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Architecture
from the
Early Age
Prepared by: Daniel M.Alcazarin
Science Teacher I
Talangan Integrated National High School
Pre-Historic Architecture
Man has developed a form of architecture based
on megaliths (a big rock) from the Greek word lithos
(stone) and megas (big). This architecture is made of
huge stone blocks which were probably intended for
burial.
Megalithic monuments have always ignited man’s
imagination. It provided plenty of legends and
superstition. During this era, stones and rocks were
associated with divinity.
Three Main Types of Megalith Stones:
1. Menhir
a huge stone
standing vertically on
the ground, usually
standing in the middle
of the field or arranged
in rows.
2. Dolmens
The word dolmen
originated from the expression
taol maen, which means “stone
table”. These structures are in a
form of table consisting of two
huge standing stones
supporting a horizontal giant
stone. It is believed that it
served as grave or as an altar.
3. Cromlech
- a Brythonic word
where “crom” means bent
or curved and “llech” which
means slab or flagstones.
Literary it is a circle of
standing stones.
.
Stonehenge
- best preserved megalithic site in Europe, a
group of stones arranged in concentric circles, with a
large external circle of triliths (Greek word meaning
three stones) , two internal circles built in a similar
manner and altar-shape stone in the center. It is a
temple where rituals were held. The structure and the
movement of the sun in the sky has a relationship in
terms of identifying the change of the seasons which
helped the primitive man on their rituals and on their
agricultural practices.
Egyptian Architecture
This architectural style was developed during the
pre-dynastic period 4,000BC.
Characteristics of Egyptian Architecture:
1.The structure has thick sloping walls with few openings
to obtain stability.
2.The exterior and interior walls along with columns and
piers were covered with hieroglyphics and pictorial
frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors.
3.Ornamentations were symbolic including scarab
(sacred beetle), solar disk and vulture, common motifs
(palmleaves, buds, flower of lotus, and papyrus plants)
4.Temples were aligned with astronomically significant
events like solstices (comes from the Latin word Sol,
meaning sun and stitium meaning stoppage, as the sun
appears to stand still on the first day of winter) and
equinox (a time or date when day and night are of
equal length) with precise measurements required in
determining the moment of that particular event.
Pyramids of Giza
It is the most substantial
ancient structure of the world. The
three pyramids are the funerary
structures of the three kings of the
fourth dynasty (2575 to 2465 BC)
namely:
Khufu (Cheops) whom the
Great Pyramid was attributed to;
Khafa (Chepren)whom the pyramid
next to the Great Pyramid is
attributed; and the smallest is
attributed to Menkaura (Mycerinus).
These pyramids were made
highly confusing and with
many tunnels to create
confusion for grave robbers.
Egyptian Temples were built to serve
as places of residence for the gods.
They also served as key centers for
economic activity. Ancient temples
were made of perishables materials
like wood, reed matting and mud
brick. Their walls were covered with
scenes that were carved onto the
stone then brightly painted. Pharaoh
fighting in the battles and performing
rituals with the gods were the scenes
found on the walls.
Mastaba
It is a type of Egyptian
tomb in the form of a
flat-roofed, rectangular
structure with outward
sloping sides. It was
made of mud-bricks or
stone.
Architecture
from the
Classical Period
Greek Architecture
Temples consisted of a central shrine or room in an aisle
surrounded by rows of columns. These buildings were
designed in one of three architectural style or orders:
DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN
The Parthenon
447-432 BC, Athens
The Greatest Classical temple, ingeniously
engineered to correct an optical illusion. The columns
were slightly contorted, swollen at the center and
leaning inward to correct what would otherwise have
been an impression of deadness and top heaviness.
The Parthenon
447-432 BC, Athens
Roman Architecture
They built sturdy stone structures both for use
and to perpetuate their glory.
The emperors erected huge halls and arenas
for public games, baths and procession. They
built them of gigantic arches of stone, bricks
and concrete or with barrel vaults.
The Colosseum
AD 70-82, Rome
Architecture
from the
Medieval Period
Byzantine Architecture
It has a lot in common with the early
Christian architecture. Mosaic decoration was
perfected by the Byzantines, as was the use of
clerestory to bring light in from high windows.
