SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 25
Are Memory Institutions Ready for Open Data and
Crowdsourcing?
Results of a Pilot Survey from Switzerland
Beat Estermann, 5 August 2013 – OpenSym/WikiSym, Hong Kong
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Recent Trends in the GLAM sector…
2
Coordinated Digitization Efforts
Single-Point-of-Access
EU: Lund Action Plan for
Digitization (2001)
Increased cooperation and
coordination among GLAMs:
- common catalogues
- virtual libraries
- coordination of digitization efforts
- long-term archiving
Wikimedia Commons, User:Dvortygirl (CC-by-sa)
Source: http://www.europeana.eu/
3
Interactivity / Personalisation
Web 2.0
Source: http://www.facebook.com/Zentralbibliothek.Zuerich
Flickr, User:victuallers2, (CC-by-sa)
4
Linked Open Data
Crowdsourcing / Collaborative Content Creation
Free Licensing / Open Data
Open Data / Content:
- «freely» re-usable
- machine readable
«Web of Data» /
Semantic Web
- RDF triples
- unique URLs
Crowdsourcing
Approaches:
- Correction
- Classification
- Contextualisation
- Co-curation
- Complementing
collections
- Crowdfunding
See: Oomen / Aroyo 2011
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Bundesarchiv and http://www.flickr.com/groups/greatwararchive
Source: http://www.wikiarthistory.info (CC-by-sa)
Source: http://www.creativecommons.org
Where do Swiss GLAMs stand today with regard to…?
5
…Digitization?
…Exchange of metadata in multilateral cooperations?
…Open Data?
…Crowdsourcing?
…Linked Open Data?
What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors)
What are the expected benefits? Who are the beneficiaries?
Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest
Innovation Diffusion Model,
Everett Rogers, 1962
Pilot Study among Swiss GLAMs
GLAMs in Switzerland:
• ca. 600-700 independent GLAMs of national or regional significance
• ca. 1000 independent GLAMs organized in three umbrella organizations
Our sample: memory institutions of national significance in the German-speaking
part of Switzerland
• 197 organisations contacted (233 e-mail addresses)
• 72 questionnaires completed (34% of the contacted organisations)
Caveats:
• The sample is rather small (results are not very precise with regard to the
entire Swiss GLAM population, large confidence intervals apply)
• Archives are over-represented in the sample (higher response rate);
museums and «other institutions» are under-represented; libraries are about
average. 6
Innovation Diffusion among Swiss GLAMs: The Overall Picture
7
A critical mass has been reached.
How about the laggards?
Will we see a higher rate of adoption for
Open Data than for Crowdsourcing?
Some institutions are starting to think
about Linked Data…
Digitization and Availability on the Internet
8
42%
23% 11%
17%
37%
32%
Metadata Reproductions of
memory objects
Background
information
Availability on the Internet
(in % of institutions, N=71)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
60% of institutions make metadata and reproductions at least partly
available on the Internet. 40% still don’t!
Exchange of Metadata / Cooperation in Networks
61% of the responding GLAMs exchange metadata with other institutions. 39% don’t.
30% do so in the context of bilateral cooperation; 43% in the context of multilateral
cooperation.
For 29% the exchange of metadata is part of their core mission. 17% say this is partly the
case.
9
61%
39%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
yes no
Do you exchange metadata
with other institutions?
(in % of institutions; N=72)
15%
35% 29%
3%
15%
8% 17%
3%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
The exchange of metadata is important for us... (in % of institutions; N=72)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
Metadata: Need for Improvement
10
11%
42%
21%
25%
10%
43%
23% 24%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
urgent need need in the
medium term
no need no answer
Metadata: Need for improvement? (in % of institutions; N=71)
Quality of metadata
(accuracy, completeness, up-to-
dateness, clarity, availability)
Interoperability of metadata
(availability in digital
format, conformity with standards)
Ca. 50% of GLAMs perceive a need to improve their metadata.
The needs to improve metadata quality and interoperability are highly
correlated. – Does the envisioned exchange of metadata lead to higher
quality requirements?
25% of responding GLAMs couldn’t answer this question. – What does
this mean?
Metadata: What needs to be improved?
11
9%
51%
16%
30%
40% 42%
26%
60%
33%
40%
37%
23%
26%
28%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
accuracy completeness up-to-dateness clarity availability digitization conformity with
current
exchange
formats
Metadata: What needs to be improved? (in % of institutions; N=43)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
The main challenges: completeness, availability, digitization
Open Data Readiness
12
7%
1%
32%
7%
21%
51%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
for charitable projects, such as
Wikipedia, which also permit
commercial use
for users who are intending to
commercially exploit them
The memory objects are available on the Internet... (in % of institutions; N=68)
not accessible for free
accessible at no charge (but you are
not allowed to modify them)
"freely" accessible
Between 1% and 7% of responding GLAMs make scans/photographs of their
heritage objects «freely» available on the Internet. Over half of them make them
available on the Internet, but with restrictions. 40% don’t make them available at all.
Over 50% of the GLAMs which make their heritage objects available on the Internet
do not understand that you cannot make works available for Wikipedia and
simultaneously prevent their modification and/or their commercial use!
Desirability and Importance of Open Data
13
0%
1%
6% 6%
7%
36%
25%
11%
6%
3%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
-10 to -
8
-8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10
Desirability of Open Data (in % of institutions, N=71)
1%
8% 7%
3%
21%
31%
8% 14%
6%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
very
important
important neither, nor unimportant no answer
Importance / Desirability of Open Data
(in % of institutions; N=71)
risks prevail opportunities prevail
For over 80% of responding GLAMs the opportunities outweigh the risks of
Open Data.
Over 50% think Open Data is an important issue; almost all of these believe
that the opportunities outweigh the risks.
Open Data / “Free” Licensing of Content
14
59%
76%
60%
29%
7%
69%
40%
21%
19%
23%
26%
9%
20%
34%
1%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
For private useFor education and researchFor charitable projectsFor charitable projects, such as Wikipedia, which also permit
commercial use
For users who are intending to commercially exploit themOnly if the name of the institution remains attached to the dataOnly if the work will be re-used in unmodified form
