicotine Tobbaco sp CNS Stimulant
Imidazole Pilocarpine Pilocarpus Contraction pupil of
B. Poly-nuclear Hetero-cyclic alkaloids
Isoquinoline Morphine, papaverine Opium Narcotic analgesic
Quinoline Quinidine, quinidine Cinchona Anti-malarial
9
Chemical tests
Reagent Composition Remarks
Alkaloid Precipitants
Mayer's Potassium- mercuric iodide Immediate creamy white ppt.(+ve
with most alkaloids except Caffeine
and dil. Ephedrine
Wagner's Iodine in potassium Reddish brown
Hager's
Dragendorff's
Iodide
Saturated soln. of picric acid
Yellow
Orange-reddish brown
Marme's Potassium bismuth iodide
Potassium cadmium iodide
Yellow
10
11
12

More Related Content

What's hot

Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationMetabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationDr. Siddhi Upadhyay
 
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicineRoll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicineMegha Shah
 
3.steroids, cardiac glycosides
3.steroids, cardiac glycosides3.steroids, cardiac glycosides
3.steroids, cardiac glycosidesSnehalChakorkar
 
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)Dr. Baqir Raza Naqvi
 
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeiaHistory of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeiajagan vana
 
Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugsClassification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugsAsgharullahKhan
 
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13T
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13TTERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13T
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13TNithya Murugan
 
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsBiosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsMuhammad Jamal
 
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluation
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluationEvaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluation
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluationDr. Pritam Juvatkar
 
Steroids, cardiac glycoside, Pharmacognosy
Steroids, cardiac glycoside,  Pharmacognosy Steroids, cardiac glycoside,  Pharmacognosy
Steroids, cardiac glycoside, Pharmacognosy Lalit Patil
 
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonist
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonistUNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonist
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonistSONALI PAWAR
 
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptx
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptxChemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptx
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptxSaloniSen3
 
Introduction of Phytotherapy
Introduction of Phytotherapy Introduction of Phytotherapy
Introduction of Phytotherapy Mona Ismail
 
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptx
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptxUnit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptx
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptxRakesh Barik
 

What's hot (20)

Resins
ResinsResins
Resins
 
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationMetabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
 
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicineRoll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
 
3.steroids, cardiac glycosides
3.steroids, cardiac glycosides3.steroids, cardiac glycosides
3.steroids, cardiac glycosides
 
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
 
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)
Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)
 
Phenylpropanoids & Flavonoid.pptx
Phenylpropanoids & Flavonoid.pptxPhenylpropanoids & Flavonoid.pptx
Phenylpropanoids & Flavonoid.pptx
 
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeiaHistory of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia
History of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia
 
Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugsClassification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs
 
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13T
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13TTERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13T
TERPENOIDS - I D.Pharm ER-20:13T
 
Terpineol
TerpineolTerpineol
Terpineol
 
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsBiosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluation
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluationEvaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluation
Evaluation of crude drug microscopic evaluation
 
Steroids, cardiac glycoside, Pharmacognosy
Steroids, cardiac glycoside,  Pharmacognosy Steroids, cardiac glycoside,  Pharmacognosy
Steroids, cardiac glycoside, Pharmacognosy
 
Introduction to pharmacognosy
Introduction to pharmacognosyIntroduction to pharmacognosy
Introduction to pharmacognosy
 
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonist
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonistUNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonist
UNIT III_cholinergic neurotransmitter agonist
 
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptx
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptxChemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptx
Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.pptx
 
Introduction of Phytotherapy
Introduction of Phytotherapy Introduction of Phytotherapy
Introduction of Phytotherapy
 
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptx
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptxUnit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptx
Unit 1. Adulteration and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs.pptx
 

Similar to Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids

Introduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesIntroduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesMegha Shah
 
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIKAlkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIKImran Nur Manik
 
Alkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewAlkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewOP VERMA
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyUnnati Garg
 
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification OP VERMA
 
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdfD.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdfPranita Sunar
 
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853MERAJ KHAN
 
introduction of alkaiods.pdf
introduction of alkaiods.pdfintroduction of alkaiods.pdf
introduction of alkaiods.pdfTofeMeem
 
