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Newton’s Laws of
Motion
• How and why objects move as they do has
fascinated scientists for thousands of years.
• In the early 1600s, the Italian astronomer Galileo
Galilei suggested that, once an object is in
motion, no force is needed to keep it moving.
• Force is needed only to change the motion of an
object.
• Galileo's ideas paved the way for Isaac Newton.
• Newton proposed the three basic laws of motion
in the late 1600s.
The First Law of Motion
• Newton’s first law restates Galileo's ideas
about force and motion.
• Newton’s first law of motion states that an
object at rest will remain at rest, and an
object moving at a constant velocity will
continue moving at a constant velocity ,
unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced
force.
• If an object is not moving, it will not move
until a force acts on it.
• Clothes on the floor of your room will stay
there unless you pick them up.
• If an object is already moving, it will
continue to move at a constant velocity
until a force acts to change either its
speed or direction.
• For example, a tennis ball flies through the
air once you hit it with a racket.
• If your friend doesn’t hit the ball back, the
forces of gravity and friction will eventually
stop the ball.
• On Earth, gravity and friction are
unbalanced forces that often change an
object’s motion.
Inertia
• Whether an object is moving or not, it
resists any change to its motion.
• Galileo’s concept of the resistance to a
change in motion is called inertia.
• Inertia is the tendency of an object to
resist a change in motion.
• Newton’s first law of motion is called the
law of inertia.
• Inertia explains many
common events, such
as why you move
forward in your seat
when a car stops
suddenly.
• When the car stops,
inertia keeps you
moving forward.
• A force, such as the
pull of a seat belt, is
required to change
your motion.
• Some objects have more inertia than other
objects.
• For example, suppose you needed to move an
empty aquarium and an aquarium full of water.
• Obviously, the full aquarium is harder to move
than the empty one, because it has more mass.
• The greater the mass of an object, the greater its
inertia, and the greater the force required to
change its motion.
• The full aquarium is more difficult to move
because it has more inertia than the empty
aquarium.
The Second Law of Motion
• Suppose you are baby-sitting two children
who love wagon rides.
• Their favorite part is when you accelerate
quickly.
• When you get tired and sit in the wagon,
one of the children pulls you.
• He soon finds he cannot accelerate the
wagon nearly as fast as you can.
• How is the wagon’s acceleration related to
the force pulling it?
• How is the acceleration related to the
wagon’s mass?
• According to Newton’s second law of
motion, acceleration depends on the
object’s mass and on the net force acting
on the object.
• This relationship can be written as an
equation:
Acceleration = Net Force/ Mass
• Acceleration is measured in meters per second
per second (m/s2), and mass is measured in
kilograms (kg).
• According to Newton’s second law, then, force is
measured in kilograms times meters per second
per second (kg x m/s2).
• The short for this unit of force is the newton (N).
• Recall that a newton is the metric unit of force.
• You can think of one newton as the force
required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of
1 m/s2.
Sample Problem
• A speedboat pulls a 55 kg water skier. The
force causes the skier to accelerate at 2.0
m/s2. Calculate the net force that causes
this acceleration.
What information are you given?
– Mass of water skier = 55 kg
– Acceleration of the water skier = 2.0 m/s2
• What quantity are you trying to calculate?
– The net force
– What formula will you use?
• Acceleration = Net force ÷ mass
• OR Net Force = mass x acceleration
• Perform the calculation
– Fnet = m x a
– F = 55 kg x 2.0 m/s2
– F = 110 kg x m/s2
– F = 110 N
Practice Problems
• What is the net force on a 1,000 kg object
accelerating at 3 m/s2?
• What net force is needed to accelerate a
25 kg cart at 14 m/s2?
Changes in Force and Mass
• How can you increase the acceleration of
the wagon?
• Look again at the equation.
• One way to increase acceleration is by
changing the force.
• If the mass is constant, acceleration and
force change in the same way.
• So to increase the acceleration of the
wagon, you can increase the force used to
pull it.
• Another way to increase acceleration is to
change the mass.
• According to the equation, acceleration
and mass change in opposite ways.
• If the force is constant, an increase in
mass causes a decrease in acceleration.
• The opposite is also true: A decrease in
mass causes an increase in acceleration
with a constant force.
• To increase the acceleration of the wagon,
you can decrease its mass.
• So instead of you, the children should ride
in the wagon.
• Look at the
pictures on the
right.
• Which vehicle do
you think would
require a greater
force to push?
• Why do you think
this?
• Using the equation,
solve for the
amount of force.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion
• Newton proposed that whenever one
object exerts a force on a second object,
the second object exerts a force back on
the first object.
• The force exerted by the second object is
equal in strength and opposite in direction
to the first force.
• Think of one force as the “action” and the
other force as the “reaction.”
