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Mastering Startups
              UCL TE MSc


  “How to get what you need
when you get out of the building”




           Ian Collingwood
                @johnnyforeigner
                ian@uxdna.co.uk


        With grateful thanks to Johanna Kollman
                       @johannakoll
Introductions
What are we talking about?
How does this fit into startup culture?
Who are your customers?
Where will you find them?
Planning your interviews
Interview techniques
Keeping notes
Making sense of it all
Putting it to work on your startup
Introductions
Who am I?

- Founder of UXdna Limited
  (UK, Spain & Brazil)

- Specialise in Design Thinking
- Startup focused, but also work with
  enterprise clients

- Seedcamp, TechHub, TEDx
  Leancamp, TheNextWeb,
  LeanStartUpMachine, IADAS etc
Who are you?

- Technologists

- Business people

- Designers

- UXers

- Something else-rs
Where are you from?

- UK
- Europe
- BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China)
- USA
- Somewhere else
What are you working on?

- Studying
- Running a startup (full-time / part-time)
- “Intrapreneur”
- Something else
Do you know what these terms mean...?

-   UX
-   UI
-   UCD
-   Lean Startup
What are we talking
  about today?
Industry Jargon
Industry Jargon
UX
Industry Jargon
     UX
User Experience
Industry Jargon
     UX           UI
User Experience
Industry Jargon
     UX                UI
User Experience   User Interface
Industry Jargon
     UX                      UI
User Experience         User Interface




                  UCD
Industry Jargon
     UX                               UI
User Experience                  User Interface




                    UCD
                  User Centred
                    Design
http://home.howstuffworks.com/hammer.htm
http://home.howstuffworks.com/hammer.htm
90,000-40,000 BC (Late Mousterian period)                                                                    5,500 - 2,500 BC (Late Archaic period)
                                                   Dordogne, France                                                                                      Montana, USA




                                                                  2,500 -1,500 BC (Late Neolithic Period)
                                                                                                  Cumbria, UK




http://imgur.com/gallery/Ky0BP                                                           http://finds.org.uk/database/search/results/objecttype/axe+hammer/broadperiod/BRONZE+AGE
http://www.stoneageartifacts.com/html/Artifact-Hand%20Axes.html                          http://www.iceageartifacts.com/axes_celts_tools.htm
The UCD Cycle




    ISO 13407
20,000 BC (Late Gadgeterian period)
                                                      Basel, Switzerland



http://imgur.com/gallery/Ky0BP
Applying the User Centred Design
               cycle improves our chances of
UCD Cycle     delivering a good User Experience




                         Usability
                                            IA

            IxD
                              UX
                       (User Experience)         UI

                  Visual Design      Content
                                     Strategy
How does this fit
  with startup
   culture?
Remember this?
Look familiar?
Look familiar?
Eric & Steve say...




“Get out of the building!”
UX people are good at getting out of
           the building
UX people are good at getting out of
           the building
UX people are good at getting out of
           the building
         Quantitative
UX people are good at getting out of
           the building
         Quantitative   Qualitative
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
             Quantitative   Qualitative



Generative
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
             Quantitative   Qualitative



Generative




Evaluative
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
                   Quantitative                          Qualitative

                                                          Depth Interviews
                                                         Contextual Inquiry
                         Surveys                            Ethnography
Generative              Interviews                          Diary Studies
                                                 Participatory Design (Co-creation)
                                                           Mental Models



                      Web Analytics
                   Multi-variant Testing                Usability Testing
                   Remote Card Sorting               Moderated Card Sorting
Evaluative      Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al)          Wizard of Oz Testing
                      Treejack (et al)                 Desirability Toolkit
             Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al)               R.I.T.
                  Usertesting.com (et al)
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
                   Quantitative                          Qualitative

                                                          Depth Interviews
                                                         Contextual Inquiry
                         Surveys                            Ethnography
Generative              Interviews                          Diary Studies
                                                 Participatory Design (Co-creation)
                                                           Mental Models



                      Web Analytics
                   Multi-variant Testing                Usability Testing
                   Remote Card Sorting               Moderated Card Sorting
Evaluative      Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al)          Wizard of Oz Testing
                      Treejack (et al)                 Desirability Toolkit
             Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al)               R.I.T.
                  Usertesting.com (et al)
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
                   Quantitative                          Qualitative

                                                          Depth Interviews
                                                         Contextual Inquiry
                         Surveys                            Ethnography
Generative              Interviews                          Diary Studies
                                                 Participatory Design (Co-creation)
                                                           Mental Models



                      Web Analytics
                   Multi-variant Testing                Usability Testing
                   Remote Card Sorting               Moderated Card Sorting
Evaluative      Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al)          Wizard of Oz Testing
                      Treejack (et al)                 Desirability Toolkit
             Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al)               R.I.T.
                  Usertesting.com (et al)
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
                   Quantitative                          Qualitative