Conditions under which they would make memory objects freely accessible on the Internet
(in % der Institutionen; N=70)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
Most GLAMs wouldn’t readily agree to «freely» license their content – even in
the absence of third party rights: they would like to prevent the commercial use
at no charge as well as the modification of works.
15
Crowdsourcing
11%
4%
14%
3%
6% 1%0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Wikipedia Wikimedia
Commons
Flickr
Commons
others
Are any of your staff members engaging in projects which support open
data or collaborative projects on the Internet? (in % of institutions; N=71)
in their spare time
as part of their professional
activity
11% of responding GLAMs have staff members who contribute to Wikipedia as
part of their professional activity.
10% of responding GLAMs say that online volunteering plays partly an
important role for them.
Interestingly, no correlation was found between the two variables.
16
Desirability and Importance of Crowdsourcing
4%
15%
19%
11%
43%
3% 3% 1%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
-10 to -
8
-8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10
Desirability of Crowdsourcing (in % of institutions; N=69)
10%
25%
14%
29%
16%
3%
1%
1%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
very
important
important neither, nor unimportant no answer
Importance / Desirability of Crowdsourcing
(in % of institutions; N=69)
risks prevail opportunities prevail
For over 90% of the responding GLAMs the risks of Crowdsourcing are at least
as great as the opportunities. For half of them the risks clearly prevail.
Among GLAMs which think that Crowdsourcing is an important issue, the risk
perception is equally high.
Linked Data / Semantic Web
17
6%
23%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Is „Linked Data“ / „Semantic Web“ an issue for your
institution?
(in % of institutions; N=71)
Yes, it is an issue, but we haven't
planned any projects yet
Yes, we have already planned
projects in this area
29% of responding GLAMs say that Linked Data is an issue for them.
None of them has a running project.
Recapitulation
18
59%
60%
43%
53%
81%
7%
1%
38%
7%
10%
11%
29%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100%
Metadata available on the Internet
Photos/scans of memory object available on the Internet
Exchange of metadata takes place and is important
Open Data is important
Open Data is desirable
Readiness to make data available for Wikipedia
Readiness to make data available for commercial use
Crowdsourcing is important
Crowdsourcing is desirable
Importance of online-volunteer work
Professional engagement in Wikipedia
Linked Data is an issue
Different dynamics for
Open Data and
Crowdsourcing
60% of responding
GLAMs are technically
ready for Open Data.
Open Data: Opportunities
19
53%
65%
29%
50%
11%
68%
53%
67%
58%
36%
3%
24%
14%
22%
26%
19%
18%
21%
19%
21%
33%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Why do we need Open Data from the point of view of your institution? (in % of institutions; N=72)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
Main target groups: research and education, private individuals, cultural institutions
Main opportunities: better visibility and accessibility of holdings; better visibility of the
institutions; better networking among GLAMs.
Open Data: Risks
20
66%
34% 32% 28%
18%
25%
3%
20%
34% 34%
23%
17%
34%
11%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Time effort and
expense for
making them
available
The use of the
data cannot be
controlled
Copyright
infringements
Infringements of
data protection
regulations
Divulgation of
classified
information
Increased time
effort in order to
respond to
enquiries
Loss of
revenues
What are the risks of open data for your institution? (in % of institutions; N=71)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
Major risk: extra time effort and expenses
Considerable risks: loss of control, copyright, data protection, secrecy infringements
Almost no risk: Loss of revenues
Crowdsourcing: Opportunities
21
6% 1% 4%
11%
3%
24%
24% 21%
20%
14%
21%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Correction and
transcription
tasks
Enhancement
and expansion
of texts
Completion of
collections
(contribution /
identification of
additional
objects)
Classification /
completion of
metadata
Co-curators Crowdfunding
(fundraising)
What are the opportunities of crowdsourcing for your institution?
(in % of institutions; N=71)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
Crowdsourcing is most likely to be employed for classification tasks.
Crowdsourcing: Risks
22
35%
42%
35% 38%
30%
6%
26%
30%
35% 28%
30%
17%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Unforeseeable
results
Considerable
time/effort
needed for
preparation
and follow-up
Difficulties in
estimating the
time-effort
No guarantee
concerning
long-term data
maintenance
Low level of
planning
reliability
Fears among
employees
(job
loss, changing
roles and
tasks)
What are the risks of crowdsourcing from your point of view? (in % of institutions; N=69)
"is partly the case"
"is the case"
All the enumerated risks are rated about the same, except for fears among
employees which seem to play a minor role.
Economic Considerations
• Extra time effort and expenses are seen as the greatest
risks/shortcomings of Open Data and Crowdsourcing.
• Expected losses of revenue play virtually no role.
• The sale of image rights is evaluated at < 0.5 % of overall revenues
• Lending fees at 1% of overall revenues
• While the responding GLAMs may perceive at least some efficiency
gains related to Open Data, they do not perceive any potential
economies associated to Crowdsourcing (yet).
23
Outlook / Next Steps
• Promote the study among GLAMs and political actors in Switzerland
• Orient GLAM outreach activities in the light of the findings
• Promote “free” licensing at a large scale, cf. OpenGLAM Principles
• Foster mutual learning in the area of Crowdsourcing and (Linked) Open
Data (OpenGLAM Network); make sure that benefits are achieved and
documented; improve coordination along the supply-chain
• Examine ways to improve digitization coverage
• Evaluate the demand for follow-up studies:
• Study with a larger sample in Switzerland
• Longitudinal study in Switzerland
(e.g. similar survey in 2014 to measure the changes)
• International benchmark study
Please contact me if you are interested!
24
Thanks for Your Attention!
Full study report:
English: http://tinyurl.com/SwissGLAMsurvey
Deutsch: http://tinyurl.com/GLAMStudie
Contact details:
Beat Estermann
E-mail: beat.estermann@bfh.ch
Phone: +41 31 848 34 38
Affiliations:
Research Associate, E-Government Institute, Bern University of Applied Sciences
Member of opendata.ch (Swiss Chapter of the Open Knowledge Foundation)
Member of Digitale Allmend (Swiss Chapter of CreativeCommons)
Member of Wikimedia CH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 25