• Newton’s third law of motion states that if
one object exerts a force on another
object, then the second object exerts a
force of equal strength in the opposite
direction on the first object.
• Another way to state Newton’s third law is
that for every action there is an equal but
opposite reaction.
Action-Reaction Pairs
• You’re probably familiar with many
examples of Newton’s third law.
• Pairs of action and reaction forces are all
around you.
• When you jump, you push on the ground
with your feet.
• This is the action force.
• The ground pushes back on your feet with
an equal and opposite force.
• This is the reaction force.
• You move upward when you jump because the
ground is pushing you!
• In a similar way, a kayaker moves forward by
exerting an action force on the water with a
paddle.
• The water pushes back on the paddle with an
equal reaction force that propels the kayak
forward.
• Now you can understand what happens when
you teach your friend how to rollerblade.
• Your friend exerts an action force when he
pushes against you to start.
• You exert a reaction force in the opposite
direction.
• As a result, both of you move in opposite
directions.
Figure 15Action-
Reaction Pairs
Action-reaction
pairs explain how
a gymnast can flip
over a vaulting
horse, how a
kayaker can move
through the water,
and how a dog
can leap off the
ground.
Observing Name
some other action-
reaction pairs that
you have
observed.
Detecting Motion
• Can you always detect motion when
paired forces are in action?
• The answer is no.
• For example, when Earth’s gravity pulls on
an object, you cannot detect Earth’s equal
and opposite reaction.
• Suppose you drop your pencil.
• Gravity pulls the pencil downward.
• At the same time, the pencil pulls Earth
upward with an equal and opposite
reaction force.
• You don’t see Earth accelerate toward the
pencil because Earth’s inertia is so great
that its acceleration is too small to notice.
Do Action-Reaction Forces
Cancel?
• Earlier you learned that if two equal forces act in
opposite directions on an object, the forces are
balanced.
• Because the two forces add up to zero, they
cancel each other out and produce no change in
motion.
• Why then don’t the action and reaction force in
Newton’s third law of motion cancel out as well?
• After all, they are equal and opposite.
• The action and reaction forces do
not cancel out because they are
acting on different objects.
• Look at the volleyball player on
the left in Figure 16.
• She exerts an upward action
force on the ball.
• In return, the ball exerts an equal
but opposite downward reaction
force back on her wrists.
• The action and reaction forces
act on different objects.
• On the other hand, the volleyball players on the right
are both exerting a force on the same object – the
volleyball.
• When they hit the ball from opposite directions, each
of their hands exerts a force on the ball equal in
strength but opposite in direction.
• The forces on the volleyball are balanced and the
ball does not move either to the left or to the right.
• How fast will an 800kg car accelerate if it
is pushed with 4000N of force?
• How fast will a 0.15kg hockey puck
accelerate if it is hit with 1.2 N of force?

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Newtons Laws of Motion new.ppt

  • 2. • How and why objects move as they do has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. • In the early 1600s, the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei suggested that, once an object is in motion, no force is needed to keep it moving. • Force is needed only to change the motion of an object. • Galileo's ideas paved the way for Isaac Newton. • Newton proposed the three basic laws of motion in the late 1600s.
  • 3. The First Law of Motion • Newton’s first law restates Galileo's ideas about force and motion. • Newton’s first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity , unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.
  • 4. • If an object is not moving, it will not move until a force acts on it. • Clothes on the floor of your room will stay there unless you pick them up. • If an object is already moving, it will continue to move at a constant velocity until a force acts to change either its speed or direction.
  • 5. • For example, a tennis ball flies through the air once you hit it with a racket. • If your friend doesn’t hit the ball back, the forces of gravity and friction will eventually stop the ball. • On Earth, gravity and friction are unbalanced forces that often change an object’s motion.
  • 6. Inertia • Whether an object is moving or not, it resists any change to its motion. • Galileo’s concept of the resistance to a change in motion is called inertia. • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. • Newton’s first law of motion is called the law of inertia.
  • 7. • Inertia explains many common events, such as why you move forward in your seat when a car stops suddenly. • When the car stops, inertia keeps you moving forward. • A force, such as the pull of a seat belt, is required to change your motion.
  • 8. • Some objects have more inertia than other objects. • For example, suppose you needed to move an empty aquarium and an aquarium full of water. • Obviously, the full aquarium is harder to move than the empty one, because it has more mass. • The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia, and the greater the force required to change its motion. • The full aquarium is more difficult to move because it has more inertia than the empty aquarium.
  • 9. The Second Law of Motion • Suppose you are baby-sitting two children who love wagon rides. • Their favorite part is when you accelerate quickly. • When you get tired and sit in the wagon, one of the children pulls you. • He soon finds he cannot accelerate the wagon nearly as fast as you can. • How is the wagon’s acceleration related to the force pulling it?
