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Indonesia:
   Toward the Era of Decentralization

                             Dadang Solihin
Deputy Director for Local Government Apparatus Empowerment-Bappenas




   Country-Focused Training Course on Local Government
               Administration for Indonesia
               Hiroshima, January 8, 2001
dadang-solihin.blogspot.com   2
Contents

   Introduction
   Central and Local Government
   The Organization
   The Main Issues
   The Policy Strategies
   Development Programs Priorities
   Area of Interest




                     dadang-solihin.blogspot.com   3
Introduction

   The purpose of this report is to provide some understanding
    regarding the current state of local government in Indonesia to the
    discussion group.
   The report consists of four parts.
        The first part is introduction.
        The second part explains about the relation between central
         and local governments after decentralization, and to compare
         the ‘before-and-after’ situation affected by the changes.
        The third part explains an outline of the organization to which I
         belong, and my job.
        And the fourth part explains my specific area of interest.


                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  4
Central and Local Government (1)
   The Law No. 22 (1999) on Regional Governance, and Law No. 25
    (1999) on Fiscal Balance between Central and Regional
    Governments will change the roles and functions of local
    government as well as the allocation of development fund to the
    local level.
   The implementation of greater local autonomy will enhance local
    discretion in spending and in turn require modifications in the
    approach in the practice of local development planning.
   Accordingly, a departure from the established development planning
    system with its centralized distribution of power and authority is
    necessary.




                           dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                5
Central and Local Government (2)
   Planning system reform will mean removing or modifying centralized
    system and procedures that supported centralism in the past and
    build on a new decentralized capacity building and decision-making.
   Following Law No. 22 (1999) the newly empowered local
    parliaments together with the local administration will determine
    policies and objectives of local development.




                            dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                 6
Central and Local Government (3)
 Development programs in Indonesia have been highly
  centralized over the past 30 years.
 The time is now changing, with more rooms opening up
  for democratization process, plans for decentralization
  and regional autonomy, and more intense and active
  participation from community groups involved in local
  development programs.




                      dadang-solihin.blogspot.com           7
Central and Local Government (4)
   According to the regional government law, decentralization is
    the delegation of the governance authorities by government to
    autonomous regions in the context of the unitary state of the
    Republic of Indonesia.
   Moreover, the regional autonomy is the authority of
    autonomous region to govern and administer the interests of
    the local people according to its own initiatives based on the
    people’s aspirations in accordance to the prevailing laws and
    regulations.




                         dadang-solihin.blogspot.com             8
Central and Local Government (5)
   The idea of decentralization and increased local autonomy follow
    the well-accepted and benign principle of bringing government
    closer to the people.
   The move will make governments more responsive and
    accountable.
   Consequently, increased local legislative and executive power in
    policy and law making authority could means a proliferation of
    differing laws and regulations across kabupatens and regions.
   Mere differences in laws are not generally matters of concern –
    except in those areas where laws should be uniform across the
    country or where local laws interfere with some national interest.




                            dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  9
The Organization (1)
                         I currently work for the Bureau
                          for Local Government Capacity
                          Improvement, under the
                          Deputy Chairman for Regional
                          and Natural Resources
                          Development, National
                          Development Planning Agency
                          (Badan Perencanaan
                          Pembangunan Nasional-
                          BAPPENAS).




      dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                      10
The Organization (2)
   The bureau consists of three divisions.
        The first is the division for improvement of regional autonomy.
         This division is responsible for performing study on
         implementation performance of regional autonomy.
        Second, is the division for local government apparatus
         empowerment that is responsible for preparing material for
         preparation of policy, plan, and budget of development regarding
         the capability enhancement of local institution and apparatus,
         and local legislators (DPRD).
        And the other division is the division for regional finance that is
         responsible for preparing material for formulation of development
         policy, plan, and budget regarding the improvement of financial
         performance of local government.


