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OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey
Preliminary Results from Finland and Poland
Beat Estermann, 11 April 2015 – GLAM-Wiki Conference, Den Haag
▶ Bern University of Applied Sciences | E-Government Institute || Open Knowledge | OpenGLAM Working Group
Interior with figures before a picture collection, Gonzales Coques, Dirk van Delen et al., 17th century, Public Domain (Mauritshuis)
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License.
▶ Introduction to the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey Project
▶ Preliminary Results: Finnish and Polish Data Sets
▶ Implications for GLAM Outreach
▶ Outlook
Welcome!
Introduction to the OpenGLAM Benchmark
Survey Project
▶ Online survey conducted among heritage institutions throughout the
world in 2014/2015.
▶ Focusing on questions related to digitization, exchange of metadata,
open data/open content, semantic web,
social media, crowdsourcing
▶ Inspired by an earlier pilot survey, carried out in Switzerland in 2012
▶ Organized in a federative manner, which means that the organization
depends on volunteers and partners in each country
What is the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey about?
▶ Measure the state of advancement of OpenGLAM in the participating
countries
▶ Inform the GLAM community about the latest developments in the area of
OpenGLAM
▶ Identify potential partners for open data and/or crowdsourcing projects
▶ Use the study report as a communication instrument to promote
OpenGLAM
▶ Provide international comparisons:
• Allowing each country to see where it stands compared to other countries.
• Provide the international OpenGLAM community with a tool that helps it better
understand the particularities of each country
What do we want to achieve?
Overview of participating countries
Further countries are welcome to join!
Overview: https://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM/OpenGLAM_Benchmark_Survey/Participating_countries
Participation status (as of 7 April 2015)
Dark Green: Completed
Light Green: Initial commitment
Yellow: Clarification needed / presently insufficient support
Underlying graphic file: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BlankMap-World-v2.png Roke et al. (CC-by-sa)
Preliminary Results
• Finnish and Polish Data Sets
• Focus on Open Content and
Collaborative Content Creation / Crowdsourcing
Finland Poland
N institutions contacted[1] 356 669
N responses[2] 81 79
Response rate[3] 26% 12%
– Archives 50% 21%
– Libraries 37% 17%
– Museums 21% 10%
Finnish and Polish Data Samples
Notes:
[1] Number of institutions which have been contacted (each institution is counted once, even if it has been contacted via
several email addresses or through different channels, e.g. follow-up phone calls in addition to e-mail reminders).
[2] Number of institutions which have completed the questionnaire (almost) in full, i.e. institutions which have responded to at
least 20 out of the 24 non-conditional questions of the questionnaire.
[3] For the purpose of the calculation of the response rate, institutions which have started to fill in the questionnaire but
dropped out after question A2 as they did not correspond to the survey's definition of heritage institutions, are counted as
responses.
Where do GLAMs stand with regard to…
…Open Data?
…Linked Data / Semantic Web?
…Digitization
…Open Content?
…Engaging Audiences on the Internet
…Collaborative Content Creation
What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors)
What are the expected benefits?
Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest
Innovation Diffusion Model,
Everett Rogers, 1962
Tentative Visualization of a Simple Diffusion Model
Int erest Evaluat ion Trial Adopt ion
Advanced
Implement at ion
interested in
obtaining further
information /
training / consulting
future practice
intended
at least some
practice at
present / so far
medium level of
practice at present
/ so far
advanced level of
practice at present /
so far
20% or more 50% or more
83% 54% 43% 29% 20%
20% or more 50% or more
83% 25% 13% 8% 6%
20% or more 50% or more
76% 81% 83% 54% 18%
20% or more 50% or more
82% 63% 42% 12% 4%
at least 3 social
media types
at least 5 social
media types
74% 92% 89% 53% 23%
at least 2
crowdsourcing
approaches
at least 3
crowdsourcing
approaches
78% 38% 29% 16% 8%
Collaborat ive Cont ent
Creat ion
Exchanging Dat a
Open Dat a
Linked Dat a /
Semant ic Web
Digit izat ion
Open Cont ent
Engaging Audiences on
t he Int ernet
Importance of Various Practices
31 29
18
63
25
22
9
29
23
24
17
23 28
21
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Exchanging
data
Open data Linked data /
semantic web
Digitization Open content Engaging
audiences on
the Internet
Collaborative
content
creation
1 - Not important at all
2
3
4
5 - Very important
N = 140
47
20
32
77
22
37
18
32
27
33
13
24
28
36
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Exchanging
data
Open data Linked data /
semantic web
Digitization Open content Engaging
audiences on
the Internet
Collaborative
content
creation
1 - Risks clearly prevail
2
3
4
5 - Opportunities clearly prevail
Desirability of Various Practices
(Opportunities vs. Risks)
N = 134
Open Content: Importance vs. Desirability
1%
4%
6%
16%
21%
3%
1%
7%
4%
4%
10% 7%
9%
4%
2%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
1 - Not important at
all
2 3 4 5 - Very important
Importance and desirability of "open content" (in % of institutions; N=135)
risks prevail
equal risks and opportunities
opportunities prevail
Collaborative Content Creation:
Importance vs. Desirability
3%
12%
13%
19%
10%
8%
5%
12%
2%
5%
5%
4%
2%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
1 - Not important at
all
2 3 4 5 - Very important
Importance and desirability of "collaborative content creation"
(in % of institutions; N=130)
risks prevail
equal risks and opportunities
opportunities prevail
Digitization as a Prerequisite for Open Content
2% 2% 4%
1%
2%
22%
23%
9%
6%
7%
12%
2%
2%
5%
2%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
0% 1-19% 20-49% 50-79% 80% or more
Average percentage of objects already digitized
Expected digitization activities over the next 5 years
(in % of institutions; N=123)
50% or more
20-49%
1-19%
0%
Digitization: Different types of objects
Copyright Clearance as a Prerequisite for Open Content
28
22
41
36
67
41
13
24
29
34
38
42
17
46
42
56
36
29
7 16
11
36
18
7
17 14
8
17
2
9
2
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
What is the copyright situation of the objects in your collections?
(average percentages for each object type; N is indicated for each object type)
Copyright status
unknown
Copyright controlled by
third parties
Copyright controlled by
the institution
Public Domain
Note: The data may be somewhat biased as it does - by definition - not include the data from
institutions who weren’t able to provide numbers regarding the copyright status of their objects.
Benefits of Open Content
D7: In the case of my institution, ‘open content’ is an important means…
N = 145
Challenges Related to Open Content
D8: For my institution, these are important challenges related to ‘open content’…
N = 151
Risks Related to Open Content
D9: For my institution, these are important risks related to ‘open content’…
N = 146
Conditions for Releasing Content
N = 132
▶ 17% of responding GLAMs have staff members who are involved in
Wikipedia as part of their job
▶ Wikimedia Commons: 3%
▶ Wikidata: 2%
GLAM Involvement in Wikipedia
Most popular crowdsourcing approaches
N = 60
Note: The graph summarizes the data from the institutions which indicated that they are presently
using at least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year.
Purpose of crowdsourcing
Note: This question was asked only to institutions which indicated that they are presently using at
least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year.
N = 50
Risks and Challenges of Crowdsourcing
Note: This question was asked only to institutions which indicated that they are presently using at
least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year.
N = 54N = 46
What are the Implications for GLAM
Outreach?
Summing up the main findings...
▶ Digitization and the Use of Social Media are widespread practices
in the Finnish/Polish GLAM sector, with adoption rates above 50%.
▶ Open Data and Open Content are about to diffuse within the FI/PL
GLAM sector; for Open Data we are observing an adoption rate of ca.
30%; for Open Content the adoption rate is just above 10%.
▶ Collaborative Content Creation is diffusing more slowly than Open
Data / Open Content
▶ These findings are reflected in the importance accorded to the
various practices; ca. 50% of respondents consider Open Data and
Open Content as important; ca. 30% say so with regard to
Collaborative Content Creation
Diffusion of Various Practices
▶ Over the next 5 years we will see leaps in digitization activities.
