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GSM
Global System For Mobile Communications
Group 2 Members
1. Morelife Zibaiwa R187280X
2. Cherish N Chimudzeka R187534Z
3. Prince Sanya R1813134C
4. Brandon T Bande R1811592B
5. Stewart Nyamutswa R18
GSM -CONCEPT
• It is a digital cellular technology used for transmitting
mobile voice and data services-hence it is a circuit
switched system.
• By being a circuit switched it divides each 200Khz
channel into eight 25Khz time slots.
• GSM operates on the mobile communication bands of
900Mhz-1800Mhz in most parts of the world.
• It makes use of narrow band Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals.
• GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down
through a channel with two other streams of user data
each in its own time slot.
Why GSM ?
FEATURES OF GSM THAT ACCOUNT FOR ITS POPULARITY AND WIDE
ACCEPTANCE
• Improved spectrum efficiency
• International roaming
• Low cost mobile sets and base stations (BSs)
• High quality speech
• Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN) and other telephone company
services
• Support for new services
GSMArchitecture
Um
Abis
A
GSMArchitecture
A GSM network has three major subsystems
which comprises of many functional units.
Mobile Station (MS)
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
GSMArchitecture
Mobile Station (MS)
The mobile station (MS) consists of the physical equipment used
by a PLMN subscriber to connect to the network. It comprises of
the Mobile Equipment (ME) and Subscriber Identity Module.
(SIM)
• Mobile Equipment can be dispositive portable, mounted on a
vehicle, or held in hand. ME forms part of the Mobile
Termination (MT) which depending on the application and
services.
• Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) stores permanent and
temporary data about the mobile, the subscriber and the
network. It permits the user A to send a call to a user B under
subscribed service.
GSMArchitecture
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• Consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more
Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).
• Base Station Controller allocates a channel for the duration of a
call, maintains the call, monitors quality, controlsthe power
transmitted by BTS or MS and generates a handover to another
cell when required.
• Base Transceiver Station provide access to the mobile station
and manage radio access aspects of the system. It contains
Radio Transmitter / receiver (TRX), Signal processing and
control equipment and feeder cables and antennas.
GSMArchitecture
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
• The NSS is responsible for the network operation. It provides the link
between the cellular networks and the public switched
telecommunication network (PSTN, ISDN, or Data Networks). The
NSS controls the handoffs between cells in different BSS,
authenticates user and validates their accounts and includes functions
for enabling worldwide roaming of mobile suscribers.
The Switch System consists of:
• Mobile Switch Centre (MSC)
• Home Location Register (HLR)
• Visitor Location Register (VLR)
• Authentication Center (AuC)
• Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
• Interworking Functions (IWF)
GSMArchitecture
Mobile Switch Centre
• Switch calls, controlling calls and logging calls
• Interface with PSTN, ISDN, PSPDN
• Mobility management over the radio networks and other networks.
• Radio management resources and handovers between BSCs
• Billing information
Human Location Register
• It is a database software that handles the management of the mobile
subscriber account. It stores the subscriber address, service type,
current location, forwarding address, authentication/ciphering keys
and billing information.
• The HLR is the reference database that permanently store data related
to subscribers, including subscribers’ service profile, location
information and activity status.
GSMArchitecture
Visitor Location Register
Is the temporary database software similar to the HLR identifying the mobile
subscribers visiting inside the coverage area of the MSC. The location register
maintains the information about the mobile subscriber that is currently
physically in the range covered by the switching center. When a mobile
subscriber roams from LA(Local Area) to another, current location
automatically updated in the VLR. When the mobile station roams into a new
MSC area, if the old and new LAs are under the control of two different VLRs,
The VlR connected to the MSC will request the data about the mobile stations
from the HLR. The entry on the old VLR is deleted and entry is created in the
new VLR by copying the database from the HLR.
Authentication Center
The AuC database holds different algorithms that are used for authentication
and encryption of the mobile subscriber information that verify the mobile user
identity and ensures the confidentiality of each call.
GSMArchitecture
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
The EIR is another database that keep the information about the
identity of the mobile equipment such as the International
Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) that reveals the details about
the manufactureir, country of production, and device type. This
information is used to prevent call being misused, to prevent
unauthorized or defective MSs, to report stolen mobile phones or
check if the mobile is operating according to the specifications of
its type
GSMArchitecture
Interfaces Used For GSM Network
I. Um Interface – Used to communicate between BTS and MS.
II. Abis Interface – Used to communicate BSC and BTS.
III. A interface – Used to communicate BSC and MSC
IV. Singling Protocol – Used to communicate MSC with other network.
GSM CONCEPTUALBLOCK DIAGRAM
APPLICATIONS OF GSM
• Access control devices: Now access control devices can communicate with
servers and security staff through SMS messaging. Complete log of
transaction is available at the head-office Server instantly without any wiring
involved and device can instantly alert security personnel on their mobile
phone in case of any problem. You can achieve high security any reliability.
Transaction terminals: EDC machines, POS terminals can use SMS
messaging to confirm transactions from central servers. The main benefit is
that central server can be anywhere in the world. Today you need local
servers in every city with multiple telephone lines. You save huge
infrastructure costs as well as per transaction cost.
Supply Chain Management: Today SCM require huge IT infrastructure
with leased lines, networking devices, data centre, workstations and still you
have large downtimes and high costs. You can do all this at a fraction of the
cost with GSM M2M technology. A central server in your head office with
GSM capability is the answer, you can receive instant transaction data from
all your branch offices, warehouses and business associates with nil
downtime and low cost.