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I  phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptxB.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I  phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptxBkGupta21
 
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptxB.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptxBkGupta21
 

Similar to Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids (20)

Secondary metabolites
Secondary metabolitesSecondary metabolites
Secondary metabolites
 
Introduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesIntroduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolites
 
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIKAlkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
 
Alkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewAlkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overview
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
 
4.6 alkaloids 2020
4.6 alkaloids 20204.6 alkaloids 2020
4.6 alkaloids 2020
 
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
 
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdfD.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids,
Alkaloids, Alkaloids,
Alkaloids,
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptxAlkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptx
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
 
Alkaloids (full)
Alkaloids (full)Alkaloids (full)
Alkaloids (full)
 
introduction of alkaiods.pdf
introduction of alkaiods.pdfintroduction of alkaiods.pdf
introduction of alkaiods.pdf
 
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I  phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptxB.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I  phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year unit2 part-I phytochemistry by Bulet kumar gupta.pptx
 
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptxB.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptx
B.Pharma 3rd year phytochemistry unit-2 Part-1 by Bulet kumar gupta .pptx
 

More from Nandakishor Bhaurao Deshmukh (14)

FLAVONOIDS Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
FLAVONOIDS Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -IFLAVONOIDS Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
FLAVONOIDS Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
 
Volatile Oils Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
Volatile Oils Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -IVolatile Oils Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
Volatile Oils Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I
 
Suppository
Suppository Suppository
Suppository
 
SOFT GELETIN CAPSULES
SOFT GELETIN CAPSULESSOFT GELETIN CAPSULES
SOFT GELETIN CAPSULES
 
Semisolid dosage form
Semisolid dosage form Semisolid dosage form
Semisolid dosage form
 
PROTEIN BINDING OF DRUGS
PROTEIN  BINDING OF DRUGS PROTEIN  BINDING OF DRUGS
PROTEIN BINDING OF DRUGS
 
PELLETS AND PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES
PELLETS  AND  PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES PELLETS  AND  PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES
PELLETS AND PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES
 
Ophthalmic Preparation
Ophthalmic Preparation Ophthalmic Preparation
Ophthalmic Preparation
 
LIQUID DOSAGE FORM
LIQUID DOSAGE FORM LIQUID DOSAGE FORM
LIQUID DOSAGE FORM
 
CULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF DRUGS OF NATURAL ORIGIN.pptx
CULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF DRUGS OF NATURAL ORIGIN.pptxCULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF DRUGS OF NATURAL ORIGIN.pptx
CULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF DRUGS OF NATURAL ORIGIN.pptx
 
COMPLEXATION AND PROTEIN BINDING
COMPLEXATION AND PROTEIN BINDINGCOMPLEXATION AND PROTEIN BINDING
COMPLEXATION AND PROTEIN BINDING
 
Hard gelatin capsules
Hard gelatin capsules Hard gelatin capsules
Hard gelatin capsules
 
PREFORMULATION
PREFORMULATION  PREFORMULATION
PREFORMULATION
 
Introduction B- Pharm course.pptx
Introduction B- Pharm course.pptxIntroduction B- Pharm course.pptx
Introduction B- Pharm course.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Sérgio Sacani
 
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...frank0071
 
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.syedmuneemqadri
 
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Sérgio Sacani
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPirithiRaju
 
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...Sahil Suleman
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent Universitypablovgd
 
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategyMansiBishnoi1
 
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanPlasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanmuralinath2
 
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdfTEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdfmarcuskenyatta275
 
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptxRACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptxArunLakshmiMeenakshi
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPirithiRaju
 
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxIsolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxGOWTHAMIM22
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesAreesha Ahmad
 
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdfMODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdfRevenJadePalma
 
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...Sérgio Sacani
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...Sérgio Sacani
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Sérgio Sacani
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinathmuralinath2
 
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdfThe Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdfMohamed Said
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
 
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
 
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
 
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...
Alternative method of dissolution in-vitro in-vivo correlation and dissolutio...
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
 
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
 
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanPlasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
 
