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Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its
Practical Implications
Beat Estermann, BUAP, Puebla, 11 April 2024
Ball Game, Palace of Water, Acropolis, Toniná. National Museum of Anthropology. User:Toyotsu, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA.
Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this slide deck are provided under the CC BY 4.0 License.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Towards a New Model of Public Administration in the Digital Era
▶ Digital Transformation of the Public Sector
▶ Political Guidelines: The Tallinn Declaration on eGovernment
▶ Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector
▶ Open GLAM as an Empirical Phenomenon
▶ Open GLAM as a Movement
▶ GLAM-Wiki Cooperation
▶ Current Trends
▶ Open GLAM @ BUAP
Overview
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Locating Switzerland and the European Union…
Image by User: TUBS, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0. Image by User: Kolja21, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 3.0.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
1.1
Digital Transformation of
the Public Sector
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Models of Public Administration Through the Ages
1900 1980 2000
Images under copyright.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
First Generation E-Government Maturity Models
Online Presence
Interaction
Transaction
Integration
Transformation
Around 20 different "e-government
stage models" were published
between 2000 and 2012. All but one
focus on the first four stages of
e-government development.
What comes next remains largely
speculative in the first-generation
e-government maturity models.
Cf. «E-Government Nirvana»
(Coursey & Norris 2008)
Source: Estermann (2018)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Transformation of the Public Sector
Logic Conclusion of the NPM Reform
• Breaking through organizational silos, in order to offer
seamless cross-organizational services
• Customer-centered design of digital public services
• Digital forms of citizen participation, including e-
voting
In addition to other characteristics of NPM-inspired
change, such as:
• Disaggregation of large public-sector hierarchies into
smaller structures and introduction of competitive
elements through market-like arrangements
• Increased focus on service quality and customer
responsiveness
• Shift in accounting principles inspired by the private
sector
• Increased use of pecuniary-based performance
incentives for public sector employees
Source: Estermann (2018)
Beginning of the Post-Managerial Era
• Citizens as Prosumers: Citizens are no longer passive
«consumers», but co-producers of public services;
online collaboration.
• «Government as a Platform»: Public adminstration as
a provider of data and infrastructure services which
third parties can build upon.
• «Open Government»: Transparency and
empowerment of citizens and civil society to help
them solve societal problems.
• «Collaborative Governance»: Closer cooperation
between public and private sector players;
coordination via networks, not markets.
• «Governments as Catalysts for Change»: Moving away
from the concept of administration as a "service
provider"; public entrepreneurship as a driver of social
change.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
1.2
Political Guidelines for the Digital
Transformation:
The Tallinn Declaration
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Common orientation framework of
EU and EFTA countries for the digital
transformation of public
administration
Digital transformation of public
administration not only as a
national, but also as an international
coordination task
Link: original text of the declaration
Image under copyright.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (1/3)
In order to increase the efficiency and user orientation ("user centricity"), the
services of public administrations should be digital, inclusive, accessible and barrier-
free by default ("digital by default", "inclusiveness", "accessibility").
1
For central services of the public sector, the principle applies that citizens or
businesses need to provide the same information to the public administration only
once ("once only"); the administration takes care of the internal transfer of the
information at the behest of citizens or businesses.
2
Public services must be trustworthy and secure ("trustworthiness", "security"),
whereby privacy is to be respected and national eID solutions are to be used.
3
Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (2/3)
In the spirit of openness and transparency ("openness", "transparency"), citizens
and companies should be enabled to manage data concerning them in base regi-
stries themselves and to exercise a certain degree of control over their use.
Furthermore, administrative data that is useful for the economy or society should
be made available as open data for free further use ("open by default") and linked
to reference databases ("automatic linkages to databases"). In addition, long-term
digital preservation of public sector data and information must be ensured (“long-
term preservation”).
4
Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (3/3)
IT applications of the public sector should be interoperable ("interoperability by
default"). In addition, open source solutions and open standards should be used
to increase the reusability of IT applications – both within the public administra-
tion and beyond ("make ICT solutions available for reuse"). When setting up
service infrastructures, duplications should be avoided ("avoid sectoral
duplication of service infrastructures").
