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Freedom and Openness
  for Higher Education
      Prof. dr. Frederik Questier
       Vrije Universiteit Brussel

     Management workshop for
    University of Cuenca, Ecuador
             March 2010
Our social responsibility:
              how open is the future?
                                       Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's              Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 2                                      2
Would you accept
                              tools with these rules?
    ➢    You are forbidden to

           ➢    modify this paper-clip

           ➢    let other people use your hammer
           ➢    use this hammer for removing nails

           ➢    tell others what is written in this book




                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 3                                                             3
Why do we accept such
                            rules for software tools?
    ➢    You are forbidden to

           ➢    copy
           ➢    reverse engineer
           ➢    modify
           ➢    use in certain circumstances
           ➢    use in certain countries
           ➢    ...




                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 4                                                   4
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 5                           5
Electronic books?

    ➢    Would you buy or advise your students
           ➢    electronic versions of (educational) books
           ➢    if they were 30% cheaper than paper books
           ➢    maybe many books on a good reading device ~ paper?
                              ➢




    ➢    Be aware: often
           ➢    limited to 1 year
                  ➢      no access in the higher years of study
           ➢    limited to buyer
                  ➢      no second hand buying or sale
                  ➢      no library
           ➢    no extensive printing
                                                                     Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                            Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 6                                                                    6
Expensive and incompatible




                                                  Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                         Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 7                                                 7
Text To Speech software
                         on e-books
    ➢    Blessing for the blind
    ➢    'Copyright violation' according to
         'Author's Guild' (publishers)

    → TTS disabled in Amazon Kindle 2
       Remote kill flags discovered!




                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 8                                                8
DRM:
                                    Digital Rights Management or
                                    Digital Restrictions Management?

    ➢    Restricted
           ➢    export
                  ➢      copying
                  ➢      printing
                  ➢      Text To Speech
           ➢    in time
           ➢    to buyer (no second hand market)
                  ➢      biometric identification
                  ➢      user info “inscribed” in the work (Microsoft Reader)
                  ➢      access info sent back to publisher
           ➢    to certain hardware (e.g. Mac OS X - Apple hardware)
           ➢    to geographic regions
                                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 9                                                                              9
Regional lockout
                         (DVDs, Videogames, UMD, ...)




                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 10                                                10
DRM

    ➢    is killing innovation
    ➢    can prevent legal rights such as
           ➢    fair use private copying
           ➢    time shifting
           ➢    lending services (library)
           ➢    2nd hand resale of works
           ➢    donation
           ➢    access for disabled
           ➢    archival
           ➢    public domain
           ➢    …
                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 11                                            11
Copyright Law
                                   started good...
    ➢    UK 1710:
           ➢    “for the encouragement of learning”
           ➢    1 copy for royal library and each academic library
           ➢    protection for authors
                  ➢      against abuse and monopoly of publishers !
           ➢    reproduction privilege
                  ➢      on request 14 year; on request 14 year renewal
                  ➢      afterwards public domain
                                                                             Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                    Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 12                                                                         12
Copyright Law
                                    started good...
    ➢    US 1790:
           ➢    “to promote the progress of science and useful arts
                  ➢      by securing for limited times
                  ➢      to authors and inventors
                  ➢      the exclusive right
                  ➢      to their respective writings and discoveries."




                                                                             Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                    Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 13                                                                         13
Copyright Law
                             started good...
    ➢    Balance between
           ➢    stimulating authors
           ➢    and allowing reuse