Byzantine's advancement in developing the
dome created a new style in global architecture.
Hagia Sophia
Istanbul, 537 BC
Hagia Sophia means “Holy
Wisdom”. It narrates how a
magnificent construction
transformed from being a church,
into a mosque and what is now
known as the Hagia Sophia
museum. One of the biggest
domes ever created with 108 feet
in diameter and because of its
grand size it can still be seen from
miles away.
Hagia Sophia
Istanbul, 537 BC
Hagia Sophia means “Holy
Wisdom”. It narrates how a
magnificent construction
transformed from being a church,
into a mosque and what is now
known as the Hagia Sophia
museum. One of the biggest
domes ever created with 108 feet
in diameter and because of its
grand size it can still be seen from
miles away.
Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque architecture displayed solid masonry
walls, rounded arches and masonry vaults. It is the
period of great building activities in Europe, castles,
churches, monasteries arose everywhere.
The doorways of Romanesque’s churches are often
grand sculptured portals. Wood or metal doors are
surrounded by elaborate stone sculpture arranged in
zones to fit architectural elements.
The groin-vaulted crypt of
Worcester Cathedral
Gothic Architecture
This design included two new devices:
pointed arch which enabled builders to
construct much higher ceiling vaults and
stone vaulting borne on a network of stone
ribs supported by piers and clustered pillars.
Cathedral of Chartres
,also known as the Notre dame Cathedral
(1145- 1260)
-Has rich architecture and
design
- Splendid stained glass windows
-Thousands of sculptured
figures
Department of Education
Region IV – A CALABARZON
Division of Laguna
District of Nagcarlan-RIzal
TALANGAN INTEGRATED
NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Talangan, Nagcarlan, Laguna
Daniel M. Alcazarin
MAPEH/ Science Teacher I
For more inquiries, kindly message me in any of
my social media acctsand follow me  :
FBacct: “Daniel Alcazarin”
IG acct.“@danielalcazarin”
Twitter acct: “@DanielAlcazarin”
 Let me know if you downloaded this presentation s
o
I’ll be more encouraged to upload more. Thank you!

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grade9-arts-architecture-firstquarter-190812154909.pptx

  • 1. Architecture from the Early Age Prepared by: Daniel M.Alcazarin Science Teacher I Talangan Integrated National High School
  • 2. Pre-Historic Architecture Man has developed a form of architecture based on megaliths (a big rock) from the Greek word lithos (stone) and megas (big). This architecture is made of huge stone blocks which were probably intended for burial. Megalithic monuments have always ignited man’s imagination. It provided plenty of legends and superstition. During this era, stones and rocks were associated with divinity.
  • 3. Three Main Types of Megalith Stones: 1. Menhir a huge stone standing vertically on the ground, usually standing in the middle of the field or arranged in rows.
  • 4.
  • 5. 2. Dolmens The word dolmen originated from the expression taol maen, which means “stone table”. These structures are in a form of table consisting of two huge standing stones supporting a horizontal giant stone. It is believed that it served as grave or as an altar.
  • 6.
  • 7. 3. Cromlech - a Brythonic word where “crom” means bent or curved and “llech” which means slab or flagstones. Literary it is a circle of standing stones. .
  • 8. Stonehenge - best preserved megalithic site in Europe, a group of stones arranged in concentric circles, with a large external circle of triliths (Greek word meaning three stones) , two internal circles built in a similar manner and altar-shape stone in the center. It is a temple where rituals were held. The structure and the movement of the sun in the sky has a relationship in terms of identifying the change of the seasons which helped the primitive man on their rituals and on their agricultural practices.
  • 9.
  • 10. Egyptian Architecture This architectural style was developed during the pre-dynastic period 4,000BC. Characteristics of Egyptian Architecture: 1.The structure has thick sloping walls with few openings to obtain stability. 2.The exterior and interior walls along with columns and piers were covered with hieroglyphics and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors.
