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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
Multi Object Tracking Methods Based on Particle
Filter and HMM
Ravichandran.A1
PG Scholar
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
K.S.R Institute for Engineering and Technology,
Namakkal, Tamilnadu,
ravichandrana31@gmail.com
Dr. B.Kalaavathi2
Head of the Department
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
K.S.R Institute for Engineering and Technology,
Namakkal, Tamilnadu,
kalabhuvanesh@gmail.com
Abstract – For various application detection of objects movement in a video is an important process. Determination
of path of object as time advances is a tedious step. Many proposal for tracking the multiple movement of object has
been put forward using various sophisticated techniques. In this paper detail description of the recent object trackers
based on particle filtering and Markov Models have been analyzed. The outcome of the analysis is computational
efficiency, robustness and computational complexity.
Index Terms – True Positive (TP), False Positive (FP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Particle Filter (PF),
Finite State Machines (FSM), and Hidden Markov Model (HMM).
————————————————————
1. INTRODUCTION
HE Movement orientation and path of the object can be
detected by using advanced multi object tracking methods.
The probabilistic characteristics of the object tracking algorithm
helps in detecting and predictable and unstable trajectory of the
object in the video.
Tracking of the object in the video can be done using the
following steps: 1) choose a feature to describe the objects, 2)
Detect the object of interest, 3) Track those objects for every
frame, and 4) Analyze the tracking which fetches the behavior.
In this paper, the broad explanation of multi object tracking
methods are put forward.
2. RELATED WORKS
2.1 Object Tracking Parameters
Some of the techniques are approached for object tracking [5],
[17], [3], [2], [4]. Some of parameters in an object tracking are
True Positive (TF) and False Positive (FP).
We can compare and spot true positives (TP) and false
positives (FP) when the object be tracked manually segmented.
False Positive also known as false alarm. False reduction is
represented by TP and FP. A tracking accuracy of the multi object
tracker is determinedby false reduction analysis. The ratio of false
positive detection that can‘t be adapted to any ground truth
trajectory over number of detections known as false positive rate.
False positive rate is also known as false alarm.
IJTET©2015
2.2 Multi Track Linking
Data association is an important process for tracking large group
of objects [6]. The main problem that occurs during the data
association process results in ―track switch‖ or ―track lost‖ errors.
Once the long term occlusion occur individual or multiple
tracks become merged and there after separated into individual
tracks. Integrity of the splitting process is maintained by the
―track linking method‖ which assumes each track as ―tracklet‖
and links these tracklets.
Earlier approach known as local linking strategy was adopted
to calculate pairwise cost between tracklets in a repetitive manner
[8], [17], [7]. Track graph introduced by Nilliuset al[9] and a
Bayesian network interference algorithm as global linking
strategy. Global linking as computationally expensive process
that allows simultaneous matching of various tracklets.
Probabilistic association method takes into account, the
optimization of integers. A problem of linear network is done by
appropriate measurement to measurement match dealing with
pairwise correspondence [23], [5], [24]. The solution to this
problem can be achieved from semi definite programming [25] or
arbitrary greedy search [26].
The data association technique are sub divided into sapling
based algorithms. Oh et al[27] used Morkov Chain Monte Carlo
(MCMC) to particulate data association hypothesis and track
large number of objects.
27
T
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
The huge problem size for batch processing is a drawback in
measurement level of data association methods. A sliding window
access a tradeoff between batch size and accuracy [11]. The
framework of the temporal data association that extended to
tracklet level, where matched unit consist of the pair of trajectory
segment [12]. Between the track fragments at each level local
links are produced in the temporal data association approach [7],
[28]. But, Nilliuset al., [9] processed the track graph globally
which defines all the object interactions.
2.3 Particle filter based Multi Object Tracker
The extended objects are bigger than conventional point tracking
method and these are also used as objects in multiple object
tracking methods. For multiple object tracking we need to create
point measurements relative to ‗extended‘ object reductions and
apply one of the existing point object tracking algorithm.
Commonly used object tracking methods are PHD (Probability
Hypothesis Density) filter [14] and JPDA (Joined probabilistic
Data Association)[13].