                                                          Depth Interviews
                                                         Contextual Inquiry
                         Surveys                            Ethnography
Generative              Interviews                          Diary Studies
                                                 Participatory Design (Co-creation)
                                                           Mental Models



                      Web Analytics
                   Multi-variant Testing                Usability Testing
                   Remote Card Sorting               Moderated Card Sorting
Evaluative      Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al)          Wizard of Oz Testing
                      Treejack (et al)                 Desirability Toolkit
             Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al)               R.I.T.
                  Usertesting.com (et al)
UX people are good at getting out of
            the building
                   Quantitative                                 Qualitative

                                                          Depth Interviews
                                                         Contextual Inquiry
                         Surveys                            Ethnography
Generative              Interviews                          Diary Studies
                                                 Participatory Design (Co-creation)
                                                           Mental Models



                      Web Analytics
                   Multi-variant Testing                    Usability Testing
                   Remote Card Sorting                   Moderated Card Sorting
Evaluative      Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al)              Wizard of Oz Testing
                      Treejack (et al)                     Desirability Toolkit
             Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al)                   R.I.T.
                  Usertesting.com (et al)


                                                 Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer
Case Study
locali.se
    Problem Hypothesis:
    For young foreign students who have not travelled much before, coming to study in the
    UK can be a frightening and stressful experience

    Solution Hypothesis:
    Make planning, arrival and life in the UK simple, safe and friendly for new students”

-   Freemium model
-   Free detailed guides to living in the UK in multiple languages
-   Premium paid services include:
    - Meet & greet at the airport
    - Shared taxi to college
    - Accommodation-finding service, (contracts, deposit & key collection)
    - Setting up utilities, council tax, bank accounts & other services
    - Registering with a doctor
    - Getting a mobile phone
    - 24-hour Helpline in native language
locali.se
     Three-sided market model
    - Second or third year students will provide the services to new arrivals
-   Services provided via relationships with:
    - Universities, overseas student bodies and welfare committees
    - Banks
    - Landlords & agents
    - NHS
    - Taxis
    - Phone networks
-   Revenue
    - Students themselves
    - Referral fees from third party suppliers
-   Costs will be website development & maintenance, customer service
    staff, translation, payment of other students, admin, marketing, SEO etc
Who are the
customers?
EXERCISE:
Describe the main customer segment(s)
for locali.se
Demographics
Demographics
Behaviours
EXERCISE:
What kinds of Behaviours would define a
typical locali.se customer?
Demographics                    Behaviours
eg:                              eg:
Female                           Has been accepted to study at a leading UK
19-22 years old                  university
Demographics                    Behaviours
eg:                              eg:
Female                           Has been accepted to study at a leading UK
19-22 years old                  university
Demographics                    Behaviours
eg:                              eg:
Female                           Has been accepted to study at a leading UK
19-22 years old                  university
Demographics                    Behaviours
eg:                              eg:
Female                           Has been accepted to study at a leading UK
19-22 years old                  university
Demographics
Demographics
Behaviours
Demographics
Behaviours
Needs & Goals
EXERCISE:
What are the main Needs & Goals for a
typical locali.se customer?
Demographics                     Behaviours
eg:                              eg:
Female                           Has been accepted to study at a leading UK
19-22 years old                  university




                                                 Needs & Goals
                                 eg:
                                 To reassure her parents and loved ones that she
                                 will be safe
Demographics + Behaviours + Needs &
Goals = Persona
Sketch & Demographics                                   Behaviours

   Barbara Avila                                           Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months
   Sao Paulo, Brazil,                                      Has never travelled abroad alone
   22 years old                                            Does not speak perfect English
   Female                                                  Has not lived away from home
   High educational achievement so far                     Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK
   Speaks some English but not high level                  Frequently uses internet as primary source of information
   Parental income is middle-high                          Knows where & when they will be studying abroad
   Internet native                                         Receives all or most of their living money from parents




   Stories                                                 Needs/Goals

                                                           To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad
                                                           To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe
                                                           To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about
                                                           practicalities of daily life in a foreign country
                                                           To know that she has someone meeting her when she
                                                           arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there

                                                           To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip




Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
Sketch & Demographics                                   Behaviours

   Barbara Avila                                           Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months
   Sao Paulo, Brazil,                                      Has never travelled abroad alone
   22 years old                                            Does not speak perfect English
                                   IS
                                 ES
   Female                                                  Has not lived away from home

                               TH
   High educational achievement so far                     Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK
   Speaks some English but not high level                  Frequently uses internet as primary source of information
                             PO
   Parental income is middle-high                          Knows where & when they will be studying abroad
   Internet native
                          HY                               Receives all or most of their living money from parents