  • 11. 3.Ornamentations were symbolic including scarab (sacred beetle), solar disk and vulture, common motifs (palmleaves, buds, flower of lotus, and papyrus plants) 4.Temples were aligned with astronomically significant events like solstices (comes from the Latin word Sol, meaning sun and stitium meaning stoppage, as the sun appears to stand still on the first day of winter) and equinox (a time or date when day and night are of equal length) with precise measurements required in determining the moment of that particular event.
  • 12. Pyramids of Giza It is the most substantial ancient structure of the world. The three pyramids are the funerary structures of the three kings of the fourth dynasty (2575 to 2465 BC) namely: Khufu (Cheops) whom the Great Pyramid was attributed to; Khafa (Chepren)whom the pyramid next to the Great Pyramid is attributed; and the smallest is attributed to Menkaura (Mycerinus).
  • 13. These pyramids were made highly confusing and with many tunnels to create confusion for grave robbers. Egyptian Temples were built to serve as places of residence for the gods. They also served as key centers for economic activity. Ancient temples were made of perishables materials like wood, reed matting and mud brick. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted. Pharaoh fighting in the battles and performing rituals with the gods were the scenes found on the walls.
  • 14. Mastaba It is a type of Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides. It was made of mud-bricks or stone.
  • 16. Greek Architecture Temples consisted of a central shrine or room in an aisle surrounded by rows of columns. These buildings were designed in one of three architectural style or orders: DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN
  • 17. The Parthenon 447-432 BC, Athens The Greatest Classical temple, ingeniously engineered to correct an optical illusion. The columns were slightly contorted, swollen at the center and leaning inward to correct what would otherwise have been an impression of deadness and top heaviness.
  • 19. Roman Architecture They built sturdy stone structures both for use and to perpetuate their glory. The emperors erected huge halls and arenas for public games, baths and procession. They built them of gigantic arches of stone, bricks and concrete or with barrel vaults.
  • 22. Byzantine Architecture It has a lot in common with the early Christian architecture. Mosaic decoration was perfected by the Byzantines, as was the use of clerestory to bring light in from high windows. Byzantine's advancement in developing the dome created a new style in global architecture.
  • 23. Hagia Sophia Istanbul, 537 BC Hagia Sophia means “Holy Wisdom”. It narrates how a magnificent construction transformed from being a church, into a mosque and what is now known as the Hagia Sophia museum. One of the biggest domes ever created with 108 feet in diameter and because of its grand size it can still be seen from miles away.
  • 24. Hagia Sophia Istanbul, 537 BC Hagia Sophia means “Holy Wisdom”. It narrates how a magnificent construction transformed from being a church, into a mosque and what is now known as the Hagia Sophia museum. One of the biggest domes ever created with 108 feet in diameter and because of its grand size it can still be seen from miles away.
  • 25. Romanesque Architecture Romanesque architecture displayed solid masonry walls, rounded arches and masonry vaults. It is the period of great building activities in Europe, castles, churches, monasteries arose everywhere. The doorways of Romanesque’s churches are often grand sculptured portals. Wood or metal doors are surrounded by elaborate stone sculpture arranged in zones to fit architectural elements.
  • 26. The groin-vaulted crypt of Worcester Cathedral
  • 27. Gothic Architecture This design included two new devices: pointed arch which enabled builders to construct much higher ceiling vaults and stone vaulting borne on a network of stone ribs supported by piers and clustered pillars.
  • 28.
  • 29. Cathedral of Chartres ,also known as the Notre dame Cathedral (1145- 1260) -Has rich architecture and design - Splendid stained glass windows -Thousands of sculptured figures
  • 30.
  • 31. Department of Education Region IV – A CALABARZON Division of Laguna District of Nagcarlan-RIzal TALANGAN INTEGRATED NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL Talangan, Nagcarlan, Laguna Daniel M. Alcazarin MAPEH/ Science Teacher I For more inquiries, kindly message me in any of my social media acctsand follow me  : FBacct: “Daniel Alcazarin” IG acct.“@danielalcazarin” Twitter acct: “@DanielAlcazarin”  Let me know if you downloaded this presentation s o I’ll be more encouraged to upload more. Thank you!