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Mohamed Taha AL ashram
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Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
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Table of content
1- Respiratory system
- respiratory system function
-respiratory epithelium
2 – ciliated columnar cells
3- Nasal cavity
4- olfactory mucosa
5- histology of bronchial tree
- Bronchus
- bronchioles
6 Alveolus and capillaries
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
3
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
4
Histology
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
5
Histology is a vast and
complex field, but it provides
valuable insights into the
structure and function of
tissues in various
organisms. It has played a
major role in advancing our
understanding of health,
disease, and biology.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
6
•Tissue fixation: This
process preserves the tissue
and prevents it from
decomposing.
•Embedding: The tissue is
embedded in a
medium, such as paraffin
wax, to make it easier to cut
into thin sections.
•Sectioning: The tissue is
cut into very thin
sections, typically 5-10
micrometers thick.
•Staining: The sections are
stained with dyes to
highlight specific structures.
techniques used in histology:
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
7
The respiratory system is
essential for life. It provides
your body with the oxygen it
needs to function and
removes the carbon dioxide
that would otherwise build
up and be toxic.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
8
The respiratory system is a
complex network of organs
and tissues that work
together to allow you to
breathe. Its primary function
is to take in oxygen from the
air and release carbon
dioxide, a waste product of
cellular respiration. The
system is made up of the
following:
The system is made up
of the following:
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
9
•Upper respiratory tract:
• This includes the nose
1. nasal cavity,
2. sinuses,
3. pharynx (throat)
4. And
5. larynx (voice box).
Upper respiratory tract
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
10
Lower respiratory
tract: This includes the
trachea (windpipe)
bronchi, bronchioles, a
nd alveoli air sacs
in the lungs.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
11
Muscles of
respiration: The
diaphragm and
intercostal muscles help
to expand and contract
the chest cavity
creating the pressure
changes needed for
breathing.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
12
how the respiratory system
works:
• Inhalation: You breathe in air
through your nose or
mouth. The air passes
through the nasal
cavity, where it is
warmed, humidified, and
filtered. It then travels down
the pharynx and into the
larynx.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
13
• Gas exchange: The air
travels down the trachea
and into the
bronchi, which branch off
into smaller and smaller
airways called
bronchioles. These
eventually lead to the
alveoli, tiny sacs in the
lungs where gas
exchange takes
place. Oxygen diffuses
from the alveoli into the
bloodstream, while
carbon dioxide diffuses
from the bloodstream into
the alveoli.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
14
• Exhalation: You breathe
out air through your nose
or mouth. The air travels
back up the airways and
out of the body.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
15
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
16
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
17
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
18
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
19
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
20
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
21
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
22
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
23
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
24
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
25
BRONCHIAL TREE
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
26
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
27
BRONCHIAL TREE
• 1, 2, 3 Bronchi
• Cartilage plates, glands
present, smallest is 5mm,
many lymphocytes present
• Bronchioles
• No cartilage, no glands
• Alveolar Duct
• Alveolar Sac
• Gas exchange
• Alveolus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
28
HISTOLOGY OF
BRONCHIAL TREE
• Cartilage
• Rings, plates, disappears
Smooth Muscle Layer
Begins in bronchi,
more prominent
in bronchioles
then disappears
1. Epithelium
1. Pseudostratified,
2. Simple columnar,
3. cuboidal,
4. squamous
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
29
Bronchus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
30
Cartilage
Bronchus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
31
Lamina propria
Bronchus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
32
Bronchioles
• > 5mm diameter
• No cartilage or glands in
mucosa
• Epithelium changes from
• pseudostratified to cuboidal
epithelium.
• shortening along the way.
• Only scattered goblet cells
initially.
• Clara cells secrete protective
proteins.
• Lamina propria contains only
• smooth muscle and elastic
fibers.
• Vagas nerve, sympathetic
neurons
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
33
Bronchiole x10
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
34
Bronchiole x40
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
35
Alveolus
Bronchiole
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
36
Location of Gas Exchange
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
37
ALVEOLUS AND CAPILLARY
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
38
GAS EXCHANGE
• Respiratory membrane
• Layers
• Cells present in alveolus
• Simple squamous epithelium
• Other cells in alveolus
• Macrophages
• Surfactant cells
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
39
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
40
Section of a terminal bronchiole with
a small portion of a
respiratory bronchiole
continuous with an
alveolar duct and many
alveoli. Low magnification.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
41
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
42
Diagram of a
portion of the
bronchial tree.
Note that the
smooth muscle in
the alveolar duct
disappears in the
alveoli.
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
43
Transition of a terminal
bronchiole into
an alveolar duct (arrow). Note
the Clara cells arrowheads.
Respiratory Duct
With Alveoli
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
44
Alveolus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
45
Alveolar Sac
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
46
Blood Vessel in Lung
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
47
Alveolus with Capillary
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
48
Interface
between
capillary
and alveolus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
49
Interface Between Capillary, Alveolus
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
50
Alveoli and interalveolar septum
showing capillaries and epithelial
. Cells type I and II
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
51
Cells Located in Alveolus
• Type I alveolar cells
• Simple squamous cells
• Type II cells
• Surfactant
• Macrophages (dust cells)
Histology of respiratory system for medical
students
52

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histology of respiratory system upper and lower

  • 1. about Author Mohamed Taha AL ashram Veterinarian Author instructor Histology of respiratory system for medical students 1
  • 2. Copy write Histology of respiratory system for medical students 2 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
  • 3. Table of content 1- Respiratory system - respiratory system function -respiratory epithelium 2 – ciliated columnar cells 3- Nasal cavity 4- olfactory mucosa 5- histology of bronchial tree - Bronchus - bronchioles 6 Alveolus and capillaries Histology of respiratory system for medical students 3
  • 4. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 4
  • 5. Histology Histology of respiratory system for medical students 5 Histology is a vast and complex field, but it provides valuable insights into the structure and function of tissues in various organisms. It has played a major role in advancing our understanding of health, disease, and biology.