   Stories                                                 Needs/Goals

                                                           To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad
                                                           To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe
                                                           To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about
                                                           practicalities of daily life in a foreign country
                                                           To know that she has someone meeting her when she
                                                           arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there

                                                           To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip




Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
Sketch & Demographics                                   Behaviours

   Barbara Avila                                           Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months
   Sao Paulo, Brazil,                                      Has never travelled abroad alone
   22 years old                                            Does not speak perfect English
                                   IS                                                 IS
                                 ES                                                 ES
   Female                                                  Has not lived away from home

                               TH                                                 TH
   High educational achievement so far                     Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK
   Speaks some English but not high level                  Frequently uses internet as primary source of information
                             PO
   Parental income is middle-high                                               PO
                                                           Knows where & when they will be studying abroad
   Internet native
                          HY                                                 HY
                                                           Receives all or most of their living money from parents




   Stories                                                 Needs/Goals

                                                           To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad
                                                           To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe
                                                           To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about
                                                           practicalities of daily life in a foreign country
                                                           To know that she has someone meeting her when she
                                                           arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there

                                                           To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip




Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
Sketch & Demographics                                   Behaviours

   Barbara Avila                                           Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months
   Sao Paulo, Brazil,                                      Has never travelled abroad alone
   22 years old                                            Does not speak perfect English
                                   IS                                                 IS
                                 ES                                                 ES
   Female                                                  Has not lived away from home

                               TH                                                 TH
   High educational achievement so far                     Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK
   Speaks some English but not high level                  Frequently uses internet as primary source of information
                             PO
   Parental income is middle-high                                               PO
                                                           Knows where & when they will be studying abroad
   Internet native
                          HY                                                 HY
                                                           Receives all or most of their living money from parents




   Stories                                                 Needs/Goals

                                                           To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad
                                                           To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe

                                                                                                IS
                                                           To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about

                                                                                             ES
                                                           practicalities of daily life in a foreign country

                                                                                       TH
                                                           To know that she has someone meeting her when she

                                                                                   PO
                                                           arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there

                                                                              H  Y
                                                           To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip




Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
Where will you find
     them?
Screening participants

- Must fit your customer profile
- Be contactable (face-to-face or phone/
  Skype)

- Be willing to spend 1-2 hours talking to
  you

- Have recent, direct experience of the
  problem your product will solve
Where to find them

- Friends & family
- Social networks
- Landing page
- Professional recruiters (£30-80 per person)
- “Guerilla” recruiting (be careful)
  Practice “snowball” recruitment
  Pay an incentive if you can
Planning your
  interviews
Deciding what you want to find out:
A Topic Map
Choosing a place
                    to visit                                        Working out         Budgeting
                                                                    who will be
                                                                  coming with me




                                                       Searching for flights




                                                                                   Guide books
                   Visas and
                   paperwork



                                             Topic map: Going on holiday
Topic map was first introduced to me by Janice Fraser
EXERCISE:
Create a Topic Map for interviewing
locali.se target users
Feelings about                Speaking the
  studying abroad                  language                  Finding out I’ve
                                                             been accepted




                                          Getting ready to
          Deciding to study
                                                leave
               abroad




                               Getting help        My parents & family
Arriving in the UK
                              when in the UK
Interview technique
Interview technique:
Asking the right questions in the right way
Try not to lead the participant
Ask “open” questions

- Good questions often start with
  - Who, What, When, Where, How
- Not so good questions often start with
  - Did, Have, Is, Are, Were, Will
Focus on specific instances, not generalisations

-   Good: “Tell me about the last time...”

-   Bad: “What do you usually...”
Keep them talking
-   “Tell me more about...”
-   “What do you mean by...”
-   “Help me to understand better...”
Summarise in their own words & check
understanding
Don’t interrupt, but guide back onto topic
Don’t offer solutions
Don’t pitch your product
  - Don’t even mention it!
Don’t ask about hypothetical situations
  - “Do you think you would...?”
Notes & Recordings
If possible, bring someone to take notes.

- But write your own notes too.
If you are alone, record audio if possible.

- But still make plenty of notes!
Bring a notepad & at least 2 spare pens.

- Check that they work!
If you do record audio or video:

-   Ask permission before you start

-   If possible ask them to sign a release form
    giving explicit permission.

-   Explain what recordings are for and how
    they will be used, stored & deleted.

-   Accept that you might not be able to
    record, especially when interviewing
    business customers.