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdfTEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
 
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptxRACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxIsolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
 
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdfMODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
 
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...
Emergent ribozyme behaviors in oxychlorine brines indicate a unique niche for...
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
 
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdfThe Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
 

Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids

  • 1. ALKALOIDS Mr Nandakishor B. Deshmukh. Assistant Professor Shraddha Institute Of Pharmacy, Kondala Zambre , Washim. Subject - Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I Class- B-pharm- II Sem IV 1
  • 2. 2 SR NO Content 01 Introduction 02 Function Of Alkaloids 03 Properties Of Alkaloids 04 Classification Of Alkaloids 05 Chemical Tests
  • 3. ALKALOIDS Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Alkaloids are derived from plant sources they are basic they contain one or more nitrogen atoms (usually in a heterocyclic ring) and they usually have a marked physiological action. 3
  • 4. Function of alkaloids they may function as stimulants or regulators in activities like growth, metabolism and reproduction. They may act as reservoirs for protein synthesis. 4
  • 5. Properties of alkaloids Alkaloids are colourless, crystalline, non-volatile, solids, a few such as coniine and nicotine are liquids and a few even coloured, viz. berberine is yellow. The free bases (i.e. alkaloids themselves) are insoluble in water but soluble in most of the organic solvents. Most of the alkaloids are laevorotatory (optically active), although a few are dextrorotatory (e.g. coniine), while a few are even optically inactive, viz. papaverine. the alkaloids are bitter in taste and have pronounced physiological activity. 5
  • 6. Classification of alkaloids a. Taxonomic classification- On the basis of taxonomic profile of the drug. For ex. Solanaceous alkaloids. b. Biogenetic classification- On the basis of amino acid precursor. For ex. Phenylalanine, Tyrosine alkaloids c. Pharmacological classification- On the basis therapeutic activity of the alkaloid For ex. Morphine as analgesic, Quinine as antimalarial. 6
  • 7. d. Chemical classification- On the basis of basic chemical structure of alkaloid. It is of further three types- 1. True alkaloid- The alkaloids which have all basic properties of alkaloids, derived from amino acid and contain Nitrogen in heterocyclic ring. Ex. Atropine, Morphine. 2. Proto alkaloid- The alkaloid in which nitrogen atom is not present in the ring, but it is present outside the ring I form of amino group, so also called amino alkaloids or biological amines. Ex. Ephedrine. 3. Pseudo alkaloids- Actually these are not alkaloids. These are not derived from amino acid and not give basic identification tests of alkaloids. These are Steroidal (Solanine), Terpenoidal (Diterpene alkaloid) and Purine alkaloid (Caffeine). 7
  • 8. chemical classification of alkaloids 1. Non-Heterocyclic Alkaloids Groups Example Source Uses Phenyl ethyl amine alkaloid Ephedrine, Mescaline Hordenine Ephedra sp. Lophophora wiliamsoil Asthama Tropolone alkaloids Colchicine Colchicum sp. Gout Modified diterpene Taxol Taxus sp. Anti cancer 8
  • 9. 2. Heterocyclic Alkaloids A. Mono-nuclear Heterocyclic Alkaloids Groups Example Source Uses Pyridine Lobeline Lobelia sp. Asthama Piperidine Piperine Piper sp Antioxidant Pyrrole Hygrine Coca sp. CNS Stimulant Pyrrolidine Nicotine Tobbaco sp CNS Stimulant Imidazole Pilocarpine Pilocarpus Contraction pupil of B. Poly-nuclear Hetero-cyclic alkaloids Isoquinoline Morphine, papaverine Opium Narcotic analgesic Quinoline Quinidine, quinidine Cinchona Anti-malarial 9
  • 10. Chemical tests Reagent Composition Remarks Alkaloid Precipitants Mayer's Potassium- mercuric iodide Immediate creamy white ppt.(+ve with most alkaloids except Caffeine and dil. Ephedrine Wagner's Iodine in potassium Reddish brown Hager's Dragendorff's Iodide Saturated soln. of picric acid Yellow Orange-reddish brown Marme's Potassium bismuth iodide Potassium cadmium iodide Yellow 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12