Comaniciuet al[15] put forward weighted histogram
calculated from a circular region. Nummarioet al [29] for tracking
colored objects proposed a particle filter for single colored objects
and manual initialization. [57] With the help of color and PF with
automatic object initialization and deletion [16] color based
probabilistic tracking is implemented.
2.4 Long Term Online Multiface Tracking using Particle
Filter and HMM
In present years most of the multiface detector are applicable only
when the person look towards to the camera. It is tough to track
the trajectory of the object when difficult head postures which last
for long are maintained.
Many multiple face tracking method has been put
forward([16, 28, 5]), which mainly concentrate on better
dynamics or adapted models ([2, 18, 19]). The results are based
on only short video sequences.
The track termination and track initialization are addressed by
multi object trackers for performance evaluation. Missing an early
track initialization may be due to high confidence threshold in
face detectors. Conversely, false tracks mainly occurs due to low
threshold false track.
3. PARTICLE FILTER AND HIDDEN MARKOV
MODEL FOR RECENT MULTI OBJECT
TRACKING METHODS
In the field of robotics, Medicine and Weather tracking various
multi object track methods are used. These are mainly used for
fast and arbitrary motion of objects in video sequences. Each
multi object tracker has its own advantages and disadvantages for
adapting to a particular purpose and field of applications.
IJTET©2015
A. Multi Object Tracking Based on Coupled Layer
Utilizing HMM and Sequential Particle Filter
Based on object tracking method coupled layer designed which
consist of local and global layer. This coupled layer is adaptive to
the objects global and local appearance [19]. The local layer uses
the local information and global layer uses the global information.
Changes in target‘s appearance geometrically is limited by the
local layer that comprises group of local patches. Addition
removal of local patches update the whole structure. Global layer
governs addition of patches. The global layer also models the
objects global visual elements same color motions. The local
layer updates the stable patches and global visual elements.
The addition of new patches is done by local layer done with
the constrained effort of the global layer. Probabilistic model is
required to overcome this constrain. To delimit the allocation of
new patches in the local layer sequential particle filter scheme
and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is combined with the coupled
layer object tracker [20].
1) Overview of Multi Object Tracker:The target object geometric
information is focused by the local layer and initialization of the
particle filter passes the information from the local layer to global
layer.
Local layer patches are detected by the sequential particle
filter and HMM at global layer and stores the sequence of the
deformation information.The tracking efficiency of the multiple
objects to the global layer improves this enhancement. Using
distributed multi object tracking and high order Markov Chains,
Sequential particle filter functions as a video tracker.
The guessing of the local layer patches during the tracking is
essential to initialize the adaption of visual model. Assumptions
of the target object‘s center is made as the weighted average of
the patches position. For initialization of the local layer HMM is
applied for global layer prediction and sequential particle filter.
The prediction performance is enhanced by integrating particle
filter localization with HMM prediction. And there by decreases
the time consumption using predetermined memory allocation
and the position of detected objects are stored.
2) Narration of the Multi Object Tracker:The various module of
the multi object tracker include loading the video sequence frame
conversion particle filter implementation and HMM. The system
architecture of the object tracker is shown in the figure 1.
28
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
Figure 1. System Architecture of the Multi-Object Tracker
a) Loading a video sequence:The input video sequence
consist of a stack of the images separated by time frames. Using
mmread() function in MATLAB images sequences is loaded.
With the creation of reader object we can read the image stack.
The video file can be of any extension. mmread() function has
parameters such as bits, pixel, duration, height, width, number of
frames and inputs image sequences.
b) Particle filter Implementation: By a group of weighted
particles the particle filter approximates the filter posterior
distribution of images in the image stack. Using the prediction of
previous frame patches locations the local layer patches are
initialized by the particle filter and they are weighted based on a
motion model.
The state of the system is represented as in equation 1,
estimated using Markov Model a time xt.
E (t) = P ( xt | y0-t ) (1)
Here, E (1) can be initialized by the prior knowledge.
Observations are depended only on the current state and it‘s
independent of the past and future state. It‘s represented in the
equation 2.
IJTET©2015
E (t) = P (yt| xt) * P (xt| xt-1) * E (t-1) (2)
Where P (yt| xt) is observation model andE (t-1) is the
proposal distribution. The proposed framework requires attributes
such as Observation model, Motion model and Initial model. The
samples should be weighted by a ratio of posterior and proposal
distribution. For the current frame rate of the particle it should be
changed depending on the observation of the current frame. In
the proposed method particle filtering has used as Sequential
Monte Carlo simulation.