                              dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  11
Section Head for
                               Regional Autonomy
                               Information System

                                Section Head for
                               Regional Autonomy

                                                            Improvement of
                                    Analysis               Deputy Director for

                                                           Regional Autonomy
                                 Performance



                                   Section Head for
                              Institution and Apparatus
                              of Regional Government
                                     Planning and
                                     Programming

                                   Section Head for
                                                             Apparatus
                                                            Empowerment
                                                                                         Improvement




                              Institution and Apparatus
                                                          Local Government
                                                          Deputy Director for
                                                                                       Director for Local




                              of Regional Government
                                                                                      Government Capacity




                                    Monitoring and




dadang-solihin.blogspot.com
                                       Evaluation
                                                                                                                              Organization Chart of




                                Section Head for
                                Regional Finance
                                 Planning and
                                 Programming

                                Section Head for
                                Regional Finance
                                                                                                            Directorate for Local Government Capacity Improvement




                                 Monitoring and
                                                                Regional Finance
                                                                Deputy Director for




                                  Evaluation
12
The Organization (3)
   My position in the bureau is the head division for Local Government
    Apparatus Empowerment.
   The main functions of this division are:
      Preparing material for formulation of development policy, plan
       and budget regarding the improvement of capability of institution
       and apparatus of regional government and legislators
        Preparation of material for monitoring, evaluation, and reporting
         as well as suggestion on further action to the implementation of
         development plan regarding the improvement of capability of
         institution and apparatus of regional government and legislators




                              dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                13
The Organization (4)
•   One of the missions in order to realize the future vision of the
    Indonesian nation is to form regional autonomy in the framework of
    regional development in line with equality in growth within the
    umbrella of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.




                           dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                   14
The Organization (5)
   The directions of the regional autonomy improvement policy within
    the state policy (GBHN) are:
     1. Developing regional autonomy that is wide-reaching, evident
        and accountable;
     2. Carrying out a study or policy concerning validity of regional
        autonomy for provinces, regencies/cities and villages; and
     3. Realizing fiscal balance between central and regions that is
        just by prioritizing regional interest that is wider through
        decentralization of permits and investment as well as
        management of resources;
     4. Empowering the local legislators in the framework of carrying
        out the function and role for implementing regional autonomy
        that is wide reaching, real and accountable.

                           dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                   15
The Organization (6)
   With such policy direction, the aim of improving regional autonomy
    shall be in order with the effort to improve the capacity of regional
    government in order to deliver public service in a more effective,
    efficient, accountable, transparent, and responsive manner.
 In reality, regional autonomy is a transfer of governing duty that is
  accompanied with authority in order to make decision on policies,
  managing public funds, and regulating activities in the framework of
  arranging government and public services to the areas of province,
  regencies/cities, and villages.
 Until recently the realization of regional government autonomy was
  faced with several constraints, either concerning political, economic,
  socio-cultural aspects as well as other technical aspects.



                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                    16
The Main Issues (1)
   The limited availability of capable regional human resources and
    government apparatus in accordance with the demand in needs
    both from the quality and the quantity sides in the framework of
    providing services in accordance with the public demand and
    aspiration;
   The lack of regulatory means in order to increase regional
    revenues that in the end shall be the cause of the still low capacity
    of regional government finance in order to finance the
    implementation of regional government duties and function.




                           dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  17
The Main Issues (2)
   In the framework of improving the role and duty of the Local
    Legislators, there is a mismatch between the role and duty that
    should actually be carried out with the existing organizational
    capacity, among others are caused by the limited number of experts
    that can assist in the duties and restrictions in obtaining feedback as
    well as in analyzing the process of decision making in the Local
    Legislators that may as a whole affect the effectiveness of the
    regional autonomy implementation.




                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                 18
The Main Issues (3)
   Future challenges that is likely be encountered during the
    implementation of the regional autonomy are in the preparation of
    human resources that are professional in public management that
    covers the policies planning and creating aspect, procedures and
    organizational system, financial management, implementation and
    delivery of services, supervision, as well as management of public
    participation.




                            dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  19
The Main Issues (4)
   As an important prerequisite during the implementation of the
    regional autonomy is how to carry out the effort in order to improve
    revenues or regional revenues either through the balance of funds
    or through regional owns revenues, together with providing
    opportunities in finding potential source of revenues and developing
    regional economic activities.
   Furthermore, efforts should be made in order to increase the
    accountability of the financial management and correct uses of
    funds in order to support routine activities and public services in
    accordance with the public demand.




