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HISTORY OF
DARJEELING UPTO
1947
Meaning..
• Tibetan word
• Dorje- thunderbolt (originally the scepter of
Indra)
• Ling- a place or land
• Hence, “the land of the thunderbolt”
1600s
• The area of Darjeeling was inhabited by the
Lepchas, Limbus and Bhutias as part of Sikkim
from ancient times. In 1642,
Phuntsog Namgyal became the first Chogyal
ruler of Sikkim. Tensung Namgyal became the
next Chogyal of Sikkim in 1670. It was during
his rule that Sikkim lost the area of Kalimpong
to Bhutan
1700s
• The Gorkha army from Nepal invaded
Darjeeling in the 1780s, attacked the
Sikkimese capital of Rabdentse, and annexed
territories up to the Teesta river into Nepal.
1800s
• After the Anglo-Gorkha War, Nepal ceded
one-third of it territories (which Nepal had
annexed from Sikkim) to the British as per the
Treaty of Sugauli in 1815, which included the
land area between the rivers Mechi and
Teesta. On 10 February 1817, the British
reinstated the land area between rivers Mechi
and Teesta to the Sikkimese Chogyal as per
the Treaty of Titalia.
Deed of Grant
• Disputes between Nepal and Sikkim arose
regarding their borders (especially Ontoo
Dara) and the British Governor General sent
two officers, Captain George Alymer Lloyd
and Mr. J.W. Grant, to help resolve the
dispute in February 1829.
• It was on the journey to Ontoo Dara that the
two officers stayed at Darjeeling for 6 days at
“the old Gorkha station called Dorjeling” and
were “much impressed with the possibility of
the station as a sanatarium.”
• On 18 June 1829, Lloyd communicated to the
government regarding the possibility of
Darjeeling serving as a sanatorium, while about
the same time Grant also urged the
government to possess the tract.
Lloyd stressed the need to procure the
place for..
• The advantage that the Britishers would have, as it
would serve as a strategically important position in
commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan.
• Serve as a British outpost in the Himalayas.
• Serve as a base for the defense of the trade route
to Tibet through Sikkim.
• From its commanding height, the whole of Sikkim
and the neighborhood could be observed and
protected.
• A summer resort for British officials to escape the
heat in the plains.
• General Lloyd was accordingly deputed to
start negotiations with the Raja of Sikkim for
the transfer of Darjeeling in return for an
equivalent in money or land.
• The negotiations ended in the execution by
the Raja of Sikkim of a Deed of Grant on the
lst of Feb. 1835.
DEED
• 'The Governor General, having expressed his
desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on
account of its cool climate, for the purpose of
enabling the servants of his Government,
suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its
advantages, the Sikkim Raja, out of friendship for
the said Governor General, hereby present
Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the
land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of
the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and
West of the Rungpo and Mahanadi Rivers'.
Thus, Darjeeling was gifted to the Britishers..
• This was an unconditional cessation of what was then a
worthless uninhabited mountain.
• The land gifted to East India Co. in 1835 did not comprise the
whole present Darjeeling. It was narrow enclave of 138 square
miles, about 30 miles long and 6 miles wide. It was entirely
surrounded by the Raja's dominions - entry and exit being
restricted to a narrow path, which included the sites of
Darjeeling and Kurseong towns and touched the plains near
Pankhabari.
What the Raja got in return..
• was a gift parcel –
• one double barreled gun,
• one rifle,
• one 20 yards of red-broad cloth,
• 2 pairs of shawl- one superior quality and the
other of inferior quality
• The Raja appeared before the Governor General for
compensation. In 1841 the Govt. granted the Raja an
allowance of Rs.3,000/- per annum as compensation.
• This amount was raised to Rs.6,000/- in 1846.
• At the beginning Sikkim was not favourably disposed to
the idea of gifting Darjeeling - but finally circumstances
made it necessary as Sikkim needed to be in the good
books of the British
POST DEED
• Nepal and Bhutan, alarmed at British presence
in the Himalaya accused Sikkim of selling out
to the foreigners. Tibet, instigated by China,
did not look favorably to British presence in
the Sikkim Himalayas.