5
Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Several accompanying measures are intended to promote the digital transformation of
the public sector:
▶ Promotion of “digital skills” within the public administration at all levels
▶ Promotion of “digital leadership skills” among top civil and public servants
▶ Broader use of data by the public administration itself (“widen and deepen the use of
data and analytics”)
▶ Faster innovation cycles (“more and faster innovation”)
▶ “Agile ways of developing and deploying digital technology”
Tallinn Declaration: Accompanying Measures
Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
What Type of Transformation of the Public Sector?
Sources: Estermann (2018); Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
Logic Conclusion of the NPM Reform
 Breaking through organizational silos, in order to offer
seamless cross-organizational services
 Customer-centered design of digital public services
 Digital forms of citizen participation, including e-
voting
In addition to other characteristics of NPM-inspired
change, such as:
• Disaggregation of large public-sector hierarchies into
smaller structures and introduction of competitive
elements through market-like arrangements
• Increased focus on service quality and customer
responsiveness
• Shift in accounting principles inspired by the private
sector
• Increased use of pecuniary-based performance
incentives for public sector employees
Beginning of the Post-Managerial Era
 Citizens as Prosumers: Citizens are no longer passive
«consumers», but co-producers of public services;
online collaboration.
 «Government as a Platform»: Public adminstration as
a provider of data and infrastructure services which
third parties can build upon.
• «Open Government»: Transparency and
empowerment of citizens and civil society to help
them solve societal problems.
• «Collaborative Governance»: Closer cooperation
between public and private sector players;
coordination via networks, not markets.
• «Governments as Catalysts for Change»: Moving away
from the concept of administration as a "service
provider"; public entrepreneurship as a driver of social
change.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
2.1
Open GLAM as an Empirical
Phenomenon
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Adoption of various Internet-related practices among Heritage
Institutions
Source: Estermann (2018)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Crowdsourcing refers to situations where an institution proposes to a group of
individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via a flexible open
call, the voluntary undertaking of a task, that usually would be performed by staff
members.
Cf. Estelles-Arolas & Gonzalez-Ladron-De-Guevara, 2012
The term collaborative content creation is used alternatively to refer to
crowdsourcing situations where online collaboration among volunteers is involved.
Cf. Estermann 2018
Defining Crowdsourcing
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
2.2
Open GLAM as a Movement
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s engage global audiences!
(go where the people are!)
Logos under copyright / protected by trademarks.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s improve the discoverability and
inter-connection of collections
Linking Open Data cloud diagram 2014,
by Max Schmachtenberg, Christian Bizer, Anja Jentzsch and Richard Cyganiak. http://lod-cloud.net/ CC BY-SA 3.0
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s create new possibilities for
participation by users / visitors
Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Swiss National Library,
Simon Schmid, Fabian Scherler - CC-BY-SA
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s facilitate the re-use of heritage items, their digital
representations, and the information about them
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
OpenGLAM Principles (2013)
1. Release digital information about the artefacts (metadata) into the public
domain using an appropriate legal tool […]
2. Keep digital representations of works for which copyright has expired
(public domain) in the public domain by not adding new rights to them.
3. When publishing data, make an explicit and robust statement of your
wishes and expectations with respect to reuse and repurposing […]
4. When publishing data, use open file formats which are machine-readable.
5. Opportunities to engage audiences in novel ways on the web should be
pursued.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
2.3
GLAM-Wiki Cooperation
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ First Generation Cooperation Projects
(since 2008)
Geared towards providing content for
/ by the means of Wikimedia projects:
Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, etc.
▶ Second Generation Online Collaboration
Projects (since 2020)
Wikimedia Movement Strategy 2030 goal:
Knowledge as a Service – Become a platform that serves knowledge in many formats
and builds tools for allies.