▶ Ca. 80% of institutions think that opening up content helps them
better fulfill their core mission.
▶ In general, issues related to copyright clearance may be an excuse,
but not a show-stopper regarding the opening up of content; across
all object types, institutions may release at least 50% of their holdings
as open content.
▶ When it comes to promoting the opening up of content, the present
mindset of GLAMs poses two major challenges: their aversion
against the prospect of commercial use of open content, and their
reluctance to let third parties modify the content.
Prerequisites for Open Content
▶ The greatest challenges regarding open content are the time
effort and expense related to the digitization and the documentation
of content. Other important challenges comprise the time effort and
expense related to rights clearance as well as technical challenges.
▶ The greatest risks associated with open content are re-use of
content without proper attribution or mis-use of the content. Other
important risks are copyright infringements.
▶ When it comes to opening up content, loss of revenues, diminished
brand value, or problems with tracking the use are only minor
preoccupations.
Challenges / Risks related to Open Content
▶ Ca. 30% of GLAMs consider Collaborative Content Creation as
important and believe that the opportunities prevail over the risks
▶ Ca. 20% of GLAMs are already involved in Wikipedia.
▶ Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata still seem to play a minor role
for GLAMs (with 3% and 2% of institutions involved).
Involvement in Wikipedia
Outlook
▶ Data collection in further countries – Your support is
appreciated…
▶ Country comparisons / Context analysis
▶ Comparisons between different types of GLAMs
▶ More detailed analyses – Feel free to join!
▶ Publication of country reports
▶ Publication of an international report in the first half of
2016
▶ Explore further uses of the GLAM inventory as a by-
product of the survey
What’s next?
▶ Contact Details:
• Beat Estermann
E-mail: beat.estermann@bfh.ch
Phone: +41 31 848 34 38
▶ Project Portal:
• http://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM/OpenGLAM_Benchmark_Survey
Thank you for your attention!

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Estermann glam wiki2015_glam-survey_20150411

  • 1. OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey Preliminary Results from Finland and Poland Beat Estermann, 11 April 2015 – GLAM-Wiki Conference, Den Haag ▶ Bern University of Applied Sciences | E-Government Institute || Open Knowledge | OpenGLAM Working Group Interior with figures before a picture collection, Gonzales Coques, Dirk van Delen et al., 17th century, Public Domain (Mauritshuis) This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License.
  • 2. ▶ Introduction to the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey Project ▶ Preliminary Results: Finnish and Polish Data Sets ▶ Implications for GLAM Outreach ▶ Outlook Welcome!
  • 3. Introduction to the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey Project
  • 4. ▶ Online survey conducted among heritage institutions throughout the world in 2014/2015. ▶ Focusing on questions related to digitization, exchange of metadata, open data/open content, semantic web, social media, crowdsourcing ▶ Inspired by an earlier pilot survey, carried out in Switzerland in 2012 ▶ Organized in a federative manner, which means that the organization depends on volunteers and partners in each country What is the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey about?
  • 5. ▶ Measure the state of advancement of OpenGLAM in the participating countries ▶ Inform the GLAM community about the latest developments in the area of OpenGLAM ▶ Identify potential partners for open data and/or crowdsourcing projects ▶ Use the study report as a communication instrument to promote OpenGLAM ▶ Provide international comparisons: • Allowing each country to see where it stands compared to other countries. • Provide the international OpenGLAM community with a tool that helps it better understand the particularities of each country What do we want to achieve?