    → Private or non-commercial reproductions allowed




                                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 14                                                  14
Today
                                    disturbed balance
    ➢    Educational and scientific goals
           ➢    replaced by economic goals
    ➢    Protection automatically, not on request
    ➢    Copyrights most often again owned by publishers
    ➢    Protection term extended:
           ➢    now 70 years after dead author
    ➢    American & international lobby work
           ➢    pro
                  ➢      copyright protection term extension
           ➢    against
                  ➢      exceptions for private, educational and scientific use
                                                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 15                                                                            15
Today
                                   disturbed balance
    ➢    Technological anti-copy measures (DRM)
           ➢    are bypassing legal exceptions and public domain
           ➢    are protecting
                  ➢      not authors or artists
                  ➢      but corporate profits and broken business models
    ➢    The law provides protection
           ➢    for "technological measures",
           ➢    in any technology device or component
           ➢    which is designed
           ➢    to restrict or prevent certain acts
           ➢    which are not authorised by the right-holder.
                                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 16                                                                           16
Software Patents

    ➢    Software can be protected by

           ➢    copyright
                  ➢      (not perfect, but acceptable)

           ➢    software patents
                  ➢      killing (incremental) innovation
                  ➢      killing fair competition
                          ➢   Compare with patent on books with passionate murder story
                          ➢   Companies file patents to get protection against patents
                               ➢ ~ People buy guns to get protection against guns




                                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 17                                                                             17
Software Patents

    ➢    Valid and enforceable in US
    ➢    Not valid nor enforceable in EU
           ➢    but already >30.000 EU software patents
                  ➢      registrered by European Patent Office (€ € €)




                                                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 18                                                                        18
Limiting your control




                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 19                                                19
The horror of
                                   'Trusted' computing
    ➢    DVD User Operation Prohibition
    ➢    HD-DVD key revocation system (disable your player)
    ➢    Broadcast flag (no TV recording)
    ➢    Advanced Access Content System (AACP)
    ➢    High-Definition Content Protection (HDCP)
    ➢    Image Constraint Token (ICT)
    ➢    MS Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB)
           ➢    not protecting
                  ➢      users against viruses and malware,
                  ➢      but media companies against users

                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 20                                                             20
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 21                        21
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 22                        22
DRM in cars




                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 23                        23
Side effects
                         of DRM
    ➢    extra cost
    ➢    extra waste
    ➢    lower quality
    ➢    less competition
    ➢    less innovation

    Digital Rights Management:
           A failure in the developed world,
           a danger to the developing world
           http://www.eff.org/IP/DRM/itu_drm.php

                                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 24                                                  24
The computer
                         of the future?
                           ➢   # Mobile phones = 3 x # PCs

                           ➢   performance ~ end-1990s PC

                           ➢   positive mobile e-learning studies!
                               ➢   P. Thornton & C. Houser, Using mobile phones in English
                                   education in Japan, 2005, Journal of Computer Assisted
                                   Learning 21, pp217–228




                                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 25                                                                             25
→ Dead of the
                         multi purpose computer !
                           ➢   (Initially) forbidden to
                                    ➢   run your own programs
                                    ➢   use other phone company
                                         ➢   Unlocked iPhones remotely
                                             destroyed
                           ➢   Now
                               ➢   software requires
                                    ➢   approval
                                    ➢   non disclosure agreement
                               ➢   no approval for 'duplicate software'
                                    ➢   e.g. no iTunes competition
                               ➢   remote software kill switch
                                                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 26                                                                  26
iPad tablet-pc




                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 27                           27
Secret data formats
                             Secret protocols
    ➢    Vendor and data lock-in
           ➢    (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again)
           ➢    → viral
           ➢    vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data
           ➢    vendors want us to use buy their products
           ➢    no free competition
           ➢    no guarantee eternal access
    ➢    Students need more and more (costly?) software
    ➢    Students' IT diversity risks to be beaten down
    ➢    Integration with other tools is hindered (e.g. indexing on
         e-learning platforms)
                                                                     Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                            Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 28                                                                 28
➢    (Media and software) companies
         will do everything possible
         to limit your possibility to copy their works,
         or to maximize their profits,
         even if it means that user freedoms and privacy
         are reduced in internet, technologies and law,
         to an unworkable level.




                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 29                                                          29
Effect on education?