More Related Content

Viewers also liked (6)

Info camp2015 openglam_impuls-referat_20151002
Info camp2015 openglam_impuls-referat_20151002Info camp2015 openglam_impuls-referat_20151002
Info camp2015 openglam_impuls-referat_20151002
 
Estermann irspm2016 open_glam_in_practice_20160414
Estermann irspm2016 open_glam_in_practice_20160414Estermann irspm2016 open_glam_in_practice_20160414
Estermann irspm2016 open_glam_in_practice_20160414
 
Conference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAM
Conference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAMConference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAM
Conference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAM
 
CAS open glam_teil2_20150910
CAS open glam_teil2_20150910CAS open glam_teil2_20150910
CAS open glam_teil2_20150910
 
Estermann wikimania2015 glam-survey_20150719
Estermann wikimania2015 glam-survey_20150719Estermann wikimania2015 glam-survey_20150719
Estermann wikimania2015 glam-survey_20150719
 
Presentation open glam_juni2015_htw_alumni_event_20150612
Presentation open glam_juni2015_htw_alumni_event_20150612Presentation open glam_juni2015_htw_alumni_event_20150612
Presentation open glam_juni2015_htw_alumni_event_20150612
 

Similar to GLAM Survey presentation OpenSym/WikiSym 2013

Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
Beat Estermann
 
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat EstermannAre Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana
 
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
P2Pvalue
 
Singularity Pyramid
Singularity PyramidSingularity Pyramid
Singularity Pyramid
Vo Viet Anh
 
Dissemination Of Information
Dissemination Of InformationDissemination Of Information
Dissemination Of Information
Sujit Mohanty
 
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee RainieUniversities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
Gardner Campbell
 

Similar to GLAM Survey presentation OpenSym/WikiSym 2013 (20)

Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
Swiss_GLAM_Survey_presentation_20130412
 
Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013
Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013
Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013
 
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat EstermannAre Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
Are Swiss GLAMs ready for open data and crowdsourcing - Beat Estermann
 
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
#P2Pvalue at Share and inspire: Infoday on CAPS in Horizon 2020
 
Estermann glam wiki2015_glam-survey_20150411
Estermann glam wiki2015_glam-survey_20150411Estermann glam wiki2015_glam-survey_20150411
Estermann glam wiki2015_glam-survey_20150411
 
The future: social media and online tech and what it means for emergency plan...
The future: social media and online tech and what it means for emergency plan...The future: social media and online tech and what it means for emergency plan...
The future: social media and online tech and what it means for emergency plan...
 
Digital cultural heritage spring 2015 day 2
Digital cultural heritage spring 2015 day 2Digital cultural heritage spring 2015 day 2
Digital cultural heritage spring 2015 day 2
 
Towards Mining Software Repositories Research that Matters
Towards Mining Software Repositories Research that MattersTowards Mining Software Repositories Research that Matters
Towards Mining Software Repositories Research that Matters
 
Singularity Pyramid
Singularity PyramidSingularity Pyramid
Singularity Pyramid
 
Innovation in Future Enterprise, by David Osimo
Innovation in Future Enterprise, by David OsimoInnovation in Future Enterprise, by David Osimo
Innovation in Future Enterprise, by David Osimo
 
Dissemination Of Information
Dissemination Of InformationDissemination Of Information
Dissemination Of Information
 
Taking IT for Granted
Taking IT for GrantedTaking IT for Granted
Taking IT for Granted
 
The Impact of the Internet on Institutions in the Future
The Impact of the Internet on Institutions in the FutureThe Impact of the Internet on Institutions in the Future
The Impact of the Internet on Institutions in the Future
 
Towards a visibility of algerian libraries in a social media era
Towards a visibility of algerian libraries in a social media eraTowards a visibility of algerian libraries in a social media era
Towards a visibility of algerian libraries in a social media era
 
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee RainieUniversities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
Universities in 2020: A Technology Perspective by Lee Rainie
 
Data Commons Garvan - 2016
Data Commons Garvan -  2016 Data Commons Garvan -  2016
Data Commons Garvan - 2016
 
The REAL Impact of Big Data on Privacy
The REAL Impact of Big Data on PrivacyThe REAL Impact of Big Data on Privacy
The REAL Impact of Big Data on Privacy
 
Connection for Innovation - Petter Coffee - Avanxo Cloud Forum 2013
Connection for Innovation - Petter Coffee - Avanxo Cloud Forum 2013 Connection for Innovation - Petter Coffee - Avanxo Cloud Forum 2013
Connection for Innovation - Petter Coffee - Avanxo Cloud Forum 2013
 
Semantic Technologies - 2007
Semantic Technologies - 2007Semantic Technologies - 2007
Semantic Technologies - 2007
 
The Virtual Scientific Workplace
The Virtual Scientific WorkplaceThe Virtual Scientific Workplace
The Virtual Scientific Workplace
 

More from Beat Estermann

More from Beat Estermann (20)

Transformación digital del patrimonio cultural y sus implicaciones practicas
Transformación digital del patrimonio cultural y sus implicaciones practicasTransformación digital del patrimonio cultural y sus implicaciones practicas
Transformación digital del patrimonio cultural y sus implicaciones practicas
 
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical ImplicationsDigital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
 
Semi-automatic Tagging of Images on Wikimedia Commons
Semi-automatic Tagging of Images on Wikimedia CommonsSemi-automatic Tagging of Images on Wikimedia Commons
Semi-automatic Tagging of Images on Wikimedia Commons
 
Linked Open Data for the Performing Arts: Latest Developments in Switzerland,...
Linked Open Data for the Performing Arts: Latest Developments in Switzerland,...Linked Open Data for the Performing Arts: Latest Developments in Switzerland,...
Linked Open Data for the Performing Arts: Latest Developments in Switzerland,...
 
Presentation Opendata.ch Association / Open Event Data
Presentation Opendata.ch Association / Open Event DataPresentation Opendata.ch Association / Open Event Data
Presentation Opendata.ch Association / Open Event Data
 
Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self-Determination, Digital S...
Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self-Determination, Digital S...Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self-Determination, Digital S...
Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self-Determination, Digital S...
 