GLAM-Wiki Cooperation
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation…
British Museum
 Wikipedian in Residence
 Hoxne Challenge (improvement of a Wikipedia
article; the museum provides all helpful resources)
 Featured Article Prize
 School translation project (French students translate
Wikipedia articles)
 Cooperation between individual Wikipedians and
curators
Photo: User:Klafubra, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation…
British Library
 Edit-a-thon
 Backstage Pass
Photo: Mike Peel, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation…
Derbyshire Museums
 Curators edit Wikipedia
“If our staff can share their knowledge
with Wikipedians, anyone will be
able to learn more about our
collections.”
Courtesy of: Àlex Hinojo & Conxa Rodà
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ With the participation of staff members of the Swiss National Library, the Zürich Central
Library, the ETH Library, as well as OpenGLAM CH.
▶ 3 Projects:
• Graph-based query expansion
on Library Discovery Systems
• Referencing Archival Fonds on
Wikidata
• Referencing heritage institutions
in Wikidata and displaying data on
Wikipedia
Wikidata for Libraries Hackday Series (2019)
Source: Estermann (2020)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
LD4 Wikidata Affinity Group (since 2020)
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_LD4_Wikidata_Affinity_Group
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
2.4
Current Trends
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Trending Topics in Open GLAM over the past five years
Wikidata
Structured Data on
Commons
Algorithms
Machine Learning
Human-Machine
Interaction
FAIR Principles
CARE Principles
Ethical Considerations
Thematic Data
Ecosystems
Trustworthy Data
Spaces
Sharing of Sensitive Data
ML & CS for Data
Enrichment
Responsible Use of AI Global Digital
Public Goods
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The ISA Tool for the Tagging of Images
on Wikimedia Commons
Practice Example
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
A Tool for the Collaborative Tagging of Images
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The Technical Solution
Link to File (Wikimedia Commons, User: Beat Estermann, CC BY-SA)
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Thematic Data Ecosystems
More about…
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The ecosystem metaphor has increasingly been put forward as a tool
for leading change in the public sector and beyond, as it accounts for
the interdependency of social, technological and information systems
and stresses their self-organizing and co-evolutionary character.
The « Ecosystem » as a Metaphor for Leading Change
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Key Aspects of Thematic Data Ecosystems
Based on an analysis of 28 academic papers and reports on data ecosystems (2022)
Data Sharing
Interoperability & Shared
Infrastructures
Stakeholder Involvement
Economic Sustainability
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Heritage Sector
Public
Administration
Research /
Digital Humanities
Cultural
Sector
Digital Transformation
(Data) Ecosystem Thinking
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
The CARE Principles for (Indigenous)
Data Governance
More about…
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
“CARE Principles as a complement of the “FAIR” Principles
Source: Global Indigenous Data Alliance, https://www.gida-global.org/care
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Dealing with the Colonial Past
Practice Example
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Swiss Open Cultural Data Hackathon 2023
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
"It is within the framework established by Local
Contexts that I would like us to develop our thinking
around open data. I would therefore like the
Hackathon to take us in this direction and not in the
direction of open data that does not take into account
traditional indigenous knowledge before declaring that
the data is totally free of rights and in the public
domain."
Carine Durant, Director
Geneva Ethnographic Museum
Image under copyright
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Global Digital Public Goods
More about…
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Global Digital Public Goods – A Definition
“Digital public goods are open-source software, open data, open AI models,
open standards, and open content that adhere to privacy and other applicable
laws and best practices, do no harm by design, and help attain the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” – Digital Public Goods Alliance
The Vision of Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self-
Determination, Digital Sovereignty, and Sustainable Development
are an Ideal Basis for International Cooperation
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Data
• Once Only
• Open by Default
• Semantic Interoperability
• Interlinking with Reference Databases / Base Registers
▶ Applications
• Interoperability by Default
• Make ICT solutions available for reuse / Prioritization of Open Source Software
• Avoid sectoral duplication of service infrastructures
▶ eGovernment Services
• Trustworthiness & Security
• Inclusiveness & Accessibility
Digital Public Goods as a Means to Promote Public Sector
Transformation in Line with Tallinn Principles
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
3
Open GLAM @ BUAP
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Bootstrapping an Open GLAM Programme for the State of Puebla
CultureFLOW @ BUAP
Lead: Sandra Palacios & Beat Estermann
Seminar at ARPA
on the Digital Transformation
of the Heritage Sector
Beat Estermann (Visiting Scholar)
Local Coordinator: Sandra Palacios
Open GLAM & GLAM Hackathon @ PUE
Key Interlocutors: Héctor Díaz Furlong (ARPA), Marco Serrano (CCU Libraries), …
Integration of Open GLAM in
ARPA & UPA Curricula
International Cooperation
Projects
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
CultureFLOW @ BUAP
More about…
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
• CultureFLOW is a methodology that has been developed to extend the
traditional GLAMhack approach as used in Switzerland, Austria and elsewhere.