The following steps are carried out by the particle filter:
 Initializext for the first frame
 Generate particle set consisting of N particles i.e. {xt
m
}
m = 1, 2, … N
 Predict each particle (Using 2nd
order auto aggressive
dynamics)
 Compute distance between each particle
 Weight each particle depending on distance
 Select the location of target as a particle, which has
minimum distance
c) Implementation of Hidden Markov Chain:For Prediction
and global layer the Markov process used in sequential particle
filtering techniques is not suitable. The past states do not have
any influence on the present states in the Markov process
Let {xt: t is in T} be a stochastic process with discrete state
space S and discrete time space T. The time space satisfies
Markov propertyP (xn+1 =j | xn=in-1 … x0 = i0)=P(xn+1 =j | xn= i) for
any set of states i, j in S and n ≥ 0 is called Markov chain.
The target‘s global visual features is encoded by the allocation
of patches in the local layer. This scenario deems the model as
hidden as there is no direct effect on the change of the states. In
this model we can observe emission of the changes in the state.
A probabilistic HMM uses the following representations:
 A set of states over time, denoted by STATES
 A set of emissions, or observations over time, denoted
by SEQ
 An M-by-M transition matrixTRANS whose entry (i, j)
is the probability of a transition from state u to state j.
 An M-by-Memission matrix EMIS whose i, k entry gives
the probability of emitting symbol sk, given that the
model is in state i.
In the memory information regarding patches in the frames is
stored. Using the HMM the various patch information is tracked.
The Finite State Machine (FSM) is used to represent the model.
In a video sequence the FSM states tracks information in the
different patch information. We can denote states in the Finite
State Machine using memory locations of the stored patch
information. The details regarding the transactions are denoted in
the edges that exist between the states. The states are analyzed for
thelocation of the required memory patch information for tracking
the previous step.
29
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
3) Merits of the Multi Object Tracker: The prediction
performance is enhanced by the combination of the HMM
prediction with the particle filter localization and thereby limiting
the time consumption. The computational complexity is
decreased by storing detected objects using cell array memory,
which in turn increases robustness of the system.
4) Demerits of the Multi Object Tracker:The computational time
of the Multi Object Tracker is less compared to the recent multi
object trackers. The number of the object track in the video
sequence is also limited. The occlusions and multiple views of the
camera is not resolved in multi object tracker. The false positive
analysis was conducted only for first few frames and not for the
entire video sequences.
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The comparison of performance and computational analysis of
different multi object are tracked. Computational complexity,
computational time and time complexity, false positive and
robustness are compared.Multi Object Tracking on Coupled
Layer Utilizing HMM and Particle Filter Rapid video sequences
containing different number of objects in different frames are
tracked by means of multi object tracker. MATLAB on an Intel
Core 2 Duo processor is used for framework implementation.
1) Computation Time: 1.7731ms be the expected average time
for processing single frame. The computation time analysis in
MATLAB is given in figure 2.
2) False Reduction: First few frames of video sequence is
implemented in MATLAB by means of false reduction analysis.
The average true positive is 8.3 and average false positive is 1.08
be the expected computational result for multi object tracker. The
false analysis of the video sequence in MATLAB is given in the
figure 3.