Datenraum für Kultur- und Kulturerbedaten, 15. Nov. 2022
Datenraum für Kultur- und Kulturerbedaten, 15. Nov. 2022Datenraum für Kultur- und Kulturerbedaten, 15. Nov. 2022
Datenraum für Kultur- und Kulturerbedaten, 15. Nov. 2022
 
Estermann Panel on Authority Files, 3 June 2020
Estermann Panel on Authority Files, 3 June 2020Estermann Panel on Authority Files, 3 June 2020
Estermann Panel on Authority Files, 3 June 2020
 
Estermann Linked Data Ecosystem for Heritage Data - 29 Feb 2020
Estermann Linked Data Ecosystem for Heritage Data - 29 Feb 2020Estermann Linked Data Ecosystem for Heritage Data - 29 Feb 2020
Estermann Linked Data Ecosystem for Heritage Data - 29 Feb 2020
 
Open Cultural Data in Switzerland
Open Cultural Data in SwitzerlandOpen Cultural Data in Switzerland
Open Cultural Data in Switzerland
 
BFH-Studie Digitalisierung und Umwelt - BAFU-Kaderklausur - 20191127
BFH-Studie Digitalisierung und Umwelt - BAFU-Kaderklausur - 20191127BFH-Studie Digitalisierung und Umwelt - BAFU-Kaderklausur - 20191127
BFH-Studie Digitalisierung und Umwelt - BAFU-Kaderklausur - 20191127
 
Wikidata Conference 2019 GLAM Panel - 20191025
Wikidata Conference 2019 GLAM Panel - 20191025Wikidata Conference 2019 GLAM Panel - 20191025
Wikidata Conference 2019 GLAM Panel - 20191025
 
Estermann ENICPA Wiki Loves Performing Arts 20191022
Estermann ENICPA Wiki Loves Performing Arts 20191022Estermann ENICPA Wiki Loves Performing Arts 20191022
Estermann ENICPA Wiki Loves Performing Arts 20191022
 
Wikidata Introduction, Linked Digital Future Initiative, August 2019
Wikidata Introduction, Linked Digital Future Initiative, August 2019Wikidata Introduction, Linked Digital Future Initiative, August 2019
Wikidata Introduction, Linked Digital Future Initiative, August 2019
 
Bootstrapping the International Knowledge Base for the Performing Arts
Bootstrapping the International Knowledge Base for the Performing ArtsBootstrapping the International Knowledge Base for the Performing Arts
Bootstrapping the International Knowledge Base for the Performing Arts
 
Wikidata Introductory Workshop
Wikidata Introductory WorkshopWikidata Introductory Workshop
Wikidata Introductory Workshop
 
Estermann wd glam-intro_20181204
Estermann wd glam-intro_20181204Estermann wd glam-intro_20181204
Estermann wd glam-intro_20181204
 
Workshop "Performing Arts Database based on Wikidata"
Workshop "Performing Arts Database based on Wikidata"Workshop "Performing Arts Database based on Wikidata"
Workshop "Performing Arts Database based on Wikidata"
 
Estermann wikidata performing-arts-20181109
Estermann wikidata performing-arts-20181109Estermann wikidata performing-arts-20181109
Estermann wikidata performing-arts-20181109
 
Estermann performing arts_database_20180721
Estermann performing arts_database_20180721Estermann performing arts_database_20180721
Estermann performing arts_database_20180721
 

Recently uploaded

Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
FIDO Alliance
 
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
panagenda
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Introduction to FDO and How It works Applications _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Introduction to FDO and How It works Applications _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdfIntroduction to FDO and How It works Applications _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Introduction to FDO and How It works Applications _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
 
The Value of Certifying Products for FDO _ Paul at FIDO Alliance.pdf
The Value of Certifying Products for FDO _ Paul at FIDO Alliance.pdfThe Value of Certifying Products for FDO _ Paul at FIDO Alliance.pdf
The Value of Certifying Products for FDO _ Paul at FIDO Alliance.pdf
 
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptxDesign Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
 
How we scaled to 80K users by doing nothing!.pdf
How we scaled to 80K users by doing nothing!.pdfHow we scaled to 80K users by doing nothing!.pdf
How we scaled to 80K users by doing nothing!.pdf
 
UiPath manufacturing technology benefits and AI overview
UiPath manufacturing technology benefits and AI overviewUiPath manufacturing technology benefits and AI overview
UiPath manufacturing technology benefits and AI overview
 
Google I/O Extended 2024 Warsaw
Google I/O Extended 2024 WarsawGoogle I/O Extended 2024 Warsaw
Google I/O Extended 2024 Warsaw
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
 
Collecting & Temporal Analysis of Behavioral Web Data - Tales From The Inside
Collecting & Temporal Analysis of Behavioral Web Data - Tales From The InsideCollecting & Temporal Analysis of Behavioral Web Data - Tales From The Inside
Collecting & Temporal Analysis of Behavioral Web Data - Tales From The Inside
 
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
 
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
 
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage IntacctERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
 