-   It’s OK. Be ready to take notes just in case.
If you do record audio or video:

- Make sure you are familiar with the
  device/app you are using

- Check you have plenty of disk space
- Bring spare batteries, charger &
  extension lead

- Make a test recording (and listen to it!)
  just before you go in to the interview to
  check it’s working and set the levels
Making sense of it
       all
As soon as you walk out the door:

- Write down the 3 most important things
  you heard in the interview

- If using a note taker, do this before
  discussing the interview with them
As soon as possible:

- Review your full interview notes
- Be sure to do this on the same day
Find a room with a large table or smooth
walls

- Have lots of Post-it notes
- Go through notes and recordings
- Write one note per finding
- Don’t filter or analyse at this point
Once you have been through the whole
interview, review your Post-it notes
Categorise each note

-   What it means

-   Why it matters

-   Does this confirm or refute any hypothesis?

-   Frequency & repetition

-   At the end, try to build “Stories” that define
    that user and their needs and behaviours
EXERCISE:
Practice interviewing
What if you’re completely wrong?
- Wrong audience?
- Wrong problem hypothesis?
Over to you
Thank you
ian@uxdna.co.uk
@johnnyforeigner

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Get what you need when you get out of the building

  • 1. Mastering Startups UCL TE MSc “How to get what you need when you get out of the building” Ian Collingwood @johnnyforeigner ian@uxdna.co.uk With grateful thanks to Johanna Kollman @johannakoll
  • 2. Introductions What are we talking about? How does this fit into startup culture? Who are your customers? Where will you find them? Planning your interviews Interview techniques Keeping notes Making sense of it all Putting it to work on your startup
  • 4. Who am I? - Founder of UXdna Limited (UK, Spain & Brazil) - Specialise in Design Thinking - Startup focused, but also work with enterprise clients - Seedcamp, TechHub, TEDx Leancamp, TheNextWeb, LeanStartUpMachine, IADAS etc
  • 5. Who are you? - Technologists - Business people - Designers - UXers - Something else-rs
  • 6. Where are you from? - UK - Europe - BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) - USA - Somewhere else
  • 7. What are you working on? - Studying - Running a startup (full-time / part-time) - “Intrapreneur” - Something else
  • 8. Do you know what these terms mean...? - UX - UI - UCD - Lean Startup
  • 9. What are we talking about today?
  • 12. Industry Jargon UX User Experience
  • 13. Industry Jargon UX UI User Experience
  • 14. Industry Jargon UX UI User Experience User Interface
  • 15. Industry Jargon UX UI User Experience User Interface UCD
  • 16. Industry Jargon UX UI User Experience User Interface UCD User Centred Design
  • 19. 90,000-40,000 BC (Late Mousterian period) 5,500 - 2,500 BC (Late Archaic period) Dordogne, France Montana, USA 2,500 -1,500 BC (Late Neolithic Period) Cumbria, UK http://imgur.com/gallery/Ky0BP http://finds.org.uk/database/search/results/objecttype/axe+hammer/broadperiod/BRONZE+AGE http://www.stoneageartifacts.com/html/Artifact-Hand%20Axes.html http://www.iceageartifacts.com/axes_celts_tools.htm
  • 20. The UCD Cycle ISO 13407
  • 21. 20,000 BC (Late Gadgeterian period) Basel, Switzerland http://imgur.com/gallery/Ky0BP
  • 22. Applying the User Centred Design cycle improves our chances of UCD Cycle delivering a good User Experience Usability IA IxD UX (User Experience) UI Visual Design Content Strategy
  • 23. How does this fit with startup culture?
  • 27. Eric & Steve say... “Get out of the building!”
  • 28. UX people are good at getting out of the building
  • 29. UX people are good at getting out of the building
  • 30. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative
  • 31. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative
  • 32. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Generative
  • 33. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Generative Evaluative
  • 34. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys Ethnography Generative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card Sorting Evaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)
  • 35. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys Ethnography Generative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card Sorting Evaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)
  • 36. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys Ethnography Generative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card Sorting Evaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)
  • 37. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys Ethnography Generative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card Sorting Evaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)
  • 38. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys Ethnography Generative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card Sorting Evaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al) Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer
  • 40. locali.se Problem Hypothesis: For young foreign students who have not travelled much before, coming to study in the UK can be a frightening and stressful experience Solution Hypothesis: Make planning, arrival and life in the UK simple, safe and friendly for new students” - Freemium model - Free detailed guides to living in the UK in multiple languages - Premium paid services include: - Meet & greet at the airport - Shared taxi to college - Accommodation-finding service, (contracts, deposit & key collection) - Setting up utilities, council tax, bank accounts & other services - Registering with a doctor - Getting a mobile phone - 24-hour Helpline in native language
  • 41. locali.se Three-sided market model - Second or third year students will provide the services to new arrivals - Services provided via relationships with: - Universities, overseas student bodies and welfare committees - Banks - Landlords & agents - NHS - Taxis - Phone networks - Revenue - Students themselves - Referral fees from third party suppliers - Costs will be website development & maintenance, customer service staff, translation, payment of other students, admin, marketing, SEO etc
  • 43. EXERCISE: Describe the main customer segment(s) for locali.se
  • 44.
  • 47. EXERCISE: What kinds of Behaviours would define a typical locali.se customer?