                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  20
The Main Issues (5)
   Considering that not all of the regions have the wealth of natural
    resources or have adequate financial capability in order to carry out
    the autonomy duty, the government has to make a policy in order to
    equalize allocation of funds between the regions that is fair to all.
   The challenges in order to improve the role and duty of the regional
    legislator are how to meet the requirements for experts that can
    assist institutions, to develop communication and consultation
    facilities with the public and government parties, to improve the
    quality of legislation decision making process, and to make effective
    supervision of the regional government while carrying out their
    duties.




                            dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                 21
The Policy Strategies (1)
1. Improving the capacity of regional human resources into more
   professional in accordance with the regional potential and interest
   through education, training as well as developing an adequate
   incentive system.
2. Improving the capacity of the regional government finance through
   the fiscal balance that is more just and proportional, providing
   larger authority for the regions to exploit regional sources of
   revenues, while considering allocation of funds for regions that are
   poor in natural resources and a backward economy.




                           dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                   22
The Policy Strategies (2)
3. Developing regional government organizational
   structure that is modern and is implemented by human
   resources that have competence in the process of
   decision making and oriented to a public interest,
   productivity of public services, protection of poor
   people, cooperation between government and the
   public, as well as improving public participation and
   intention.
4. Improving the role of the local legislators through
   providing experts that shall assist in the quality
   improvement of feedback in the framework of legislation
   decision and a more effective supervision on the
   government.
                      dadang-solihin.blogspot.com        23
Development Programs Priorities (1)

1. Improvement of the local government apparatus,
       Enhancing the professionalism and managerial capacities of
        local government apparatus proportionally in accordance with
        the demand in order to support the implementation of the
        autonomy and to create clean and accountable local
        government.
       Improving the availability of professional and qualified local
        government apparatus that are suitable to the job requirement
        and responsibilities.
       The priority activities that will be implemented included:
        standardization of job competency; analysis of manpower
        needs, improvement of reward and punishments system; and
        training need assessment.

                         dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                24
Development Programs Priorities (2)
2. Enhancement of local government institution capacity,
        Enhancing the institution capacity of local government. The
         enhancement will covers work mechanism, the organization
         structure, and the adequate legislation regulations.
        The target to be achieved is the creation of organization
         structure, the high performance of institution, and the
         establishment of work relationship between organizations
         within the government environment as well as between
         government organizations and public organizations, and the
         creation of good and clean governance.




                          dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  25
Development Programs Priorities (3)
   The priority activities that will be implemented are the study of
    autonomy and decentralizations, included:
       the study of dividing, uniting, and removing the autonomous
        region;
       arrangement of regional organization structure that follows
        modern organization principles; and
       development of work relation between organizations within
        the government environment either horizontally or vertically,
        and between the government and the public that shall be
        interactive and parallel.




                          dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                   26
Development Programs Priorities (4)
3. Arrangement for regional finance management,
        Enhancing regional government capacity in managing the
         sources of revenues in a more efficient, transparent, and
         responsive manner. The target to be achieved is the ever-
         increasing significant role of regional original revenues in the
         implementation financing of the public service and
         development function.
        The priority activities that will be implemented included: the
         widening and improving of regional revenues sources;
         simplifying the regulations and straightening out the
         institutions; developing the financing mechanism and
         developing accounting system, developing the transparent and
         accountable financial information, and managerial regional
         finance.

                            dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                     27
Development Programs Priorities (5)
4. Strengthening people institution.
       Enhancing the capability and involvement of formal as well as
        informal people institution in the process of decision-making,
        planning, implementation, and monitoring of public service and
        development.
       The purport of people institution included local legislators,
        village representative body, non-government organization,
        traditional institution, religion institution, and others civil society
        institutions.
       The target to be achieved is functioned and developed people
        institution participation mechanism in the process of decision-
        making, planning, implementation, and the creation of social
        monitoring mechanism in more democratic manner.