WebAssembly is Key to Better LLM Performance
WebAssembly is Key to Better LLM PerformanceWebAssembly is Key to Better LLM Performance
WebAssembly is Key to Better LLM Performance
 
Generative AI Use Cases and Applications.pdf
Generative AI Use Cases and Applications.pdfGenerative AI Use Cases and Applications.pdf
Generative AI Use Cases and Applications.pdf
 
The Zero-ETL Approach: Enhancing Data Agility and Insight
The Zero-ETL Approach: Enhancing Data Agility and InsightThe Zero-ETL Approach: Enhancing Data Agility and Insight
The Zero-ETL Approach: Enhancing Data Agility and Insight
 
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
 
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdfHow Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
 
The Metaverse: Are We There Yet?
The  Metaverse:    Are   We  There  Yet?The  Metaverse:    Are   We  There  Yet?
The Metaverse: Are We There Yet?
 
2024 May Patch Tuesday
2024 May Patch Tuesday2024 May Patch Tuesday
2024 May Patch Tuesday
 
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
 

GLAM Survey presentation OpenSym/WikiSym 2013

  • 1. Are Memory Institutions Ready for Open Data and Crowdsourcing? Results of a Pilot Survey from Switzerland Beat Estermann, 5 August 2013 – OpenSym/WikiSym, Hong Kong This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 2. Recent Trends in the GLAM sector… 2 Coordinated Digitization Efforts Single-Point-of-Access EU: Lund Action Plan for Digitization (2001) Increased cooperation and coordination among GLAMs: - common catalogues - virtual libraries - coordination of digitization efforts - long-term archiving Wikimedia Commons, User:Dvortygirl (CC-by-sa) Source: http://www.europeana.eu/
  • 3. 3 Interactivity / Personalisation Web 2.0 Source: http://www.facebook.com/Zentralbibliothek.Zuerich Flickr, User:victuallers2, (CC-by-sa)
  • 4. 4 Linked Open Data Crowdsourcing / Collaborative Content Creation Free Licensing / Open Data Open Data / Content: - «freely» re-usable - machine readable «Web of Data» / Semantic Web - RDF triples - unique URLs Crowdsourcing Approaches: - Correction - Classification - Contextualisation - Co-curation - Complementing collections - Crowdfunding See: Oomen / Aroyo 2011 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Bundesarchiv and http://www.flickr.com/groups/greatwararchive Source: http://www.wikiarthistory.info (CC-by-sa) Source: http://www.creativecommons.org
  • 5. Where do Swiss GLAMs stand today with regard to…? 5 …Digitization? …Exchange of metadata in multilateral cooperations? …Open Data? …Crowdsourcing? …Linked Open Data? What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors) What are the expected benefits? Who are the beneficiaries? Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest Innovation Diffusion Model, Everett Rogers, 1962
  • 6. Pilot Study among Swiss GLAMs GLAMs in Switzerland: • ca. 600-700 independent GLAMs of national or regional significance • ca. 1000 independent GLAMs organized in three umbrella organizations Our sample: memory institutions of national significance in the German-speaking part of Switzerland • 197 organisations contacted (233 e-mail addresses) • 72 questionnaires completed (34% of the contacted organisations) Caveats: • The sample is rather small (results are not very precise with regard to the entire Swiss GLAM population, large confidence intervals apply) • Archives are over-represented in the sample (higher response rate); museums and «other institutions» are under-represented; libraries are about average. 6
  • 7. Innovation Diffusion among Swiss GLAMs: The Overall Picture 7 A critical mass has been reached. How about the laggards? Will we see a higher rate of adoption for Open Data than for Crowdsourcing? Some institutions are starting to think about Linked Data…
  • 8. Digitization and Availability on the Internet 8 42% 23% 11% 17% 37% 32% Metadata Reproductions of memory objects Background information Availability on the Internet (in % of institutions, N=71) "is partly the case" "is the case" 60% of institutions make metadata and reproductions at least partly available on the Internet. 40% still don’t!
  • 9. Exchange of Metadata / Cooperation in Networks 61% of the responding GLAMs exchange metadata with other institutions. 39% don’t. 30% do so in the context of bilateral cooperation; 43% in the context of multilateral cooperation. For 29% the exchange of metadata is part of their core mission. 17% say this is partly the case. 9 61% 39% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% yes no Do you exchange metadata with other institutions? (in % of institutions; N=72) 15% 35% 29% 3% 15% 8% 17% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The exchange of metadata is important for us... (in % of institutions; N=72) "is partly the case" "is the case"
  • 10. Metadata: Need for Improvement 10 11% 42% 21% 25% 10% 43% 23% 24% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% urgent need need in the medium term no need no answer Metadata: Need for improvement? (in % of institutions; N=71) Quality of metadata (accuracy, completeness, up-to- dateness, clarity, availability) Interoperability of metadata (availability in digital format, conformity with standards) Ca. 50% of GLAMs perceive a need to improve their metadata. The needs to improve metadata quality and interoperability are highly correlated. – Does the envisioned exchange of metadata lead to higher quality requirements? 25% of responding GLAMs couldn’t answer this question. – What does this mean?