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50. Demographics Behaviours eg: eg: Female Has been accepted to study at a leading UK 19-22 years old university
  • 51. Demographics Behaviours eg: eg: Female Has been accepted to study at a leading UK 19-22 years old university
  • 52. Demographics Behaviours eg: eg: Female Has been accepted to study at a leading UK 19-22 years old university
  • 53. Demographics Behaviours eg: eg: Female Has been accepted to study at a leading UK 19-22 years old university
  • 54.
  • 58. EXERCISE: What are the main Needs & Goals for a typical locali.se customer?
  • 59.
  • 60. Demographics Behaviours eg: eg: Female Has been accepted to study at a leading UK 19-22 years old university Needs & Goals eg: To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe
  • 61. Demographics + Behaviours + Needs & Goals = Persona
  • 62. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English Female Has not lived away from home High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information Parental income is middle-high Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about practicalities of daily life in a foreign country To know that she has someone meeting her when she arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
  • 63. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English IS ES Female Has not lived away from home TH High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information PO Parental income is middle-high Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native HY Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about practicalities of daily life in a foreign country To know that she has someone meeting her when she arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
  • 64. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English IS IS ES ES Female Has not lived away from home TH TH High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information PO Parental income is middle-high PO Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native HY HY Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about practicalities of daily life in a foreign country To know that she has someone meeting her when she arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
  • 65. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English IS IS ES ES Female Has not lived away from home TH TH High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information PO Parental income is middle-high PO Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native HY HY Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe IS To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about ES practicalities of daily life in a foreign country TH To know that she has someone meeting her when she PO arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there H Y To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her trip Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser
  • 66. Where will you find them?
  • 67. Screening participants - Must fit your customer profile - Be contactable (face-to-face or phone/ Skype) - Be willing to spend 1-2 hours talking to you - Have recent, direct experience of the problem your product will solve
  • 68. Where to find them - Friends & family - Social networks - Landing page - Professional recruiters (£30-80 per person) - “Guerilla” recruiting (be careful) Practice “snowball” recruitment Pay an incentive if you can
  • 69. Planning your interviews
  • 70. Deciding what you want to find out: A Topic Map
  • 71. Choosing a place to visit Working out Budgeting who will be coming with me Searching for flights Guide books Visas and paperwork Topic map: Going on holiday Topic map was first introduced to me by Janice Fraser
  • 72. EXERCISE: Create a Topic Map for interviewing locali.se target users
  • 73. Feelings about Speaking the studying abroad language Finding out I’ve been accepted Getting ready to Deciding to study leave abroad Getting help My parents & family Arriving in the UK when in the UK
  • 75. Interview technique: Asking the right questions in the right way
  • 76. Try not to lead the participant Ask “open” questions - Good questions often start with - Who, What, When, Where, How - Not so good questions often start with - Did, Have, Is, Are, Were, Will
  • 77. Focus on specific instances, not generalisations - Good: “Tell me about the last time...” - Bad: “What do you usually...” Keep them talking - “Tell me more about...” - “What do you mean by...” - “Help me to understand better...” Summarise in their own words & check understanding
  • 78. Don’t interrupt, but guide back onto topic Don’t offer solutions Don’t pitch your product - Don’t even mention it! Don’t ask about hypothetical situations - “Do you think you would...?”
  • 80. If possible, bring someone to take notes. - But write your own notes too. If you are alone, record audio if possible. - But still make plenty of notes! Bring a notepad & at least 2 spare pens. - Check that they work!
  • 81. If you do record audio or video: - Ask permission before you start - If possible ask them to sign a release form giving explicit permission. - Explain what recordings are for and how they will be used, stored & deleted. - Accept that you might not be able to record, especially when interviewing business customers. - It’s OK. Be ready to take notes just in case.
  • 82. If you do record audio or video: - Make sure you are familiar with the device/app you are using - Check you have plenty of disk space - Bring spare batteries, charger & extension lead - Make a test recording (and listen to it!) just before you go in to the interview to check it’s working and set the levels
  • 83. Making sense of it all
  • 84. As soon as you walk out the door: - Write down the 3 most important things you heard in the interview - If using a note taker, do this before discussing the interview with them As soon as possible: - Review your full interview notes - Be sure to do this on the same day
  • 85. Find a room with a large table or smooth walls - Have lots of Post-it notes - Go through notes and recordings - Write one note per finding - Don’t filter or analyse at this point
  • 86. Once you have been through the whole interview, review your Post-it notes Categorise each note - What it means - Why it matters - Does this confirm or refute any hypothesis? - Frequency & repetition - At the end, try to build “Stories” that define that user and their needs and behaviours
  • 88. What if you’re completely wrong? - Wrong audience? - Wrong problem hypothesis?