By 1840..
• A road was built from Pankhabari
• Staging bungalows built at Pankbabari and
Mahaldiram.
• A hotel was started at Kurseong and
Darjeeling.
• In Darjeeling itself about 30 private houses
were erected.
• Inspite of all these, most of the tract that now
comprise Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited
impenetrable virgin forests. So the major
problem faced by the administration was total
native settlers.
• In 1839, Dr. Campbell was transferred to
Darjeeling as Superintendent. He devoted
himself to the task of developing the station,
attracting immigrants to cultivate the
mountain slopes and stimulating trade and
commerce. Every encouragement was given
to the settlers, who received grants of forest
land
• The population rose from not more than 100
in 1839 to about 10,000 in 1849, chiefly by
immigrants from the neighboring states of
Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, where Rajas were
despotic (ruler or other person who holds
absolute power) and where slavery was
prevalent(widespread in a particular area at a
particular time).
By 1852..
• Due to Campbell's efforts, - an excellent
Sanatorium had been built, a Hill Corps had
been established to maintain order and
communication.
• Not less than 70 European houses had been built;
• A bazar and a jail had been built;
• Revenue of Rs.50,000/- had been raised;
• A System of justice had been introduced in line
with the tribal system;
• Forced labour had been abolished;
• Road had been constructed;
• Experimental cultivation of tea, coffee and fruits
had been introduced.
1849..
• Dewan Namgyal (Pagla Dewan) arrested
Campbell and Hooker
1850..
• British sent a fugitive expedition against Sikkim
• An annual grant of Rs. 6,000 was stopped and the British
annexed 640 square miles of additional territory from
Sikkim.
• It comprised the entire 'Sikkim Morung or Terai' i.e. the
Siliguri sub-division and in the hills ' the whole southern
part of Sikkim, between the Great Rangeet and the plains
of India, and from Nepal on the west to the Bhutan frontier
and the Teesta river on the east'
1861..
• Treaty of Tumlong
• This treaty was of great advantage to
Darjeeling as it ended the annoyances
(annoyed) caused to its inhabitants and
secured full freedom for commerce.
• A road from Darjeeling to Teesta was
constructed. Sikkim undertook to complete
the remaining part.
• In the meantime trouble arose with the
adjoining state of Bhutan. The Bhutanese
were constantly raiding and plundering the
areas of Darjeeling.
• There was also rumors of a planned attack on
Darjeeling.
• In 1863, Ashley Eden was deputed to
negotiate with Bhutan. The British envoy was
openly insulted and returned to Darjeeling.
1864..
• a military force was dispatched to Bhutan and
the whole of Bhutan area was captured.
• In Nov. 1864, the treaty of Sinchula was
executed in which the Bhutan Duars with the
passes leading into the hills and Kalimpong
were ceded to the British.
1866..
• The Darjeeling district can be said to have
assumed its present shape and size in 1866 is
1234 sq. miles.
• So 1866 marks an epoch(period of time) in the
History of Darjeeling, peace was established
on all fronts, hence began the march to
progress and civilization.
Administration
• Darjeeling Municipality took responsibility in
maintaining the civic administration of the
town from as early as 1850.
• From 1850 to 1916, the Municipality was place
in the first schedule where commissioners
were appointed by the local governments and
second schedule (along
with Burdwan, Hooghly, Nadia, Hazaribagh an
d others), where the local government
appointed a chairman.
• Prior to 1861 and from 1870–1874, Darjeeling District was
a "Non-Regulated Area" (where acts and regulations of
the British Raj did not automatically apply in the district in
line with rest of the country, unless specifically extended).
• From 1862 to 1870, it was considered a "Regulated Area".
The term "Non-Regulated Area" was changed to
"Scheduled District" in 1874 and again to "Back Ward
Tracts" in 1919. The status was known as "Partially
Excluded Area" from 1935 until the independence of India.