    ➢    Computers without programming environment
    ➢    Black box devices and software
    ➢    Point and click courses

           → less students study computer science




                                                        Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                               Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 30                                                    30
1 computer per user?

    ➢    Esperenza
         Computer
         Classroom
           ➢    with software
                sponsored by
                Microsoft




                                                  Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                         Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 31                                              31
1 computer per user?

                         Computer access for every person
                                 is a nice goal !

                             But is there really a need
                            for one computer per user?


                                     Microsoft:
                          “maximum one concurrent user
                             per license (computer)!”

                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 32                                                           32
Free yourself
                         from dogmas!




                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 33                                        33
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 34                        34
Ucuenca library catalog computers
Werken met portfolio's
04/10/05 | pag. 35
                                       Frederik Questier
                                    Ecuador, March 2010
                                                     35
K12LTSP
 Linux Terminal Server Project




Networked classrooms
Fat server
     runs the applications
Thin clients
     visualize the applications
                                     Frederik Questier
     need no hard disk
Werken met portfolio's            Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | be 36 years old PC's
     can pag. 15                                   36
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 37                        37
Sharing

    "The most fundamental way of helping other people,
           is to teach people how to do things better
           or how to better their lives.
    For people who use computers,
           this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer,
           in other words the programs you run."

    Richard Stallman
    Free Software Foundation.


                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 38                                                           38
Free (Open Source Libre) Software
                                          FLOSS

    ➢    The freedom to
           ➢    run the program for any purpose
           ➢    study how the program works,
                 and to adapt it to your needs
           ➢    redistribute copies
           ➢    improve the program, and release your improvements to
                the public.

    ➢    These freedoms require access to the source code
                         Source code:        if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, end

                         Compiled code:      001001011101010011001100001111011000110001110001101


                                                                                                        Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                                               Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 39                                                                                                    39
Free Software Licenses

    ➢    The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses,
         e.g.
           ➢    GNU GPL (General Public License)
                  ➢      The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike)
                  ➢      if binary offered, source code must be offered too
                          ➢   (on request, at low cost)
                          ➢   redistributed modified GPL programs must stay GPL.
           ➢    BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
                  ➢      Attribution
                  ➢      No copyleft requirements for distribution
                  ➢      BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...)
           ➢    Apple Public Source License v2
                                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 40                                                                             40
Different kinds of software

    ➢    Proprietary software (closed source – 'commercial')
           ➢    $$$
    ➢    Shareware
           ➢    x days for free, afterwards $
    ➢    Adware
           ➢    for free, with ads
    ➢    Freeware
           ➢    for free (small projects and often spyware!)
    ➢    Free Software / Open Source Software
           ➢    Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer
           ➢    OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software)
                                                                  Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                         Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 41                                                              41
Servers
                                     Internet / Institution
    ➢
         Operating systems:     Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris, Android, ...
    ➢
         Domain Name Resolving: BIND
    ➢
         Web server:            Apache
    ➢
         Mail:                  Sendmail, Postfix, Cyrus, Exim
    ➢
         E-learning:                 Moodle, Chamilo, Dokeos, Chisimba
    ➢
         Helpdesk:                   Open Ticket Request System, RT
    ➢
         ERP:                        Compière, SugarCRM, (Chisimba)
    ➢
         Library:                    ABCD, Greenstone, Koha, Evergreen
    ➢
         Institutional repository:   Greenstone, Dspace, Eprints, Fedora
    ➢
          ...
                                                                     Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                            Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 42                                                                 42
Desktop




                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 43                                  43
Linux

    ➢    GPL unix-like kernel
    ➢    1991 Comp Sci student Linus Torvalds -> 1000 dev, 100 professionals
    ➢    GNU/Linux distributions
          ➢ (K)ubuntu, Debian (30K programs), Redhat, Mandriva, Suse, ...
    ➢    With user friendly window managers (KDE, Gnome, ...)
    ➢    Support for many languages, also the non-commercial profitable