• CultureFLOW is intended to encourage and facilitate public participation and
artistic creation around the themes covered by GLAM hackathons.
It is being concretized and tested at the occasion of the 10th edition of the
GLAMhack taking place in Lucerne on 6-7 September 2024, with the involvement
of heritage institutions in Switzerland and students at BUAP (creative arts &
heritage management).
What is CultureFLOW ?
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
#GLAMhack24
5-7 September 2024, ZHB Luzern
10 Years Jubilee Edition
“On the Move”
Kapellbrücke, Lucerne. User: Slav Yakounin, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Engaging Ethnographic Museums in Switzerland
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Project Ideas Currently in Focus
Different Perspectives on the Habsburg
Website and Installations at Habsburg
Memory Sites
Pluralist Views on Artifacts in Ethnographic
Collections (artistic, participatory, etc.)
Online Application & Installations in Museums
Improved Access to Mesoamerican
Collections Worldwide
Wikimedia Commons, Wikidata, Wikipedia
Images under copyright
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
Q&A
Reflections on Next Steps
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Now, the Ball is in Your Camp… ;-)
Small detail of a reproduction of a mural at the Tepantitla complex of Teotihuacan. Daniel Lobo (Daquella manera), Wikimedia Commons via Flickr, CC BY 2.0.
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
-
Bibliography & Contact
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Bonazzi, G., & Tacke, V. (2014). Max Weber: Bürokratie als legale Herrschaft. In Geschichte des organisatorischen
Denkens (pp. 173-192). Springer VS, Wiesbaden.
▶ Coursey, D., & Norris, D. F. (2008): Models of e-government: Are they correct? An empirical assessment. Public
Administration Review, 68(3), 523–536.
▶ Dunleavy, P., & Margetts, H. (2015). Design principles for essentially digital governance. In: 111th Annual Meeting of the
American Political Science Association, 2015-09-03 - 2015-09-06.
▶ Estelles-Arolas, E., & Gonzalez-Ladron-De-Guevara, F. (2012). Towards an integrated crowdsourcing definition. Journal of
Information Science, 38(2), 189–200.
▶ Estermann, B. (2020). Wikidata for Libraries Hackday Series. This Month in GLAM, Switzerland Report, 10(1), January
2020.
▶ Estermann, B. (2018). Development Paths Towards Open Government – An Empirical Analysis Among Heritage
Institutions, Government Information Quarterly, 35(4), 599-612.
▶ Marti, M. D., Estermann, B., & Neuroni, A. C. (2022). Die Tallinn-Prinzipien als Wegbereiter der digitalen Transformation
des öffentlichen Sektors in der Schweiz. In Digitale Transformation in der Öffentlichen Verwaltung in der Schweiz: Stand,
Entwicklungslinien und Praxisbeispiele: Bd. Pleger, L. und Mertes, A.
Bibliography
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Contact
Beat Estermann
Opendata.ch
Member of the Board
beat.estermann@opendata.ch
https://openglam.ch
Bern Academy of the Arts
Coordinator Open Science / Digital Humantities
beat.estermann@hkb.bfh.ch

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Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications

  • 1. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications Beat Estermann, BUAP, Puebla, 11 April 2024 Ball Game, Palace of Water, Acropolis, Toniná. National Museum of Anthropology. User:Toyotsu, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA. Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this slide deck are provided under the CC BY 4.0 License.