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History of darjeeling upto 1947

  • 2. Meaning.. • Tibetan word • Dorje- thunderbolt (originally the scepter of Indra) • Ling- a place or land • Hence, “the land of the thunderbolt”
  • 3. 1600s • The area of Darjeeling was inhabited by the Lepchas, Limbus and Bhutias as part of Sikkim from ancient times. In 1642, Phuntsog Namgyal became the first Chogyal ruler of Sikkim. Tensung Namgyal became the next Chogyal of Sikkim in 1670. It was during his rule that Sikkim lost the area of Kalimpong to Bhutan
  • 4. 1700s • The Gorkha army from Nepal invaded Darjeeling in the 1780s, attacked the Sikkimese capital of Rabdentse, and annexed territories up to the Teesta river into Nepal.
  • 5. 1800s • After the Anglo-Gorkha War, Nepal ceded one-third of it territories (which Nepal had annexed from Sikkim) to the British as per the Treaty of Sugauli in 1815, which included the land area between the rivers Mechi and Teesta. On 10 February 1817, the British reinstated the land area between rivers Mechi and Teesta to the Sikkimese Chogyal as per the Treaty of Titalia.
  • 6. Deed of Grant • Disputes between Nepal and Sikkim arose regarding their borders (especially Ontoo Dara) and the British Governor General sent two officers, Captain George Alymer Lloyd and Mr. J.W. Grant, to help resolve the dispute in February 1829.
  • 7. • It was on the journey to Ontoo Dara that the two officers stayed at Darjeeling for 6 days at “the old Gorkha station called Dorjeling” and were “much impressed with the possibility of the station as a sanatarium.” • On 18 June 1829, Lloyd communicated to the government regarding the possibility of Darjeeling serving as a sanatorium, while about the same time Grant also urged the government to possess the tract.
  • 8. Lloyd stressed the need to procure the place for.. • The advantage that the Britishers would have, as it would serve as a strategically important position in commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan. • Serve as a British outpost in the Himalayas. • Serve as a base for the defense of the trade route to Tibet through Sikkim. • From its commanding height, the whole of Sikkim and the neighborhood could be observed and protected. • A summer resort for British officials to escape the heat in the plains.
  • 9. • General Lloyd was accordingly deputed to start negotiations with the Raja of Sikkim for the transfer of Darjeeling in return for an equivalent in money or land. • The negotiations ended in the execution by the Raja of Sikkim of a Deed of Grant on the lst of Feb. 1835.
  • 10. DEED • 'The Governor General, having expressed his desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on account of its cool climate, for the purpose of enabling the servants of his Government, suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its advantages, the Sikkim Raja, out of friendship for the said Governor General, hereby present Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and West of the Rungpo and Mahanadi Rivers'.
  • 11. Thus, Darjeeling was gifted to the Britishers.. • This was an unconditional cessation of what was then a worthless uninhabited mountain. • The land gifted to East India Co. in 1835 did not comprise the whole present Darjeeling. It was narrow enclave of 138 square miles, about 30 miles long and 6 miles wide. It was entirely surrounded by the Raja's dominions - entry and exit being restricted to a narrow path, which included the sites of Darjeeling and Kurseong towns and touched the plains near Pankhabari.
  • 12. What the Raja got in return.. • was a gift parcel – • one double barreled gun, • one rifle, • one 20 yards of red-broad cloth, • 2 pairs of shawl- one superior quality and the other of inferior quality
  • 13. • The Raja appeared before the Governor General for compensation. In 1841 the Govt. granted the Raja an allowance of Rs.3,000/- per annum as compensation. • This amount was raised to Rs.6,000/- in 1846. • At the beginning Sikkim was not favourably disposed to the idea of gifting Darjeeling - but finally circumstances made it necessary as Sikkim needed to be in the good books of the British
  • 14. POST DEED • Nepal and Bhutan, alarmed at British presence in the Himalaya accused Sikkim of selling out to the foreigners. Tibet, instigated by China, did not look favorably to British presence in the Sikkim Himalayas.