Editor's Notes

  1. \n
  2. First we’ll try to get to know each other and put this whole thing in some context\nI’ll talk about some of the issues around UX and the confusion that arises\nThe next part of the workshop will be hands-on\nImaginary company to put things into practice\nAt the end I’ll try to leave time for your own startup project and I’ll be on hand to help you. \n\nWho are your customers?\nPlanning interviews\nFinding participants\nInterview techniques\nKeeping Notes\nMaking sense of it\nPutting it to work\n\n
  3. \n
  4. Intro\n- Designing experiences since 1993, been in internet since 1996. \n- Run UXdna in UK, Barcelona & Brazil. \n- Specialise in startups and intrapreneur projects\n\n\n\n
  5. Who’s who? \nHow many are...?\n
  6. Where are you from?\n\n
  7. Who’s doing what? \n\n\n
  8. Who knows what?\n\nSO: Why did I do that?\n\n
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  16. What is this?\n
  17. The hammer might well be mankind’s very first technology.\n\nBut hammer’s didn’t always look like this. And they didn’t get this shape by accident.\nThe hammer was designed - it didn’t just happen.\n\nAnd since it was designed, it’s a good way to explain the difference between UI, UX and UCD.\n\n
  18. \nEarliest hammer dates back to 90,000 years ago, and it was basically a rock. \n\nThe user interface is the entire object. You see it and basically pick it up. Does it matter which way you hold it? Who knows. The user interface gives no clue.\n\nIf you’ve ever hit something with a rock, it’s not the best of User Experiences. I bet a huge number of cavemen squashed their hands when using it. That’s an example of poor UI creating a bad User Experience.\n\nOver many thousands of years it developed into something more complex - cavemen carved grooves into rocks so they could strap on a handle.\n\nAdding a handle was a significant improvement in the User Interface, which certainly improved the UX. Fewer broken fingers, better leverage. A better hammering experience.\n\nEventually someone drilled a hole that you could fit the handle through. This made the tool more reliable and stronger - both characteristics that would improve the overall user experience, even though the user interface was unchanged.\n\nAll of these represented an improvement in the design of the tool, and they happened through a process of iterative design and testing. Slowly but surely, feedback from users enabled those making hammers to improve the design. This process is User Centred Design.\n\nWe normally try to do it more quickly.\n
  19. Although not actually defined in the Stone Age, UCD has been around so long it even has an ISO standard (can’t get much more mainstream than that)\n
  20. Eventually of course, we got to this particular piece of technology...\n
  21. So - UCD is process by which we create a good user experience.\nAnd a good User Experience involves a whole host of disciplines, such as \nInteraction Design\nInformation Architecture\nContent Strategy\nUsability testing \netc\n
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  23. UCD is an iterative cycle of development designed to produce a product that closely fits with a set of user needs. \n\nThe designer produces artefacts to test his design hypotheses with users and so learn more accurately what the optimal solution might be. \n\nThe cycle is basically: Learn - Build - Test \n
  24. Lean Startup = UCD applied to business models\n
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  26. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  27. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  28. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  29. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  30. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  31. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  32. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  33. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  34. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
  35. All of these methods are aimed at one thing: \nHelping you to understand your customer and what they need\n\nWhich one you choose will depend on where you are in the product development process and what you’re trying to learn\n\nToday we’re mainly going to look at conducting in-depth interviews, because the techniques you’ll learn will help with almost all the other qualitative techniques.\n
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  39. Hardest part of any research project is deciding who to talk to. \nHardest part of any startup business is working out who your customers will be \n\nYou want to talk to people who you think will be your customers. \n
  40. \n\nEXERCISE: Working in pairs: Who will be Locali.se’s MAIN customer segment? Define a typical customer for Locali.ze\n5 minutes\n\n\n
  41. Review their work\nWho has a clear definition of their primary target customers?\n(What dimensions are they using? Demographics? Geography? Behaviours? Needs/goals? Pain?)\n\nProblems with demographics as the main criterion:\n\neg: females aged 16-21, living in London, ABC1 - What type of music are they into? \nDemographics are a bit like a dating profile. You’d want to meet the person before you could say you know them.\n\nSo what is better than this?\nHow can we get a more complete picture?\nWhat other dimensions can help us?\n\nCLICK\nWell, often a good way to look at segmentation is through behaviour. \nCompanies are starting to wake up to this through things like behavioural targeting. \nSupermarket loyalty cards are a way to create segments or clusters based on what people buy. \n- People who buy baby nappies are likely to also likely to buy baby food. \n- People who buy organic cotton nappies are also likely to buy organic baby food. \n\nIn many ways, behaviours are a better predictor of segments than demographics \nWhat are some of the behaviours that will define a potential locali.se customer?\n\n\n