  • 2. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Towards a New Model of Public Administration in the Digital Era ▶ Digital Transformation of the Public Sector ▶ Political Guidelines: The Tallinn Declaration on eGovernment ▶ Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector ▶ Open GLAM as an Empirical Phenomenon ▶ Open GLAM as a Movement ▶ GLAM-Wiki Cooperation ▶ Current Trends ▶ Open GLAM @ BUAP Overview
  • 3. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Locating Switzerland and the European Union… Image by User: TUBS, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0. Image by User: Kolja21, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 3.0.
  • 4. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 1.1 Digital Transformation of the Public Sector
  • 5. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Models of Public Administration Through the Ages 1900 1980 2000 Images under copyright.
  • 6. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences First Generation E-Government Maturity Models Online Presence Interaction Transaction Integration Transformation Around 20 different "e-government stage models" were published between 2000 and 2012. All but one focus on the first four stages of e-government development. What comes next remains largely speculative in the first-generation e-government maturity models. Cf. «E-Government Nirvana» (Coursey & Norris 2008) Source: Estermann (2018)
  • 7. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Transformation of the Public Sector Logic Conclusion of the NPM Reform • Breaking through organizational silos, in order to offer seamless cross-organizational services • Customer-centered design of digital public services • Digital forms of citizen participation, including e- voting In addition to other characteristics of NPM-inspired change, such as: • Disaggregation of large public-sector hierarchies into smaller structures and introduction of competitive elements through market-like arrangements • Increased focus on service quality and customer responsiveness • Shift in accounting principles inspired by the private sector • Increased use of pecuniary-based performance incentives for public sector employees Source: Estermann (2018) Beginning of the Post-Managerial Era • Citizens as Prosumers: Citizens are no longer passive «consumers», but co-producers of public services; online collaboration. • «Government as a Platform»: Public adminstration as a provider of data and infrastructure services which third parties can build upon. • «Open Government»: Transparency and empowerment of citizens and civil society to help them solve societal problems. • «Collaborative Governance»: Closer cooperation between public and private sector players; coordination via networks, not markets. • «Governments as Catalysts for Change»: Moving away from the concept of administration as a "service provider"; public entrepreneurship as a driver of social change.
  • 8. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 1.2 Political Guidelines for the Digital Transformation: The Tallinn Declaration
  • 9. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Common orientation framework of EU and EFTA countries for the digital transformation of public administration Digital transformation of public administration not only as a national, but also as an international coordination task Link: original text of the declaration Image under copyright.
  • 10. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (1/3) In order to increase the efficiency and user orientation ("user centricity"), the services of public administrations should be digital, inclusive, accessible and barrier- free by default ("digital by default", "inclusiveness", "accessibility"). 1 For central services of the public sector, the principle applies that citizens or businesses need to provide the same information to the public administration only once ("once only"); the administration takes care of the internal transfer of the information at the behest of citizens or businesses. 2 Public services must be trustworthy and secure ("trustworthiness", "security"), whereby privacy is to be respected and national eID solutions are to be used. 3 Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
  • 11. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (2/3) In the spirit of openness and transparency ("openness", "transparency"), citizens and companies should be enabled to manage data concerning them in base regi- stries themselves and to exercise a certain degree of control over their use. Furthermore, administrative data that is useful for the economy or society should be made available as open data for free further use ("open by default") and linked to reference databases ("automatic linkages to databases"). In addition, long-term digital preservation of public sector data and information must be ensured (“long- term preservation”). 4 Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