  • 11. Metadata: What needs to be improved? 11 9% 51% 16% 30% 40% 42% 26% 60% 33% 40% 37% 23% 26% 28% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% accuracy completeness up-to-dateness clarity availability digitization conformity with current exchange formats Metadata: What needs to be improved? (in % of institutions; N=43) "is partly the case" "is the case" The main challenges: completeness, availability, digitization
  • 12. Open Data Readiness 12 7% 1% 32% 7% 21% 51% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% for charitable projects, such as Wikipedia, which also permit commercial use for users who are intending to commercially exploit them The memory objects are available on the Internet... (in % of institutions; N=68) not accessible for free accessible at no charge (but you are not allowed to modify them) "freely" accessible Between 1% and 7% of responding GLAMs make scans/photographs of their heritage objects «freely» available on the Internet. Over half of them make them available on the Internet, but with restrictions. 40% don’t make them available at all. Over 50% of the GLAMs which make their heritage objects available on the Internet do not understand that you cannot make works available for Wikipedia and simultaneously prevent their modification and/or their commercial use!
  • 13. Desirability and Importance of Open Data 13 0% 1% 6% 6% 7% 36% 25% 11% 6% 3% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% -10 to - 8 -8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10 Desirability of Open Data (in % of institutions, N=71) 1% 8% 7% 3% 21% 31% 8% 14% 6% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% very important important neither, nor unimportant no answer Importance / Desirability of Open Data (in % of institutions; N=71) risks prevail opportunities prevail For over 80% of responding GLAMs the opportunities outweigh the risks of Open Data. Over 50% think Open Data is an important issue; almost all of these believe that the opportunities outweigh the risks.
  • 14. Open Data / “Free” Licensing of Content 14 59% 76% 60% 29% 7% 69% 40% 21% 19% 23% 26% 9% 20% 34% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% For private useFor education and researchFor charitable projectsFor charitable projects, such as Wikipedia, which also permit commercial use For users who are intending to commercially exploit themOnly if the name of the institution remains attached to the dataOnly if the work will be re-used in unmodified form Conditions under which they would make memory objects freely accessible on the Internet (in % der Institutionen; N=70) "is partly the case" "is the case" Most GLAMs wouldn’t readily agree to «freely» license their content – even in the absence of third party rights: they would like to prevent the commercial use at no charge as well as the modification of works.
  • 15. 15 Crowdsourcing 11% 4% 14% 3% 6% 1%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Wikipedia Wikimedia Commons Flickr Commons others Are any of your staff members engaging in projects which support open data or collaborative projects on the Internet? (in % of institutions; N=71) in their spare time as part of their professional activity 11% of responding GLAMs have staff members who contribute to Wikipedia as part of their professional activity. 10% of responding GLAMs say that online volunteering plays partly an important role for them. Interestingly, no correlation was found between the two variables.
  • 16. 16 Desirability and Importance of Crowdsourcing 4% 15% 19% 11% 43% 3% 3% 1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% -10 to - 8 -8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10 Desirability of Crowdsourcing (in % of institutions; N=69) 10% 25% 14% 29% 16% 3% 1% 1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% very important important neither, nor unimportant no answer Importance / Desirability of Crowdsourcing (in % of institutions; N=69) risks prevail opportunities prevail For over 90% of the responding GLAMs the risks of Crowdsourcing are at least as great as the opportunities. For half of them the risks clearly prevail. Among GLAMs which think that Crowdsourcing is an important issue, the risk perception is equally high.
  • 17. Linked Data / Semantic Web 17 6% 23% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Is „Linked Data“ / „Semantic Web“ an issue for your institution? (in % of institutions; N=71) Yes, it is an issue, but we haven't planned any projects yet Yes, we have already planned projects in this area 29% of responding GLAMs say that Linked Data is an issue for them. None of them has a running project.
  • 18. Recapitulation 18 59% 60% 43% 53% 81% 7% 1% 38% 7% 10% 11% 29% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100% Metadata available on the Internet Photos/scans of memory object available on the Internet Exchange of metadata takes place and is important Open Data is important Open Data is desirable Readiness to make data available for Wikipedia Readiness to make data available for commercial use Crowdsourcing is important Crowdsourcing is desirable Importance of online-volunteer work Professional engagement in Wikipedia Linked Data is an issue Different dynamics for Open Data and Crowdsourcing 60% of responding GLAMs are technically ready for Open Data.