  • 6. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 6 •Tissue fixation: This process preserves the tissue and prevents it from decomposing. •Embedding: The tissue is embedded in a medium, such as paraffin wax, to make it easier to cut into thin sections. •Sectioning: The tissue is cut into very thin sections, typically 5-10 micrometers thick. •Staining: The sections are stained with dyes to highlight specific structures. techniques used in histology:
  • 7. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 7 The respiratory system is essential for life. It provides your body with the oxygen it needs to function and removes the carbon dioxide that would otherwise build up and be toxic.
  • 8. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 8 The respiratory system is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to allow you to breathe. Its primary function is to take in oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration. The system is made up of the following:
  • 9. The system is made up of the following: Histology of respiratory system for medical students 9 •Upper respiratory tract: • This includes the nose 1. nasal cavity, 2. sinuses, 3. pharynx (throat) 4. And 5. larynx (voice box). Upper respiratory tract
  • 10. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 10 Lower respiratory tract: This includes the trachea (windpipe) bronchi, bronchioles, a nd alveoli air sacs in the lungs.
  • 11. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 11 Muscles of respiration: The diaphragm and intercostal muscles help to expand and contract the chest cavity creating the pressure changes needed for breathing.
  • 12. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 12 how the respiratory system works: • Inhalation: You breathe in air through your nose or mouth. The air passes through the nasal cavity, where it is warmed, humidified, and filtered. It then travels down the pharynx and into the larynx.
  • 13. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 13 • Gas exchange: The air travels down the trachea and into the bronchi, which branch off into smaller and smaller airways called bronchioles. These eventually lead to the alveoli, tiny sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
  • 14. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 14 • Exhalation: You breathe out air through your nose or mouth. The air travels back up the airways and out of the body.
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  • 26. BRONCHIAL TREE Histology of respiratory system for medical students 26 Primary Secondary Tertiary
  • 27. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 27
  • 28. BRONCHIAL TREE • 1, 2, 3 Bronchi • Cartilage plates, glands present, smallest is 5mm, many lymphocytes present • Bronchioles • No cartilage, no glands • Alveolar Duct • Alveolar Sac • Gas exchange • Alveolus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 28
  • 29. HISTOLOGY OF BRONCHIAL TREE • Cartilage • Rings, plates, disappears Smooth Muscle Layer Begins in bronchi, more prominent in bronchioles then disappears 1. Epithelium 1. Pseudostratified, 2. Simple columnar, 3. cuboidal, 4. squamous Histology of respiratory system for medical students 29
  • 30. Bronchus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 30 Cartilage
  • 31. Bronchus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 31 Lamina propria
  • 32. Bronchus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 32
  • 33. Bronchioles • > 5mm diameter • No cartilage or glands in mucosa • Epithelium changes from • pseudostratified to cuboidal epithelium. • shortening along the way. • Only scattered goblet cells initially. • Clara cells secrete protective proteins. • Lamina propria contains only • smooth muscle and elastic fibers. • Vagas nerve, sympathetic neurons Histology of respiratory system for medical students 33
  • 34. Bronchiole x10 Histology of respiratory system for medical students 34
  • 35. Bronchiole x40 Histology of respiratory system for medical students 35
  • 36. Alveolus Bronchiole Histology of respiratory system for medical students 36
  • 37. Location of Gas Exchange Histology of respiratory system for medical students 37
  • 38. ALVEOLUS AND CAPILLARY Histology of respiratory system for medical students 38
  • 39. GAS EXCHANGE • Respiratory membrane • Layers • Cells present in alveolus • Simple squamous epithelium • Other cells in alveolus • Macrophages • Surfactant cells Histology of respiratory system for medical students 39
  • 40. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 40 Section of a terminal bronchiole with a small portion of a respiratory bronchiole continuous with an alveolar duct and many alveoli. Low magnification.
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  • 42. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 42 Diagram of a portion of the bronchial tree. Note that the smooth muscle in the alveolar duct disappears in the alveoli.
  • 43. Histology of respiratory system for medical students 43 Transition of a terminal bronchiole into an alveolar duct (arrow). Note the Clara cells arrowheads.
  • 44. Respiratory Duct With Alveoli Histology of respiratory system for medical students 44
  • 45. Alveolus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 45
  • 46. Alveolar Sac Histology of respiratory system for medical students 46
  • 47. Blood Vessel in Lung Histology of respiratory system for medical students 47
  • 48. Alveolus with Capillary Histology of respiratory system for medical students 48
  • 49. Interface between capillary and alveolus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 49
  • 50. Interface Between Capillary, Alveolus Histology of respiratory system for medical students 50
  • 51. Alveoli and interalveolar septum showing capillaries and epithelial . Cells type I and II Histology of respiratory system for medical students 51
  • 52. Cells Located in Alveolus • Type I alveolar cells • Simple squamous cells • Type II cells • Surfactant • Macrophages (dust cells) Histology of respiratory system for medical students 52