  • 12. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The Five Principles of the Tallinn Declaration (3/3) IT applications of the public sector should be interoperable ("interoperability by default"). In addition, open source solutions and open standards should be used to increase the reusability of IT applications – both within the public administra- tion and beyond ("make ICT solutions available for reuse"). When setting up service infrastructures, duplications should be avoided ("avoid sectoral duplication of service infrastructures"). 5 Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
  • 13. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Several accompanying measures are intended to promote the digital transformation of the public sector: ▶ Promotion of “digital skills” within the public administration at all levels ▶ Promotion of “digital leadership skills” among top civil and public servants ▶ Broader use of data by the public administration itself (“widen and deepen the use of data and analytics”) ▶ Faster innovation cycles (“more and faster innovation”) ▶ “Agile ways of developing and deploying digital technology” Tallinn Declaration: Accompanying Measures Source: Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022)
  • 14. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences What Type of Transformation of the Public Sector? Sources: Estermann (2018); Marti, Estermann, Neuroni (2022) Logic Conclusion of the NPM Reform  Breaking through organizational silos, in order to offer seamless cross-organizational services  Customer-centered design of digital public services  Digital forms of citizen participation, including e- voting In addition to other characteristics of NPM-inspired change, such as: • Disaggregation of large public-sector hierarchies into smaller structures and introduction of competitive elements through market-like arrangements • Increased focus on service quality and customer responsiveness • Shift in accounting principles inspired by the private sector • Increased use of pecuniary-based performance incentives for public sector employees Beginning of the Post-Managerial Era  Citizens as Prosumers: Citizens are no longer passive «consumers», but co-producers of public services; online collaboration.  «Government as a Platform»: Public adminstration as a provider of data and infrastructure services which third parties can build upon. • «Open Government»: Transparency and empowerment of citizens and civil society to help them solve societal problems. • «Collaborative Governance»: Closer cooperation between public and private sector players; coordination via networks, not markets. • «Governments as Catalysts for Change»: Moving away from the concept of administration as a "service provider"; public entrepreneurship as a driver of social change.
  • 15. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 2.1 Open GLAM as an Empirical Phenomenon
  • 16. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Adoption of various Internet-related practices among Heritage Institutions Source: Estermann (2018)
  • 17. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Crowdsourcing refers to situations where an institution proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via a flexible open call, the voluntary undertaking of a task, that usually would be performed by staff members. Cf. Estelles-Arolas & Gonzalez-Ladron-De-Guevara, 2012 The term collaborative content creation is used alternatively to refer to crowdsourcing situations where online collaboration among volunteers is involved. Cf. Estermann 2018 Defining Crowdsourcing
  • 18. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 2.2 Open GLAM as a Movement
  • 19. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s engage global audiences! (go where the people are!) Logos under copyright / protected by trademarks.
  • 20. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s improve the discoverability and inter-connection of collections Linking Open Data cloud diagram 2014, by Max Schmachtenberg, Christian Bizer, Anja Jentzsch and Richard Cyganiak. http://lod-cloud.net/ CC BY-SA 3.0
  • 21. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s create new possibilities for participation by users / visitors Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Swiss National Library, Simon Schmid, Fabian Scherler - CC-BY-SA
  • 22. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s facilitate the re-use of heritage items, their digital representations, and the information about them
  • 23. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences OpenGLAM Principles (2013) 1. Release digital information about the artefacts (metadata) into the public domain using an appropriate legal tool […] 2. Keep digital representations of works for which copyright has expired (public domain) in the public domain by not adding new rights to them. 3. When publishing data, make an explicit and robust statement of your wishes and expectations with respect to reuse and repurposing […] 4. When publishing data, use open file formats which are machine-readable. 5. Opportunities to engage audiences in novel ways on the web should be pursued.