Figure 2. Computational Time Analysis
IJTET©2015
Figure 3. False Reduction Analysis
5. CONCLUSION
Along with the supporting context multi-object tracking methods
based on particle filter, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) have been
used. Path-based recognition, video referencing and automatic
surveillance, smart cameras [21], human automation and vehicle
interaction [22] are some of the uses of multi-object tracking
methods. Computational efficiency, robustness, computational
complexity, computation time, false positives are the factors
considered when recent multi-object tracking methods compared
to predecessors. Developing algorithms are the specific needs for
object tracking methods. Video can suppress the noise when
audio is combined with it for some noise in the videos.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
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IJTET©2015
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31

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Multi Object Tracking Methods Based on Particle Filter and HMM

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 Multi Object Tracking Methods Based on Particle Filter and HMM Ravichandran.A1 PG Scholar 1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, K.S.R Institute for Engineering and Technology, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, ravichandrana31@gmail.com Dr. B.Kalaavathi2 Head of the Department 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, K.S.R Institute for Engineering and Technology, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, kalabhuvanesh@gmail.com Abstract – For various application detection of objects movement in a video is an important process. Determination of path of object as time advances is a tedious step. Many proposal for tracking the multiple movement of object has been put forward using various sophisticated techniques. In this paper detail description of the recent object trackers based on particle filtering and Markov Models have been analyzed. The outcome of the analysis is computational efficiency, robustness and computational complexity. Index Terms – True Positive (TP), False Positive (FP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Particle Filter (PF), Finite State Machines (FSM), and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). ———————————————————— 1. INTRODUCTION HE Movement orientation and path of the object can be detected by using advanced multi object tracking methods. The probabilistic characteristics of the object tracking algorithm helps in detecting and predictable and unstable trajectory of the object in the video. Tracking of the object in the video can be done using the following steps: 1) choose a feature to describe the objects, 2) Detect the object of interest, 3) Track those objects for every frame, and 4) Analyze the tracking which fetches the behavior. In this paper, the broad explanation of multi object tracking methods are put forward. 2. RELATED WORKS 2.1 Object Tracking Parameters Some of the techniques are approached for object tracking [5], [17], [3], [2], [4]. Some of parameters in an object tracking are True Positive (TF) and False Positive (FP). We can compare and spot true positives (TP) and false positives (FP) when the object be tracked manually segmented. False Positive also known as false alarm. False reduction is represented by TP and FP. A tracking accuracy of the multi object tracker is determinedby false reduction analysis. The ratio of false positive detection that can‘t be adapted to any ground truth trajectory over number of detections known as false positive rate. False positive rate is also known as false alarm. IJTET©2015 2.2 Multi Track Linking Data association is an important process for tracking large group of objects [6]. The main problem that occurs during the data association process results in ―track switch‖ or ―track lost‖ errors. Once the long term occlusion occur individual or multiple tracks become merged and there after separated into individual tracks. Integrity of the splitting process is maintained by the ―track linking method‖ which assumes each track as ―tracklet‖ and links these tracklets. Earlier approach known as local linking strategy was adopted to calculate pairwise cost between tracklets in a repetitive manner [8], [17], [7]. Track graph introduced by Nilliuset al[9] and a Bayesian network interference algorithm as global linking strategy. Global linking as computationally expensive process that allows simultaneous matching of various tracklets. Probabilistic association method takes into account, the optimization of integers. A problem of linear network is done by appropriate measurement to measurement match dealing with pairwise correspondence [23], [5], [24]. The solution to this problem can be achieved from semi definite programming [25] or arbitrary greedy search [26]. The data association technique are sub divided into sapling based algorithms. Oh et al[27] used Morkov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to particulate data association hypothesis and track large number of objects. 27 T