                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                      28
Development Programs Priorities (6)
   The priority activities that will be implemented included: the
    capability enhancement in policy analysis, public management,
    financial management, political communication; the enhancement
    of communication and consultation with the local people, private
    company, and local government.




                          dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  29
Area of Interest
   There are three specific areas of interests that I want to acquire from
    this training. First, the role and functions of local government bodies.
    This will include: The roles of prefectures and the significance of
    their function in coordinating national policy enforcement and
    municipal village affairs.
 Second, the development of human resources. This will include: The
  rules for public servants’ appointment, personnel affairs, pay
  structure, and the issues facing the local public servant system in
  Japan.
 Third, the local vitalization plans. This will include: The medium-
  term plans formulated by prefectures, the planning of basic items
  concerning major policies, and the actual practice of overall
  coordination.


                             dadang-solihin.blogspot.com                  30
どうもありがとうございました



   Terima Kasih


     dadang-solihin.blogspot.com   31

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Indonesia: Toward the Era of Decentralization

  • 1. Indonesia: Toward the Era of Decentralization Dadang Solihin Deputy Director for Local Government Apparatus Empowerment-Bappenas Country-Focused Training Course on Local Government Administration for Indonesia Hiroshima, January 8, 2001
  • 3. Contents  Introduction  Central and Local Government  The Organization  The Main Issues  The Policy Strategies  Development Programs Priorities  Area of Interest dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 3
  • 4. Introduction  The purpose of this report is to provide some understanding regarding the current state of local government in Indonesia to the discussion group.  The report consists of four parts.  The first part is introduction.  The second part explains about the relation between central and local governments after decentralization, and to compare the ‘before-and-after’ situation affected by the changes.  The third part explains an outline of the organization to which I belong, and my job.  And the fourth part explains my specific area of interest. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 4
  • 5. Central and Local Government (1)  The Law No. 22 (1999) on Regional Governance, and Law No. 25 (1999) on Fiscal Balance between Central and Regional Governments will change the roles and functions of local government as well as the allocation of development fund to the local level.  The implementation of greater local autonomy will enhance local discretion in spending and in turn require modifications in the approach in the practice of local development planning.  Accordingly, a departure from the established development planning system with its centralized distribution of power and authority is necessary. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 5
  • 6. Central and Local Government (2)  Planning system reform will mean removing or modifying centralized system and procedures that supported centralism in the past and build on a new decentralized capacity building and decision-making.  Following Law No. 22 (1999) the newly empowered local parliaments together with the local administration will determine policies and objectives of local development. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 6
  • 7. Central and Local Government (3)  Development programs in Indonesia have been highly centralized over the past 30 years.  The time is now changing, with more rooms opening up for democratization process, plans for decentralization and regional autonomy, and more intense and active participation from community groups involved in local development programs. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 7
  • 8. Central and Local Government (4)  According to the regional government law, decentralization is the delegation of the governance authorities by government to autonomous regions in the context of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia.  Moreover, the regional autonomy is the authority of autonomous region to govern and administer the interests of the local people according to its own initiatives based on the people’s aspirations in accordance to the prevailing laws and regulations. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 8
  • 9. Central and Local Government (5)  The idea of decentralization and increased local autonomy follow the well-accepted and benign principle of bringing government closer to the people.  The move will make governments more responsive and accountable.  Consequently, increased local legislative and executive power in policy and law making authority could means a proliferation of differing laws and regulations across kabupatens and regions.  Mere differences in laws are not generally matters of concern – except in those areas where laws should be uniform across the country or where local laws interfere with some national interest. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 9
  • 10. The Organization (1)  I currently work for the Bureau for Local Government Capacity Improvement, under the Deputy Chairman for Regional and Natural Resources Development, National Development Planning Agency (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional- BAPPENAS). dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 10
  • 11. The Organization (2)  The bureau consists of three divisions.  The first is the division for improvement of regional autonomy. This division is responsible for performing study on implementation performance of regional autonomy.  Second, is the division for local government apparatus empowerment that is responsible for preparing material for preparation of policy, plan, and budget of development regarding the capability enhancement of local institution and apparatus, and local legislators (DPRD).  And the other division is the division for regional finance that is responsible for preparing material for formulation of development policy, plan, and budget regarding the improvement of financial performance of local government. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 11