  • 24. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 2.3 GLAM-Wiki Cooperation
  • 25. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ First Generation Cooperation Projects (since 2008) Geared towards providing content for / by the means of Wikimedia projects: Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, etc. ▶ Second Generation Online Collaboration Projects (since 2020) Wikimedia Movement Strategy 2030 goal: Knowledge as a Service – Become a platform that serves knowledge in many formats and builds tools for allies. GLAM-Wiki Cooperation
  • 26. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation… British Museum  Wikipedian in Residence  Hoxne Challenge (improvement of a Wikipedia article; the museum provides all helpful resources)  Featured Article Prize  School translation project (French students translate Wikipedia articles)  Cooperation between individual Wikipedians and curators Photo: User:Klafubra, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA
  • 27. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation… British Library  Edit-a-thon  Backstage Pass Photo: Mike Peel, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA
  • 28. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Some Examples of Early GLAM-Wiki Cooperation… Derbyshire Museums  Curators edit Wikipedia “If our staff can share their knowledge with Wikipedians, anyone will be able to learn more about our collections.” Courtesy of: Àlex Hinojo & Conxa Rodà
  • 29. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ With the participation of staff members of the Swiss National Library, the Zürich Central Library, the ETH Library, as well as OpenGLAM CH. ▶ 3 Projects: • Graph-based query expansion on Library Discovery Systems • Referencing Archival Fonds on Wikidata • Referencing heritage institutions in Wikidata and displaying data on Wikipedia Wikidata for Libraries Hackday Series (2019) Source: Estermann (2020)
  • 30. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences LD4 Wikidata Affinity Group (since 2020) https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_LD4_Wikidata_Affinity_Group
  • 31. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 2.4 Current Trends
  • 32. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Trending Topics in Open GLAM over the past five years Wikidata Structured Data on Commons Algorithms Machine Learning Human-Machine Interaction FAIR Principles CARE Principles Ethical Considerations Thematic Data Ecosystems Trustworthy Data Spaces Sharing of Sensitive Data ML & CS for Data Enrichment Responsible Use of AI Global Digital Public Goods
  • 33. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The ISA Tool for the Tagging of Images on Wikimedia Commons Practice Example
  • 34. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences A Tool for the Collaborative Tagging of Images
  • 35. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The Technical Solution Link to File (Wikimedia Commons, User: Beat Estermann, CC BY-SA)
  • 36. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
  • 37. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Thematic Data Ecosystems More about…
  • 38. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The ecosystem metaphor has increasingly been put forward as a tool for leading change in the public sector and beyond, as it accounts for the interdependency of social, technological and information systems and stresses their self-organizing and co-evolutionary character. The « Ecosystem » as a Metaphor for Leading Change
  • 39. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Key Aspects of Thematic Data Ecosystems Based on an analysis of 28 academic papers and reports on data ecosystems (2022) Data Sharing Interoperability & Shared Infrastructures Stakeholder Involvement Economic Sustainability
  • 40. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Heritage Sector Public Administration Research / Digital Humanities Cultural Sector Digital Transformation (Data) Ecosystem Thinking
  • 41. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The CARE Principles for (Indigenous) Data Governance More about…
  • 42. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences “CARE Principles as a complement of the “FAIR” Principles Source: Global Indigenous Data Alliance, https://www.gida-global.org/care
  • 43. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Dealing with the Colonial Past Practice Example
  • 44. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Swiss Open Cultural Data Hackathon 2023
  • 45. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences "It is within the framework established by Local Contexts that I would like us to develop our thinking around open data. I would therefore like the Hackathon to take us in this direction and not in the direction of open data that does not take into account traditional indigenous knowledge before declaring that the data is totally free of rights and in the public domain." Carine Durant, Director Geneva Ethnographic Museum Image under copyright
  • 46. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
  • 47. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Global Digital Public Goods More about…
  • 48. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Global Digital Public Goods – A Definition “Digital public goods are open-source software, open data, open AI models, open standards, and open content that adhere to privacy and other applicable laws and best practices, do no harm by design, and help attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” – Digital Public Goods Alliance The Vision of Digital Public Goods in the Service of Digital Self- Determination, Digital Sovereignty, and Sustainable Development are an Ideal Basis for International Cooperation
  • 49. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Data • Once Only • Open by Default • Semantic Interoperability • Interlinking with Reference Databases / Base Registers ▶ Applications • Interoperability by Default • Make ICT solutions available for reuse / Prioritization of Open Source Software • Avoid sectoral duplication of service infrastructures ▶ eGovernment Services • Trustworthiness & Security • Inclusiveness & Accessibility Digital Public Goods as a Means to Promote Public Sector Transformation in Line with Tallinn Principles
  • 50. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - 3 Open GLAM @ BUAP
  • 51. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Bootstrapping an Open GLAM Programme for the State of Puebla CultureFLOW @ BUAP Lead: Sandra Palacios & Beat Estermann Seminar at ARPA on the Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector Beat Estermann (Visiting Scholar) Local Coordinator: Sandra Palacios Open GLAM & GLAM Hackathon @ PUE Key Interlocutors: Héctor Díaz Furlong (ARPA), Marco Serrano (CCU Libraries), … Integration of Open GLAM in ARPA & UPA Curricula International Cooperation Projects
  • 52. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences CultureFLOW @ BUAP More about…
  • 53. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences • CultureFLOW is a methodology that has been developed to extend the traditional GLAMhack approach as used in Switzerland, Austria and elsewhere. • CultureFLOW is intended to encourage and facilitate public participation and artistic creation around the themes covered by GLAM hackathons. It is being concretized and tested at the occasion of the 10th edition of the GLAMhack taking place in Lucerne on 6-7 September 2024, with the involvement of heritage institutions in Switzerland and students at BUAP (creative arts & heritage management). What is CultureFLOW ?