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GSM.pptx-MorelaHTENG.pptx

  • 1. GSM Global System For Mobile Communications
  • 2. Group 2 Members 1. Morelife Zibaiwa R187280X 2. Cherish N Chimudzeka R187534Z 3. Prince Sanya R1813134C 4. Brandon T Bande R1811592B 5. Stewart Nyamutswa R18
  • 3. GSM -CONCEPT • It is a digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services-hence it is a circuit switched system. • By being a circuit switched it divides each 200Khz channel into eight 25Khz time slots. • GSM operates on the mobile communication bands of 900Mhz-1800Mhz in most parts of the world. • It makes use of narrow band Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals. • GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down through a channel with two other streams of user data each in its own time slot.
  • 4. Why GSM ? FEATURES OF GSM THAT ACCOUNT FOR ITS POPULARITY AND WIDE ACCEPTANCE • Improved spectrum efficiency • International roaming • Low cost mobile sets and base stations (BSs) • High quality speech • Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone company services • Support for new services
  • 6. GSMArchitecture A GSM network has three major subsystems which comprises of many functional units. Mobile Station (MS) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
  • 7. GSMArchitecture Mobile Station (MS) The mobile station (MS) consists of the physical equipment used by a PLMN subscriber to connect to the network. It comprises of the Mobile Equipment (ME) and Subscriber Identity Module. (SIM) • Mobile Equipment can be dispositive portable, mounted on a vehicle, or held in hand. ME forms part of the Mobile Termination (MT) which depending on the application and services. • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) stores permanent and temporary data about the mobile, the subscriber and the network. It permits the user A to send a call to a user B under subscribed service.
  • 8. GSMArchitecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) • Consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). • Base Station Controller allocates a channel for the duration of a call, maintains the call, monitors quality, controlsthe power transmitted by BTS or MS and generates a handover to another cell when required. • Base Transceiver Station provide access to the mobile station and manage radio access aspects of the system. It contains Radio Transmitter / receiver (TRX), Signal processing and control equipment and feeder cables and antennas.
  • 9. GSMArchitecture Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) • The NSS is responsible for the network operation. It provides the link between the cellular networks and the public switched telecommunication network (PSTN, ISDN, or Data Networks). The NSS controls the handoffs between cells in different BSS, authenticates user and validates their accounts and includes functions for enabling worldwide roaming of mobile suscribers. The Switch System consists of: • Mobile Switch Centre (MSC) • Home Location Register (HLR) • Visitor Location Register (VLR) • Authentication Center (AuC) • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) • Interworking Functions (IWF)
  • 10. GSMArchitecture Mobile Switch Centre • Switch calls, controlling calls and logging calls • Interface with PSTN, ISDN, PSPDN • Mobility management over the radio networks and other networks. • Radio management resources and handovers between BSCs • Billing information Human Location Register • It is a database software that handles the management of the mobile subscriber account. It stores the subscriber address, service type, current location, forwarding address, authentication/ciphering keys and billing information. • The HLR is the reference database that permanently store data related to subscribers, including subscribers’ service profile, location information and activity status.
  • 11. GSMArchitecture Visitor Location Register Is the temporary database software similar to the HLR identifying the mobile subscribers visiting inside the coverage area of the MSC. The location register maintains the information about the mobile subscriber that is currently physically in the range covered by the switching center. When a mobile subscriber roams from LA(Local Area) to another, current location automatically updated in the VLR. When the mobile station roams into a new MSC area, if the old and new LAs are under the control of two different VLRs, The VlR connected to the MSC will request the data about the mobile stations from the HLR. The entry on the old VLR is deleted and entry is created in the new VLR by copying the database from the HLR. Authentication Center The AuC database holds different algorithms that are used for authentication and encryption of the mobile subscriber information that verify the mobile user identity and ensures the confidentiality of each call.
  • 12. GSMArchitecture Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is another database that keep the information about the identity of the mobile equipment such as the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) that reveals the details about the manufactureir, country of production, and device type. This information is used to prevent call being misused, to prevent unauthorized or defective MSs, to report stolen mobile phones or check if the mobile is operating according to the specifications of its type
  • 13. GSMArchitecture Interfaces Used For GSM Network I. Um Interface – Used to communicate between BTS and MS. II. Abis Interface – Used to communicate BSC and BTS. III. A interface – Used to communicate BSC and MSC IV. Singling Protocol – Used to communicate MSC with other network.
  • 15. APPLICATIONS OF GSM • Access control devices: Now access control devices can communicate with servers and security staff through SMS messaging. Complete log of transaction is available at the head-office Server instantly without any wiring involved and device can instantly alert security personnel on their mobile phone in case of any problem. You can achieve high security any reliability. Transaction terminals: EDC machines, POS terminals can use SMS messaging to confirm transactions from central servers. The main benefit is that central server can be anywhere in the world. Today you need local servers in every city with multiple telephone lines. You save huge infrastructure costs as well as per transaction cost. Supply Chain Management: Today SCM require huge IT infrastructure with leased lines, networking devices, data centre, workstations and still you have large downtimes and high costs. You can do all this at a fraction of the cost with GSM M2M technology. A central server in your head office with GSM capability is the answer, you can receive instant transaction data from all your branch offices, warehouses and business associates with nil downtime and low cost.