  • 12. Section Head for Regional Autonomy Information System Section Head for Regional Autonomy Improvement of Analysis Deputy Director for Regional Autonomy Performance Section Head for Institution and Apparatus of Regional Government Planning and Programming Section Head for Apparatus Empowerment Improvement Institution and Apparatus Local Government Deputy Director for Director for Local of Regional Government Government Capacity Monitoring and dadang-solihin.blogspot.com Evaluation Organization Chart of Section Head for Regional Finance Planning and Programming Section Head for Regional Finance Directorate for Local Government Capacity Improvement Monitoring and Regional Finance Deputy Director for Evaluation 12
  • 13. The Organization (3)  My position in the bureau is the head division for Local Government Apparatus Empowerment.  The main functions of this division are:  Preparing material for formulation of development policy, plan and budget regarding the improvement of capability of institution and apparatus of regional government and legislators  Preparation of material for monitoring, evaluation, and reporting as well as suggestion on further action to the implementation of development plan regarding the improvement of capability of institution and apparatus of regional government and legislators dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 13
  • 14. The Organization (4) • One of the missions in order to realize the future vision of the Indonesian nation is to form regional autonomy in the framework of regional development in line with equality in growth within the umbrella of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 14
  • 15. The Organization (5)  The directions of the regional autonomy improvement policy within the state policy (GBHN) are: 1. Developing regional autonomy that is wide-reaching, evident and accountable; 2. Carrying out a study or policy concerning validity of regional autonomy for provinces, regencies/cities and villages; and 3. Realizing fiscal balance between central and regions that is just by prioritizing regional interest that is wider through decentralization of permits and investment as well as management of resources; 4. Empowering the local legislators in the framework of carrying out the function and role for implementing regional autonomy that is wide reaching, real and accountable. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 15
  • 16. The Organization (6)  With such policy direction, the aim of improving regional autonomy shall be in order with the effort to improve the capacity of regional government in order to deliver public service in a more effective, efficient, accountable, transparent, and responsive manner.  In reality, regional autonomy is a transfer of governing duty that is accompanied with authority in order to make decision on policies, managing public funds, and regulating activities in the framework of arranging government and public services to the areas of province, regencies/cities, and villages.  Until recently the realization of regional government autonomy was faced with several constraints, either concerning political, economic, socio-cultural aspects as well as other technical aspects. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 16
  • 17. The Main Issues (1)  The limited availability of capable regional human resources and government apparatus in accordance with the demand in needs both from the quality and the quantity sides in the framework of providing services in accordance with the public demand and aspiration;  The lack of regulatory means in order to increase regional revenues that in the end shall be the cause of the still low capacity of regional government finance in order to finance the implementation of regional government duties and function. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 17
  • 18. The Main Issues (2)  In the framework of improving the role and duty of the Local Legislators, there is a mismatch between the role and duty that should actually be carried out with the existing organizational capacity, among others are caused by the limited number of experts that can assist in the duties and restrictions in obtaining feedback as well as in analyzing the process of decision making in the Local Legislators that may as a whole affect the effectiveness of the regional autonomy implementation. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 18
  • 19. The Main Issues (3)  Future challenges that is likely be encountered during the implementation of the regional autonomy are in the preparation of human resources that are professional in public management that covers the policies planning and creating aspect, procedures and organizational system, financial management, implementation and delivery of services, supervision, as well as management of public participation. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 19
  • 20. The Main Issues (4)  As an important prerequisite during the implementation of the regional autonomy is how to carry out the effort in order to improve revenues or regional revenues either through the balance of funds or through regional owns revenues, together with providing opportunities in finding potential source of revenues and developing regional economic activities.  Furthermore, efforts should be made in order to increase the accountability of the financial management and correct uses of funds in order to support routine activities and public services in accordance with the public demand. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 20
  • 21. The Main Issues (5)  Considering that not all of the regions have the wealth of natural resources or have adequate financial capability in order to carry out the autonomy duty, the government has to make a policy in order to equalize allocation of funds between the regions that is fair to all.  The challenges in order to improve the role and duty of the regional legislator are how to meet the requirements for experts that can assist institutions, to develop communication and consultation facilities with the public and government parties, to improve the quality of legislation decision making process, and to make effective supervision of the regional government while carrying out their duties. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 21