  • 15. By 1840.. • A road was built from Pankhabari • Staging bungalows built at Pankbabari and Mahaldiram. • A hotel was started at Kurseong and Darjeeling. • In Darjeeling itself about 30 private houses were erected.
  • 16. • Inspite of all these, most of the tract that now comprise Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests. So the major problem faced by the administration was total native settlers.
  • 17. • In 1839, Dr. Campbell was transferred to Darjeeling as Superintendent. He devoted himself to the task of developing the station, attracting immigrants to cultivate the mountain slopes and stimulating trade and commerce. Every encouragement was given to the settlers, who received grants of forest land
  • 18. • The population rose from not more than 100 in 1839 to about 10,000 in 1849, chiefly by immigrants from the neighboring states of Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, where Rajas were despotic (ruler or other person who holds absolute power) and where slavery was prevalent(widespread in a particular area at a particular time).
  • 19. By 1852.. • Due to Campbell's efforts, - an excellent Sanatorium had been built, a Hill Corps had been established to maintain order and communication.
  • 20. • Not less than 70 European houses had been built; • A bazar and a jail had been built; • Revenue of Rs.50,000/- had been raised; • A System of justice had been introduced in line with the tribal system; • Forced labour had been abolished; • Road had been constructed; • Experimental cultivation of tea, coffee and fruits had been introduced.
  • 21. 1849.. • Dewan Namgyal (Pagla Dewan) arrested Campbell and Hooker
  • 22. 1850.. • British sent a fugitive expedition against Sikkim • An annual grant of Rs. 6,000 was stopped and the British annexed 640 square miles of additional territory from Sikkim. • It comprised the entire 'Sikkim Morung or Terai' i.e. the Siliguri sub-division and in the hills ' the whole southern part of Sikkim, between the Great Rangeet and the plains of India, and from Nepal on the west to the Bhutan frontier and the Teesta river on the east'
  • 23. 1861.. • Treaty of Tumlong • This treaty was of great advantage to Darjeeling as it ended the annoyances (annoyed) caused to its inhabitants and secured full freedom for commerce. • A road from Darjeeling to Teesta was constructed. Sikkim undertook to complete the remaining part.
  • 24. • In the meantime trouble arose with the adjoining state of Bhutan. The Bhutanese were constantly raiding and plundering the areas of Darjeeling. • There was also rumors of a planned attack on Darjeeling. • In 1863, Ashley Eden was deputed to negotiate with Bhutan. The British envoy was openly insulted and returned to Darjeeling.
  • 25. 1864.. • a military force was dispatched to Bhutan and the whole of Bhutan area was captured. • In Nov. 1864, the treaty of Sinchula was executed in which the Bhutan Duars with the passes leading into the hills and Kalimpong were ceded to the British.
  • 26. 1866.. • The Darjeeling district can be said to have assumed its present shape and size in 1866 is 1234 sq. miles. • So 1866 marks an epoch(period of time) in the History of Darjeeling, peace was established on all fronts, hence began the march to progress and civilization.
  • 27. Administration • Darjeeling Municipality took responsibility in maintaining the civic administration of the town from as early as 1850. • From 1850 to 1916, the Municipality was place in the first schedule where commissioners were appointed by the local governments and second schedule (along with Burdwan, Hooghly, Nadia, Hazaribagh an d others), where the local government appointed a chairman.
  • 28. • Prior to 1861 and from 1870–1874, Darjeeling District was a "Non-Regulated Area" (where acts and regulations of the British Raj did not automatically apply in the district in line with rest of the country, unless specifically extended). • From 1862 to 1870, it was considered a "Regulated Area". The term "Non-Regulated Area" was changed to "Scheduled District" in 1874 and again to "Back Ward Tracts" in 1919. The status was known as "Partially Excluded Area" from 1935 until the independence of India.