  • 54. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences #GLAMhack24 5-7 September 2024, ZHB Luzern 10 Years Jubilee Edition “On the Move” Kapellbrücke, Lucerne. User: Slav Yakounin, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.
  • 55. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Engaging Ethnographic Museums in Switzerland
  • 56. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Project Ideas Currently in Focus Different Perspectives on the Habsburg Website and Installations at Habsburg Memory Sites Pluralist Views on Artifacts in Ethnographic Collections (artistic, participatory, etc.) Online Application & Installations in Museums Improved Access to Mesoamerican Collections Worldwide Wikimedia Commons, Wikidata, Wikipedia Images under copyright
  • 57. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - Q&A Reflections on Next Steps
  • 58. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Now, the Ball is in Your Camp… ;-) Small detail of a reproduction of a mural at the Tepantitla complex of Teotihuacan. Daniel Lobo (Daquella manera), Wikimedia Commons via Flickr, CC BY 2.0.
  • 59. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences - Bibliography & Contact
  • 60. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Bonazzi, G., & Tacke, V. (2014). Max Weber: Bürokratie als legale Herrschaft. In Geschichte des organisatorischen Denkens (pp. 173-192). Springer VS, Wiesbaden. ▶ Coursey, D., & Norris, D. F. (2008): Models of e-government: Are they correct? An empirical assessment. Public Administration Review, 68(3), 523–536. ▶ Dunleavy, P., & Margetts, H. (2015). Design principles for essentially digital governance. In: 111th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 2015-09-03 - 2015-09-06. ▶ Estelles-Arolas, E., & Gonzalez-Ladron-De-Guevara, F. (2012). Towards an integrated crowdsourcing definition. Journal of Information Science, 38(2), 189–200. ▶ Estermann, B. (2020). Wikidata for Libraries Hackday Series. This Month in GLAM, Switzerland Report, 10(1), January 2020. ▶ Estermann, B. (2018). Development Paths Towards Open Government – An Empirical Analysis Among Heritage Institutions, Government Information Quarterly, 35(4), 599-612. ▶ Marti, M. D., Estermann, B., & Neuroni, A. C. (2022). Die Tallinn-Prinzipien als Wegbereiter der digitalen Transformation des öffentlichen Sektors in der Schweiz. In Digitale Transformation in der Öffentlichen Verwaltung in der Schweiz: Stand, Entwicklungslinien und Praxisbeispiele: Bd. Pleger, L. und Mertes, A. Bibliography
  • 61. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Contact Beat Estermann Opendata.ch Member of the Board beat.estermann@opendata.ch https://openglam.ch Bern Academy of the Arts Coordinator Open Science / Digital Humantities beat.estermann@hkb.bfh.ch

Editor's Notes

  1. Organisationsübergreifende Zusammenarbeit ist ab der Entwicklungsstufe «Integration» unumgänglich und spielt zum Teil auch schon vorher eine zentrale Rolle, siehe z.B. «Shared Services». Gewisse Kapazitäten werden nicht bei der einzelnen Organisation aufgebaut, sondern werden ins Netzwerk verlegt.