  • 6. Overview of participating countries Further countries are welcome to join! Overview: https://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM/OpenGLAM_Benchmark_Survey/Participating_countries Participation status (as of 7 April 2015) Dark Green: Completed Light Green: Initial commitment Yellow: Clarification needed / presently insufficient support Underlying graphic file: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BlankMap-World-v2.png Roke et al. (CC-by-sa)
  • 7. Preliminary Results • Finnish and Polish Data Sets • Focus on Open Content and Collaborative Content Creation / Crowdsourcing
  • 8. Finland Poland N institutions contacted[1] 356 669 N responses[2] 81 79 Response rate[3] 26% 12% – Archives 50% 21% – Libraries 37% 17% – Museums 21% 10% Finnish and Polish Data Samples Notes: [1] Number of institutions which have been contacted (each institution is counted once, even if it has been contacted via several email addresses or through different channels, e.g. follow-up phone calls in addition to e-mail reminders). [2] Number of institutions which have completed the questionnaire (almost) in full, i.e. institutions which have responded to at least 20 out of the 24 non-conditional questions of the questionnaire. [3] For the purpose of the calculation of the response rate, institutions which have started to fill in the questionnaire but dropped out after question A2 as they did not correspond to the survey's definition of heritage institutions, are counted as responses.
  • 9. Where do GLAMs stand with regard to… …Open Data? …Linked Data / Semantic Web? …Digitization …Open Content? …Engaging Audiences on the Internet …Collaborative Content Creation What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors) What are the expected benefits? Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest Innovation Diffusion Model, Everett Rogers, 1962
  • 10. Tentative Visualization of a Simple Diffusion Model Int erest Evaluat ion Trial Adopt ion Advanced Implement at ion interested in obtaining further information / training / consulting future practice intended at least some practice at present / so far medium level of practice at present / so far advanced level of practice at present / so far 20% or more 50% or more 83% 54% 43% 29% 20% 20% or more 50% or more 83% 25% 13% 8% 6% 20% or more 50% or more 76% 81% 83% 54% 18% 20% or more 50% or more 82% 63% 42% 12% 4% at least 3 social media types at least 5 social media types 74% 92% 89% 53% 23% at least 2 crowdsourcing approaches at least 3 crowdsourcing approaches 78% 38% 29% 16% 8% Collaborat ive Cont ent Creat ion Exchanging Dat a Open Dat a Linked Dat a / Semant ic Web Digit izat ion Open Cont ent Engaging Audiences on t he Int ernet
  • 11. Importance of Various Practices 31 29 18 63 25 22 9 29 23 24 17 23 28 21 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Exchanging data Open data Linked data / semantic web Digitization Open content Engaging audiences on the Internet Collaborative content creation 1 - Not important at all 2 3 4 5 - Very important N = 140
  • 12. 47 20 32 77 22 37 18 32 27 33 13 24 28 36 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Exchanging data Open data Linked data / semantic web Digitization Open content Engaging audiences on the Internet Collaborative content creation 1 - Risks clearly prevail 2 3 4 5 - Opportunities clearly prevail Desirability of Various Practices (Opportunities vs. Risks) N = 134
  • 13. Open Content: Importance vs. Desirability 1% 4% 6% 16% 21% 3% 1% 7% 4% 4% 10% 7% 9% 4% 2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1 - Not important at all 2 3 4 5 - Very important Importance and desirability of "open content" (in % of institutions; N=135) risks prevail equal risks and opportunities opportunities prevail
  • 14. Collaborative Content Creation: Importance vs. Desirability 3% 12% 13% 19% 10% 8% 5% 12% 2% 5% 5% 4% 2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1 - Not important at all 2 3 4 5 - Very important Importance and desirability of "collaborative content creation" (in % of institutions; N=130) risks prevail equal risks and opportunities opportunities prevail
  • 15. Digitization as a Prerequisite for Open Content 2% 2% 4% 1% 2% 22% 23% 9% 6% 7% 12% 2% 2% 5% 2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0% 1-19% 20-49% 50-79% 80% or more Average percentage of objects already digitized Expected digitization activities over the next 5 years (in % of institutions; N=123) 50% or more 20-49% 1-19% 0%
  • 17. Copyright Clearance as a Prerequisite for Open Content 28 22 41 36 67 41 13 24 29 34 38 42 17 46 42 56 36 29 7 16 11 36 18 7 17 14 8 17 2 9 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% What is the copyright situation of the objects in your collections? (average percentages for each object type; N is indicated for each object type) Copyright status unknown Copyright controlled by third parties Copyright controlled by the institution Public Domain Note: The data may be somewhat biased as it does - by definition - not include the data from institutions who weren’t able to provide numbers regarding the copyright status of their objects.