  • 19. Open Data: Opportunities 19 53% 65% 29% 50% 11% 68% 53% 67% 58% 36% 3% 24% 14% 22% 26% 19% 18% 21% 19% 21% 33% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Why do we need Open Data from the point of view of your institution? (in % of institutions; N=72) "is partly the case" "is the case" Main target groups: research and education, private individuals, cultural institutions Main opportunities: better visibility and accessibility of holdings; better visibility of the institutions; better networking among GLAMs.
  • 20. Open Data: Risks 20 66% 34% 32% 28% 18% 25% 3% 20% 34% 34% 23% 17% 34% 11% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Time effort and expense for making them available The use of the data cannot be controlled Copyright infringements Infringements of data protection regulations Divulgation of classified information Increased time effort in order to respond to enquiries Loss of revenues What are the risks of open data for your institution? (in % of institutions; N=71) "is partly the case" "is the case" Major risk: extra time effort and expenses Considerable risks: loss of control, copyright, data protection, secrecy infringements Almost no risk: Loss of revenues
  • 21. Crowdsourcing: Opportunities 21 6% 1% 4% 11% 3% 24% 24% 21% 20% 14% 21% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Correction and transcription tasks Enhancement and expansion of texts Completion of collections (contribution / identification of additional objects) Classification / completion of metadata Co-curators Crowdfunding (fundraising) What are the opportunities of crowdsourcing for your institution? (in % of institutions; N=71) "is partly the case" "is the case" Crowdsourcing is most likely to be employed for classification tasks.
  • 22. Crowdsourcing: Risks 22 35% 42% 35% 38% 30% 6% 26% 30% 35% 28% 30% 17% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Unforeseeable results Considerable time/effort needed for preparation and follow-up Difficulties in estimating the time-effort No guarantee concerning long-term data maintenance Low level of planning reliability Fears among employees (job loss, changing roles and tasks) What are the risks of crowdsourcing from your point of view? (in % of institutions; N=69) "is partly the case" "is the case" All the enumerated risks are rated about the same, except for fears among employees which seem to play a minor role.
  • 23. Economic Considerations • Extra time effort and expenses are seen as the greatest risks/shortcomings of Open Data and Crowdsourcing. • Expected losses of revenue play virtually no role. • The sale of image rights is evaluated at < 0.5 % of overall revenues • Lending fees at 1% of overall revenues • While the responding GLAMs may perceive at least some efficiency gains related to Open Data, they do not perceive any potential economies associated to Crowdsourcing (yet). 23
  • 24. Outlook / Next Steps • Promote the study among GLAMs and political actors in Switzerland • Orient GLAM outreach activities in the light of the findings • Promote “free” licensing at a large scale, cf. OpenGLAM Principles • Foster mutual learning in the area of Crowdsourcing and (Linked) Open Data (OpenGLAM Network); make sure that benefits are achieved and documented; improve coordination along the supply-chain • Examine ways to improve digitization coverage • Evaluate the demand for follow-up studies: • Study with a larger sample in Switzerland • Longitudinal study in Switzerland (e.g. similar survey in 2014 to measure the changes) • International benchmark study Please contact me if you are interested! 24
  • 25. Thanks for Your Attention! Full study report: English: http://tinyurl.com/SwissGLAMsurvey Deutsch: http://tinyurl.com/GLAMStudie Contact details: Beat Estermann E-mail: beat.estermann@bfh.ch Phone: +41 31 848 34 38 Affiliations: Research Associate, E-Government Institute, Bern University of Applied Sciences Member of opendata.ch (Swiss Chapter of the Open Knowledge Foundation) Member of Digitale Allmend (Swiss Chapter of CreativeCommons) Member of Wikimedia CH This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 25

Editor's Notes

  1. CoordinatedDigitizationEfforts (2000)Single-Point-of-Access Offers (2000..)Web2.0, Personnalization (2005..)Crowdsourcing (2006..)Open Data (2009..)Linked Open Data (2010..)
  2. CoordinatedDigitizationEfforts (2000)Single-Point-of-Access Offers (2000..)Web2.0, Personnalization (2005..)Crowdsourcing (2006..)Open Data (2009..)Linked Open Data (2010..)
  3. CoordinatedDigitizationEfforts (2000)Single-Point-of-Access Offers (2000..)Web2.0, Personnalization (2005..)Crowdsourcing (2006..)Open Data (2009..)Linked Open Data (2010..)
  4. Q: There is a trend among memory institutions to make reproductions / content of their objects freely available on the internet.Under which conditions could you imagine making reproductions / content of your objects available on the internet free of charge, without earning any extra money?(Provided that the contents are already available in digital format and are free from third parties’ copyright claims or confidentiality restrictions.)