  • 10. • How is the acceleration related to the wagon’s mass? • According to Newton’s second law of motion, acceleration depends on the object’s mass and on the net force acting on the object. • This relationship can be written as an equation: Acceleration = Net Force/ Mass
  • 11. • Acceleration is measured in meters per second per second (m/s2), and mass is measured in kilograms (kg). • According to Newton’s second law, then, force is measured in kilograms times meters per second per second (kg x m/s2). • The short for this unit of force is the newton (N). • Recall that a newton is the metric unit of force. • You can think of one newton as the force required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2.
  • 12. Sample Problem • A speedboat pulls a 55 kg water skier. The force causes the skier to accelerate at 2.0 m/s2. Calculate the net force that causes this acceleration. What information are you given? – Mass of water skier = 55 kg – Acceleration of the water skier = 2.0 m/s2
  • 13. • What quantity are you trying to calculate? – The net force – What formula will you use? • Acceleration = Net force ÷ mass • OR Net Force = mass x acceleration • Perform the calculation – Fnet = m x a – F = 55 kg x 2.0 m/s2 – F = 110 kg x m/s2 – F = 110 N
  • 14. Practice Problems • What is the net force on a 1,000 kg object accelerating at 3 m/s2? • What net force is needed to accelerate a 25 kg cart at 14 m/s2?
  • 15. Changes in Force and Mass • How can you increase the acceleration of the wagon? • Look again at the equation. • One way to increase acceleration is by changing the force. • If the mass is constant, acceleration and force change in the same way. • So to increase the acceleration of the wagon, you can increase the force used to pull it.
  • 16. • Another way to increase acceleration is to change the mass. • According to the equation, acceleration and mass change in opposite ways. • If the force is constant, an increase in mass causes a decrease in acceleration. • The opposite is also true: A decrease in mass causes an increase in acceleration with a constant force. • To increase the acceleration of the wagon, you can decrease its mass. • So instead of you, the children should ride in the wagon.
  • 17. • Look at the pictures on the right. • Which vehicle do you think would require a greater force to push? • Why do you think this? • Using the equation, solve for the amount of force.
  • 18. Newton’s Third Law of Motion • Newton proposed that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force back on the first object. • The force exerted by the second object is equal in strength and opposite in direction to the first force. • Think of one force as the “action” and the other force as the “reaction.”
  • 19. • Newton’s third law of motion states that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object. • Another way to state Newton’s third law is that for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.
  • 20. Action-Reaction Pairs • You’re probably familiar with many examples of Newton’s third law. • Pairs of action and reaction forces are all around you. • When you jump, you push on the ground with your feet. • This is the action force. • The ground pushes back on your feet with an equal and opposite force. • This is the reaction force.
  • 21. • You move upward when you jump because the ground is pushing you! • In a similar way, a kayaker moves forward by exerting an action force on the water with a paddle. • The water pushes back on the paddle with an equal reaction force that propels the kayak forward. • Now you can understand what happens when you teach your friend how to rollerblade. • Your friend exerts an action force when he pushes against you to start. • You exert a reaction force in the opposite direction. • As a result, both of you move in opposite directions.
  • 22. Figure 15Action- Reaction Pairs Action-reaction pairs explain how a gymnast can flip over a vaulting horse, how a kayaker can move through the water, and how a dog can leap off the ground. Observing Name some other action- reaction pairs that you have observed.
  • 23. Detecting Motion • Can you always detect motion when paired forces are in action? • The answer is no. • For example, when Earth’s gravity pulls on an object, you cannot detect Earth’s equal and opposite reaction. • Suppose you drop your pencil. • Gravity pulls the pencil downward.
  • 24. • At the same time, the pencil pulls Earth upward with an equal and opposite reaction force. • You don’t see Earth accelerate toward the pencil because Earth’s inertia is so great that its acceleration is too small to notice.
  • 25. Do Action-Reaction Forces Cancel? • Earlier you learned that if two equal forces act in opposite directions on an object, the forces are balanced. • Because the two forces add up to zero, they cancel each other out and produce no change in motion. • Why then don’t the action and reaction force in Newton’s third law of motion cancel out as well? • After all, they are equal and opposite.
  • 26. • The action and reaction forces do not cancel out because they are acting on different objects. • Look at the volleyball player on the left in Figure 16. • She exerts an upward action force on the ball. • In return, the ball exerts an equal but opposite downward reaction force back on her wrists. • The action and reaction forces act on different objects.
  • 27. • On the other hand, the volleyball players on the right are both exerting a force on the same object – the volleyball. • When they hit the ball from opposite directions, each of their hands exerts a force on the ball equal in strength but opposite in direction. • The forces on the volleyball are balanced and the ball does not move either to the left or to the right.
  • 28. • How fast will an 800kg car accelerate if it is pushed with 4000N of force? • How fast will a 0.15kg hockey puck accelerate if it is hit with 1.2 N of force?