  42. Review their work\nWho has a clear definition of their primary target customers?\n(What dimensions are they using? Demographics? Geography? Behaviours? Needs/goals? Pain?)\n\nProblems with demographics as the main criterion:\n\neg: females aged 16-21, living in London, ABC1 - What type of music are they into? \nDemographics are a bit like a dating profile. You’d want to meet the person before you could say you know them.\n\nSo what is better than this?\nHow can we get a more complete picture?\nWhat other dimensions can help us?\n\nCLICK\nWell, often a good way to look at segmentation is through behaviour. \nCompanies are starting to wake up to this through things like behavioural targeting. \nSupermarket loyalty cards are a way to create segments or clusters based on what people buy. \n- People who buy baby nappies are likely to also likely to buy baby food. \n- People who buy organic cotton nappies are also likely to buy organic baby food. \n\nIn many ways, behaviours are a better predictor of segments than demographics \nWhat are some of the behaviours that will define a potential locali.se customer?\n\n\n
  43. EXERCISE: \nDraw a grid. \nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\n
  44. In pairs, write down as many Behaviours what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n\nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\nSometimes it is easier to think about what would make them NOT a user (eg “Spent a year backpacking alone in Africa”)\n\nIf you have time, write out some demographics too \n\nReview work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  45. In pairs, write down as many Behaviours what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n\nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\nSometimes it is easier to think about what would make them NOT a user (eg “Spent a year backpacking alone in Africa”)\n\nIf you have time, write out some demographics too \n\nReview work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  46. In pairs, write down as many Behaviours what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n\nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\nSometimes it is easier to think about what would make them NOT a user (eg “Spent a year backpacking alone in Africa”)\n\nIf you have time, write out some demographics too \n\nReview work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  47. In pairs, write down as many Behaviours what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n\nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\nSometimes it is easier to think about what would make them NOT a user (eg “Spent a year backpacking alone in Africa”)\n\nIf you have time, write out some demographics too \n\nReview work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  48. In pairs, write down as many Behaviours what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n\nLeave the bottom two squares blank for now.\n\nSometimes it is easier to think about what would make them NOT a user (eg “Spent a year backpacking alone in Africa”)\n\nIf you have time, write out some demographics too \n\nReview work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  49. Demographics & Behaviours are a useful way to segment people... but they aren’t the whole picture. \n\nWe might believe that people who have never travelled abroad before may be more likely to use locali.se, but what else might characterise them?\n\nWell - People don’t buy products because they fit into a particular demographic profile. Or because they exhibit certain behaviours.\n\nThey buy products because they have needs that they think the product can solve. \n\neg: I’ve recently become a Dad. I now buy baby food.\n\nI don’t buy baby food because I’m over 40 and live in East London or because my income is above a certain level. Or because I buy nappies. \n\nI buy baby food because I have a baby that I need to keep alive.\n\nSo that’s Needs.\n\nAnd as well as needs, people also have Goals. \n\nGoals are the underlying desires that frame what solutions people will accept when choosing products. \nIt can be an emotional response.\n\nI don’t buy organic baby food because I need to - I buy it because I want to feel that I’m doing the best for my child. It makes me feel like I’m being a good Dad.\n\nSo: Adding needs/goals gives us a better way to understand our users\n\nDon’t get too hung up on difference between Needs & Goals. I always find they blend together a bit.\n\n\n
  50. Demographics & Behaviours are a useful way to segment people... but they aren’t the whole picture. \n\nWe might believe that people who have never travelled abroad before may be more likely to use locali.se, but what else might characterise them?\n\nWell - People don’t buy products because they fit into a particular demographic profile. Or because they exhibit certain behaviours.\n\nThey buy products because they have needs that they think the product can solve. \n\neg: I’ve recently become a Dad. I now buy baby food.\n\nI don’t buy baby food because I’m over 40 and live in East London or because my income is above a certain level. Or because I buy nappies. \n\nI buy baby food because I have a baby that I need to keep alive.\n\nSo that’s Needs.\n\nAnd as well as needs, people also have Goals. \n\nGoals are the underlying desires that frame what solutions people will accept when choosing products. \nIt can be an emotional response.\n\nI don’t buy organic baby food because I need to - I buy it because I want to feel that I’m doing the best for my child. It makes me feel like I’m being a good Dad.\n\nSo: Adding needs/goals gives us a better way to understand our users\n\nDon’t get too hung up on difference between Needs & Goals. I always find they blend together a bit.\n\n\n