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 The huge problem size for batch processing is a drawback in measurement level of data association methods. A sliding window access a tradeoff between batch size and accuracy [11]. The framework of the temporal data association that extended to tracklet level, where matched unit consist of the pair of trajectory segment [12]. Between the track fragments at each level local links are produced in the temporal data association approach [7], [28]. But, Nilliuset al., [9] processed the track graph globally which defines all the object interactions. 2.3 Particle filter based Multi Object Tracker The extended objects are bigger than conventional point tracking method and these are also used as objects in multiple object tracking methods. For multiple object tracking we need to create point measurements relative to ‗extended‘ object reductions and apply one of the existing point object tracking algorithm. Commonly used object tracking methods are PHD (Probability Hypothesis Density) filter [14] and JPDA (Joined probabilistic Data Association)[13]. Comaniciuet al[15] put forward weighted histogram calculated from a circular region. Nummarioet al [29] for tracking colored objects proposed a particle filter for single colored objects and manual initialization. [57] With the help of color and PF with automatic object initialization and deletion [16] color based probabilistic tracking is implemented. 2.4 Long Term Online Multiface Tracking using Particle Filter and HMM In present years most of the multiface detector are applicable only when the person look towards to the camera. It is tough to track the trajectory of the object when difficult head postures which last for long are maintained. Many multiple face tracking method has been put forward([16, 28, 5]), which mainly concentrate on better dynamics or adapted models ([2, 18, 19]). The results are based on only short video sequences. The track termination and track initialization are addressed by multi object trackers for performance evaluation. Missing an early track initialization may be due to high confidence threshold in face detectors. Conversely, false tracks mainly occurs due to low threshold false track. 3. PARTICLE FILTER AND HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RECENT MULTI OBJECT TRACKING METHODS In the field of robotics, Medicine and Weather tracking various multi object track methods are used. These are mainly used for fast and arbitrary motion of objects in video sequences. Each multi object tracker has its own advantages and disadvantages for adapting to a particular purpose and field of applications. IJTET©2015 A. Multi Object Tracking Based on Coupled Layer Utilizing HMM and Sequential Particle Filter Based on object tracking method coupled layer designed which consist of local and global layer. This coupled layer is adaptive to the objects global and local appearance [19]. The local layer uses the local information and global layer uses the global information. Changes in target‘s appearance geometrically is limited by the local layer that comprises group of local patches. Addition removal of local patches update the whole structure. Global layer governs addition of patches. The global layer also models the objects global visual elements same color motions. The local layer updates the stable patches and global visual elements. The addition of new patches is done by local layer done with the constrained effort of the global layer. Probabilistic model is required to overcome this constrain. To delimit the allocation of new patches in the local layer sequential particle filter scheme and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is combined with the coupled layer object tracker [20]. 1) Overview of Multi Object Tracker:The target object geometric information is focused by the local layer and initialization of the particle filter passes the information from the local layer to global layer. Local layer patches are detected by the sequential particle filter and HMM at global layer and stores the sequence of the deformation information.The tracking efficiency of the multiple objects to the global layer improves this enhancement. Using distributed multi object tracking and high order Markov Chains, Sequential particle filter functions as a video tracker. The guessing of the local layer patches during the tracking is essential to initialize the adaption of visual model. Assumptions of the target object‘s center is made as the weighted average of the patches position. For initialization of the local layer HMM is applied for global layer prediction and sequential particle filter. The prediction performance is enhanced by integrating particle filter localization with HMM prediction. And there by decreases the time consumption using predetermined memory allocation and the position of detected objects are stored. 2) Narration of the Multi Object Tracker:The various module of the multi object tracker include loading the video sequence frame conversion particle filter implementation and HMM. The system architecture of the object tracker is shown in the figure 1. 28
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 Figure 1. System Architecture of the Multi-Object Tracker a) Loading a video sequence:The input video sequence consist of a stack of the images separated by time frames. Using mmread() function in MATLAB images sequences is loaded. With the creation of reader object we can read the image stack. The video file can be of any extension. mmread() function has parameters such as bits, pixel, duration, height, width, number of frames and inputs image sequences. b) Particle filter Implementation: By a group of weighted particles the particle filter approximates the filter posterior distribution of images in the image stack. Using the prediction of previous frame patches locations the local layer patches are initialized by the particle filter and they are weighted based on a motion model. The state of the system is represented as in equation 1, estimated using Markov Model a time xt. E (t) = P ( xt | y0-t ) (1) Here, E (1) can be initialized by the prior knowledge. Observations are depended