  • 18. Benefits of Open Content D7: In the case of my institution, ‘open content’ is an important means… N = 145
  • 19. Challenges Related to Open Content D8: For my institution, these are important challenges related to ‘open content’… N = 151
  • 20. Risks Related to Open Content D9: For my institution, these are important risks related to ‘open content’… N = 146
  • 21. Conditions for Releasing Content N = 132
  • 22. ▶ 17% of responding GLAMs have staff members who are involved in Wikipedia as part of their job ▶ Wikimedia Commons: 3% ▶ Wikidata: 2% GLAM Involvement in Wikipedia
  • 23. Most popular crowdsourcing approaches N = 60 Note: The graph summarizes the data from the institutions which indicated that they are presently using at least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year.
  • 24. Purpose of crowdsourcing Note: This question was asked only to institutions which indicated that they are presently using at least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year. N = 50
  • 25. Risks and Challenges of Crowdsourcing Note: This question was asked only to institutions which indicated that they are presently using at least one crowdsourcing approach or are planning to use one within the next year. N = 54N = 46
  • 26. What are the Implications for GLAM Outreach? Summing up the main findings...
  • 27. ▶ Digitization and the Use of Social Media are widespread practices in the Finnish/Polish GLAM sector, with adoption rates above 50%. ▶ Open Data and Open Content are about to diffuse within the FI/PL GLAM sector; for Open Data we are observing an adoption rate of ca. 30%; for Open Content the adoption rate is just above 10%. ▶ Collaborative Content Creation is diffusing more slowly than Open Data / Open Content ▶ These findings are reflected in the importance accorded to the various practices; ca. 50% of respondents consider Open Data and Open Content as important; ca. 30% say so with regard to Collaborative Content Creation Diffusion of Various Practices
  • 28. ▶ Over the next 5 years we will see leaps in digitization activities. ▶ Ca. 80% of institutions think that opening up content helps them better fulfill their core mission. ▶ In general, issues related to copyright clearance may be an excuse, but not a show-stopper regarding the opening up of content; across all object types, institutions may release at least 50% of their holdings as open content. ▶ When it comes to promoting the opening up of content, the present mindset of GLAMs poses two major challenges: their aversion against the prospect of commercial use of open content, and their reluctance to let third parties modify the content. Prerequisites for Open Content
  • 29. ▶ The greatest challenges regarding open content are the time effort and expense related to the digitization and the documentation of content. Other important challenges comprise the time effort and expense related to rights clearance as well as technical challenges. ▶ The greatest risks associated with open content are re-use of content without proper attribution or mis-use of the content. Other important risks are copyright infringements. ▶ When it comes to opening up content, loss of revenues, diminished brand value, or problems with tracking the use are only minor preoccupations. Challenges / Risks related to Open Content
  • 30. ▶ Ca. 30% of GLAMs consider Collaborative Content Creation as important and believe that the opportunities prevail over the risks ▶ Ca. 20% of GLAMs are already involved in Wikipedia. ▶ Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata still seem to play a minor role for GLAMs (with 3% and 2% of institutions involved). Involvement in Wikipedia
  • 32. ▶ Data collection in further countries – Your support is appreciated… ▶ Country comparisons / Context analysis ▶ Comparisons between different types of GLAMs ▶ More detailed analyses – Feel free to join! ▶ Publication of country reports ▶ Publication of an international report in the first half of 2016 ▶ Explore further uses of the GLAM inventory as a by- product of the survey What’s next?
  • 33. ▶ Contact Details: • Beat Estermann E-mail: beat.estermann@bfh.ch Phone: +41 31 848 34 38 ▶ Project Portal: • http://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM/OpenGLAM_Benchmark_Survey Thank you for your attention!