  • 22. The Policy Strategies (1) 1. Improving the capacity of regional human resources into more professional in accordance with the regional potential and interest through education, training as well as developing an adequate incentive system. 2. Improving the capacity of the regional government finance through the fiscal balance that is more just and proportional, providing larger authority for the regions to exploit regional sources of revenues, while considering allocation of funds for regions that are poor in natural resources and a backward economy. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 22
  • 23. The Policy Strategies (2) 3. Developing regional government organizational structure that is modern and is implemented by human resources that have competence in the process of decision making and oriented to a public interest, productivity of public services, protection of poor people, cooperation between government and the public, as well as improving public participation and intention. 4. Improving the role of the local legislators through providing experts that shall assist in the quality improvement of feedback in the framework of legislation decision and a more effective supervision on the government. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 23
  • 24. Development Programs Priorities (1) 1. Improvement of the local government apparatus,  Enhancing the professionalism and managerial capacities of local government apparatus proportionally in accordance with the demand in order to support the implementation of the autonomy and to create clean and accountable local government.  Improving the availability of professional and qualified local government apparatus that are suitable to the job requirement and responsibilities.  The priority activities that will be implemented included: standardization of job competency; analysis of manpower needs, improvement of reward and punishments system; and training need assessment. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 24
  • 25. Development Programs Priorities (2) 2. Enhancement of local government institution capacity,  Enhancing the institution capacity of local government. The enhancement will covers work mechanism, the organization structure, and the adequate legislation regulations.  The target to be achieved is the creation of organization structure, the high performance of institution, and the establishment of work relationship between organizations within the government environment as well as between government organizations and public organizations, and the creation of good and clean governance. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 25
  • 26. Development Programs Priorities (3)  The priority activities that will be implemented are the study of autonomy and decentralizations, included:  the study of dividing, uniting, and removing the autonomous region;  arrangement of regional organization structure that follows modern organization principles; and  development of work relation between organizations within the government environment either horizontally or vertically, and between the government and the public that shall be interactive and parallel. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 26
  • 27. Development Programs Priorities (4) 3. Arrangement for regional finance management,  Enhancing regional government capacity in managing the sources of revenues in a more efficient, transparent, and responsive manner. The target to be achieved is the ever- increasing significant role of regional original revenues in the implementation financing of the public service and development function.  The priority activities that will be implemented included: the widening and improving of regional revenues sources; simplifying the regulations and straightening out the institutions; developing the financing mechanism and developing accounting system, developing the transparent and accountable financial information, and managerial regional finance. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 27
  • 28. Development Programs Priorities (5) 4. Strengthening people institution.  Enhancing the capability and involvement of formal as well as informal people institution in the process of decision-making, planning, implementation, and monitoring of public service and development.  The purport of people institution included local legislators, village representative body, non-government organization, traditional institution, religion institution, and others civil society institutions.  The target to be achieved is functioned and developed people institution participation mechanism in the process of decision- making, planning, implementation, and the creation of social monitoring mechanism in more democratic manner. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 28
  • 29. Development Programs Priorities (6)  The priority activities that will be implemented included: the capability enhancement in policy analysis, public management, financial management, political communication; the enhancement of communication and consultation with the local people, private company, and local government. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 29
  • 30. Area of Interest  There are three specific areas of interests that I want to acquire from this training. First, the role and functions of local government bodies. This will include: The roles of prefectures and the significance of their function in coordinating national policy enforcement and municipal village affairs.  Second, the development of human resources. This will include: The rules for public servants’ appointment, personnel affairs, pay structure, and the issues facing the local public servant system in Japan.  Third, the local vitalization plans. This will include: The medium- term plans formulated by prefectures, the planning of basic items concerning major policies, and the actual practice of overall coordination. dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 30
  • 31. どうもありがとうございました Terima Kasih dadang-solihin.blogspot.com 31