only on the current state and it‘s independent of the past and future state. It‘s represented in the equation 2. IJTET©2015 E (t) = P (yt| xt) * P (xt| xt-1) * E (t-1) (2) Where P (yt| xt) is observation model andE (t-1) is the proposal distribution. The proposed framework requires attributes such as Observation model, Motion model and Initial model. The samples should be weighted by a ratio of posterior and proposal distribution. For the current frame rate of the particle it should be changed depending on the observation of the current frame. In the proposed method particle filtering has used as Sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The following steps are carried out by the particle filter:  Initializext for the first frame  Generate particle set consisting of N particles i.e. {xt m } m = 1, 2, … N  Predict each particle (Using 2nd order auto aggressive dynamics)  Compute distance between each particle  Weight each particle depending on distance  Select the location of target as a particle, which has minimum distance c) Implementation of Hidden Markov Chain:For Prediction and global layer the Markov process used in sequential particle filtering techniques is not suitable. The past states do not have any influence on the present states in the Markov process Let {xt: t is in T} be a stochastic process with discrete state space S and discrete time space T. The time space satisfies Markov propertyP (xn+1 =j | xn=in-1 … x0 = i0)=P(xn+1 =j | xn= i) for any set of states i, j in S and n ≥ 0 is called Markov chain. The target‘s global visual features is encoded by the allocation of patches in the local layer. This scenario deems the model as hidden as there is no direct effect on the change of the states. In this model we can observe emission of the changes in the state. A probabilistic HMM uses the following representations:  A set of states over time, denoted by STATES  A set of emissions, or observations over time, denoted by SEQ  An M-by-M transition matrixTRANS whose entry (i, j) is the probability of a transition from state u to state j.  An M-by-Memission matrix EMIS whose i, k entry gives the probability of emitting symbol sk, given that the model is in state i. In the memory information regarding patches in the frames is stored. Using the HMM the various patch information is tracked. The Finite State Machine (FSM) is used to represent the model. In a video sequence the FSM states tracks information in the different patch information. We can denote states in the Finite State Machine using memory locations of the stored patch information. The details regarding the transactions are denoted in the edges that exist between the states. The states are analyzed for thelocation of the required memory patch information for tracking the previous step. 29
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 3) Merits of the Multi Object Tracker: The prediction performance is enhanced by the combination of the HMM prediction with the particle filter localization and thereby limiting the time consumption. The computational complexity is decreased by storing detected objects using cell array memory, which in turn increases robustness of the system. 4) Demerits of the Multi Object Tracker:The computational time of the Multi Object Tracker is less compared to the recent multi object trackers. The number of the object track in the video sequence is also limited. The occlusions and multiple views of the camera is not resolved in multi object tracker. The false positive analysis was conducted only for first few frames and not for the entire video sequences. 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The comparison of performance and computational analysis of different multi object are tracked. Computational complexity, computational time and time complexity, false positive and robustness are compared.Multi Object Tracking on Coupled Layer Utilizing HMM and Particle Filter Rapid video sequences containing different number of objects in different frames are tracked by means of multi object tracker. MATLAB on an Intel Core 2 Duo processor is used for framework implementation. 1) Computation Time: 1.7731ms be the expected average time for processing single frame. The computation time analysis in MATLAB is given in figure 2. 2) False Reduction: First few frames of video sequence is implemented in MATLAB by means of false reduction analysis. The average true positive is 8.3 and average false positive is 1.08 be the expected computational result for multi object tracker. The false analysis of the video sequence in MATLAB is given in the figure 3. Figure 2. Computational Time Analysis IJTET©2015 Figure 3. False Reduction Analysis 5. CONCLUSION Along with the supporting context multi-object tracking methods based on particle filter, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) have been used. Path-based recognition, video referencing and automatic surveillance, smart cameras [21], human automation and vehicle interaction [22] are some of the uses of multi-object tracking methods. Computational efficiency, robustness, computational complexity, computation time, false positives are the factors considered when recent multi-object tracking methods compared to predecessors. Developing algorithms are the specific needs for object tracking methods. Video can suppress the noise when audio is combined with it for some noise in the videos. REFERENCES [1] RakshaShrivstava and Rajesh Nema, ―A Computational Analysis of Recent Multi Object Tracking Methods Based on Particle Filter, HMM and Appearance Information of Objects,‖ in IJETAE, vol. 3, pp. 46-59, 2013. [2] S. Duffner and J. M. Odobez, ―Exploiting long term observations for track creation and deletion in online multi- face tracking,‖ in Autimatic Face & Gesture Recognition and Workshops (FG 2011), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, 2011, pp. 525-530. [3] Y. Ming, et al., ―Context-Aware Visual Tracking, ―Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on vol. 31, pp. 1195-1209, 2009. [4] Y. Li, et al., ―Learning to associate: HybridBoosted multiple object tracking,‖ in Proc. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit., 2009, pp. 2953-2960. [5] S. M. Bhandarkar and X. Luo, ―Integrated detection and tracking of multiple faces using particle filtering and optical flow-based elastic matching,‖ Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 113, pp. 708-725, 2009. [6] Z. Wu, et al., ―Efficient track linking methods for track graphs using network flow and set cover techniques,‖ presented at the Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2011. 30
  • 5. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 [7] C. Huang, et al., ―Robust Object Tracking by Hierarchical Association of Detection Responses,‖ presented at the Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Computer Vision: Part II, Marseille, France, 2008. [8] A. G. A. Perera, et al., ―Multi-Object Tracking Through Simultaneous Long Occlusions and Split-Merge Conditions,‖ in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on, 2006, pp. 666-673. [9] P.Nillius, et al., ―Multi-Target-Tracking – Linking Identities using Bayesian Network Inference,‖ presented at the Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition – Volume 2, 2006. [10] O. Songhwai, et al., ―Markov chain Monte Carlo data association for general multiple-target tracking problems,‖ in Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on, 2004, pp. 735-742 Vol. 1. [11] Z. Wu, et al., ―Tracking-reconstruction or reconstruction tracking? Comparison of two multiple hypothesis tracking approaches to interpret 3D object motion from several camera views,‖ presented at the Proceedings on the 2009 international conference on Motion and Video computing, Snowbird, Utah, 2009. [12] K. Li, et al., ―Cell population tracking and lineage construction with spatiotemporal context,‖ Medical Image Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 546-566, 2008. [13] C. Rasmussen and G. D. Hager, ―Probabilistic data association methods for tracking complex visual objects,‖ Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 23, pp. 560-576, 2001. [14] E. Maggio, et al., ―Efficient Multitaget Visual Tracking Using Random Finite Sets,‖ Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 18, pp. 1016-1027, 2008. [15] D. Comaniciu, et al., ―Real-time tracking of non-rigid objects using mean shift," in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2000. Proceedings. IEEE Conference on, 2000, pp. 142-149 vol. 2. [16] P.Perez, et al., ―Color-Based Probabilistic tracking,‖ presented at the Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Computer Vision Part I, 2002. [17] X. Junliang, et al., ―Multi object tracking through occlusions by local tracklets filtering and global tracklets association with detection responses,‖ in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009. CVPR 2009. IEEE Conference on, 2009, pp. 1200-1207. [18] H. Cheng-Ming and F.Li-Chen, ―Multitarget Visual Tracking Based Effective Surveillance with Cooperation of Multiple Active Cameras,‖ Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 41, pp. 234-247, 2011. IJTET©2015 [19] L. Cehovin, et al., ―An adaptive coupled layer visual model for robust visual tracking,‖ in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 2011, pp. 1363-1370. [20] P. Pan and D. Schonfeld, ―Video Tracking Based on Sequential Particle Filtering on Graphs,‖ IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, vol. 20, pp. 1641-1651, 2011. [21] C. Cuevas and N. Garcia, Efficient Moving Object Detection for Lightweight Applications on Smart Cameras,‖ Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 30, pp. 1-14, 2013. [22] F. Jialue, et al., ―Human Tracking Using Convolutional Neural Networks,‖ Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 21, pp. 1610-1623, 2010. [23] Z. Li, et al., ―Global data association for multi object tracking using network flow,‖ in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008. CVPR 2008. IEEE Conference on, 2008, pp. 1-8. [24] A. Andriyanko et al., ―Globally optimal multi target tracking on a hexagonal lattice,‖ presented at the Proceeding of the 11th European conference on Computer Vision: Part I, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2010. [25] K. Shafique, et al., ―A rank constrained continuous formulation of multi frame multi target tracking problem,‖ in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008. CVPR 2008. IEEE Conference on, 2008, pp. 1-8. [26] W. Zheng., et al., ―Tracking a large number of objects from multiple views,‖ in Computer Vision, 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on, 2009, pp. 1546-1553. [27] O. Songhwai, et al., ―Markov chain Monte Carlo data association for general multiple target tracking problems,‖ in Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on, 2004, pp. 735-742 vol. 1. [28] Z. Wu, et al., ―Tracking reconstruction or reconstruction tracking?comparison of two multiple hypothesis tracking approaches to interpret 3D object motion from several camera views,‖ presented at the Proceedings of the 2009 international conference on Motion and video computing, Snowbird, Utah, 2009. [29] K. Nummiaro, et al., ―An adaptive color based particle filter,‖ Image Vision Comput., vol. 21, pp. 99-110, 2003. 31