  51. Demographics & Behaviours are a useful way to segment people... but they aren’t the whole picture. \n\nWe might believe that people who have never travelled abroad before may be more likely to use locali.se, but what else might characterise them?\n\nWell - People don’t buy products because they fit into a particular demographic profile. Or because they exhibit certain behaviours.\n\nThey buy products because they have needs that they think the product can solve. \n\neg: I’ve recently become a Dad. I now buy baby food.\n\nI don’t buy baby food because I’m over 40 and live in East London or because my income is above a certain level. Or because I buy nappies. \n\nI buy baby food because I have a baby that I need to keep alive.\n\nSo that’s Needs.\n\nAnd as well as needs, people also have Goals. \n\nGoals are the underlying desires that frame what solutions people will accept when choosing products. \nIt can be an emotional response.\n\nI don’t buy organic baby food because I need to - I buy it because I want to feel that I’m doing the best for my child. It makes me feel like I’m being a good Dad.\n\nSo: Adding needs/goals gives us a better way to understand our users\n\nDon’t get too hung up on difference between Needs & Goals. I always find they blend together a bit.\n\n\n
  52. EXERCISE: In pairs, write down on your grids what you think would be the main needs and goals of a typical locali.se customer/user. \n
  53. Review work\nLook for good and bad examples\n\n
  54. Put it all together...\n\nIntroduce idea of a persona\n\nPersona = A way of summarising who your product is for. They help you focus on the person you are designing for. (And therefore who you will need to interview)\n\nYou can have more than one persona, but don’t have too many or you will lose focus.\n\nThey can also help you understand who it is NOT for. The “Anti-persona”\n\neg: show what a persona for this workshop might look like\n\nRemember: Everything at this point is an ASSUMPTION.\n\nDoing the exercise makes it clear what you don’t know!\n
  55. This is a persona based on assumptions. They are hypotheses - so I’d call it a “proto-persona”\n\nThe idea is to get you thinking about who you need to talk to, where you might find them and what you will need to ask them. \n
  56. This is a persona based on assumptions. They are hypotheses - so I’d call it a “proto-persona”\n\nThe idea is to get you thinking about who you need to talk to, where you might find them and what you will need to ask them. \n
  57. This is a persona based on assumptions. They are hypotheses - so I’d call it a “proto-persona”\n\nThe idea is to get you thinking about who you need to talk to, where you might find them and what you will need to ask them. \n
  58. Ask for ideas...\n
  59. Screening:\nUse the behaviours & demographics in your persona as screening criteria. \nWrite out a specification & questionnaire - include basic stuff like regular internet use, income, gender, age, if relevant.\n\n\n
  60. Even if you use an online screener questionnaire (wufoo), it’s often worth a quick call before committing to an interview to assess suitability. \nAre they actually what you need? \nCan you understand their accent? \nAre they talkative and articulate?\n\n\n
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  62. If you want to get the best information from people you need to make them feel comfortable. \nInterviews & interrogations make people uncomfortable.\nMake your interview feel as natural as possible.\nLet it flow across topics, like a normal conversation, whilst still being sure to cover everything you need to know.\nA useful tool is a topic map.\nIt’s a sheet with a set of themes or areas that you’d like to cover in the interview\nThink of it as a set of prompts you can glance at, not set questions\n
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  64. EXERCISE: In pairs, sketch out the sort of areas you might want to cover in an interview.\n10-15 minutes\nYou’re not asking about whether they use a product like yours. You want to find out as much background as you can so you can understand their needs and context.\nThink about the different stages someone might go through in coming to the UK. \nThink about what tasks they might do and the people who might be involved\n\n
  65. Once you have a Topic Map, you can be sure that you can let the interview flow naturally, whilst still being sure to cover everything you need to.\nAs you reach the end, it’s good to look at it to make sure everything is covered in the depth you would like.\n
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  67. Although you want a natural feeling interview, you must also be careful not to influence what you hear by the way you ask questions or respond to answers.\n\nPeople are surprisingly easy to influence in a conversation \n\nTo avoid this, its good to explicitly write down what your assumptions and prejudices are about each interview before you do it. \n\nThis helps you go in with your eyes open and keep you alert to your own expectations\n\n\n
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  74. I use my phone:\nMiMic\nHighlight\nPearnote\n
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  76. Of the 3 things you remember, the first will usually be the last thing you heard. The other two will be useful and important.\n
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  79. EXERCISE: \nHow many people are here from abroad?\nCreate one group per person. \nIdeally there should be groups of 3 people.\nChoose who will interview and who will take notes\nUse topic map to guide\nPractice interviewing\nIf time, swap after 10 mins\n
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