                                                                       Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                              Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 44                                                                   44
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 45                        45
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 46                        46
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 47                        47
➢    Free Open Source version of Sun's StarOffice
    ➢    Compatible with MS Office
    ➢    Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...)
    ➢    Open document Format (ODF)
           XML based, OASIS & ISO standard
           ➢

    ➢    >50M users, 170K community members, 12500 developers
    ➢    60 languages
    ➢    PDF & Flash export
    ➢    Bibliographic manager
                                                           Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                  Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 48                                                       48
➢    Platform independent web browser (Win, Linux, Mac, PDA, ...)
    ➢    40 languages
    ➢    '101 reasons why Mozilla is better than MS IE'
          ➢ Standards compliancy, popup-blokkers, tabbed browsing, ...




    ➢    >< MS IE
                         ➢   Security problems!
                         ➢   Only for Windows. (no longer for Mac)
                         ➢   Development was stalled for many years
                         ➢   MSHTML violates W3C standards
                              ➢ Try validator.w3.org !




                                                                         Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 49                                                                     49
Personal example:
                           Dokeos → Chamilo
    ➢    http://chamilo.org/
    ➢    Open Source Learning & Collaboration Management
    ➢    started by T. Depraetere, professor in philosophy at UCL
    ➢    used by >1700 organisations
    ➢    multi-lingual (>34 languages)
    ➢    > 21 main developers
    ➢    Dokeos company
          ➢ support, consulting, development, hosting, migration, ...


    ➢    GPL licensed
    ➢    Easy for programmers [PHP; MySQL]
    ➢    User friendly
    ➢    Excellent features
                                                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 50                                                                  50
Where to find FLOSS?

    ➢    Use your software package manager
           ➢    if your are using a Free and Open Operating System!

    ➢    Sourceforge.net
           ➢    Hosting and tools for >230K Open Source projects
           ➢    >2M registered users (contributors)
    ➢    Freshmeat.net
           ➢    >40.000 projects, mostly Free Software
    ➢    Google: x AND GPL OR “open source”
                                                                  Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                         Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 51                                                              51
Where to find FLOSS?

    ➢    http://livecdlist.com/
           ➢    If you want to test software without installing

    ➢    http://www.theopendisc.com/
           ➢    If you want to use FLOSS on Windows: Firefox,
                Openoffice, Inkscape, Scribus, Clamwin, GIMP, Audacity,
                Filezilla, 7-zip, PDFCreator, ...




                                                                     Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                            Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 52                                                                 52
The free software world
                            Characteristics
    ➢    Huge
           ➢    "Linux Revenue" exceeds $35 billion per year
           ➢    230K projects, 2M contributors @ sourceforge.net
    ➢    Well organised
    ➢    Several business models
    ➢    User friendly           ← written by users for users
    ➢    Cross-platform          ← recompile source code
    ➢    High development pace ← reuse of best modules
    ➢    High quality            ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest
    ➢    High security           ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryption

                                                                         Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 53                                                                     53
FLOSS has many
                                    business models
  ➢    "Seven open source business
       strategies for competitive
       advantage", John Koenig, IT
       Manager's Journal, may 2004

  ➢    “Companies continue to
       waste their development
       dollars on software
       functionality that is otherwise
       free and available through
       Open Source. They persist in
       buying third-party proprietary
       platforms or creating their
       own proprietary development
       platforms that deliver marginal
       product differentiation and
       limited value to customers”

           Picture reproduced with permission

                                                         Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 54                                                     54
FLOSS saves you money
                                   Total Cost of Ownership
    ➢    Free Software is about freedom, not price
           ➢    In practice: zero cost acquisition
    ➢    Support is similar or cheaper because of competition
    ➢    No license management / procurement needed
    ➢    Cheaper hardware can be used
    ➢    Less administration work
    ➢    Bandwidth savings (local central update/software repository)
    ➢    Training
           ➢    Usability tests
                  ➢      {MS Windows XP → Vista} = {MS Windows → Linux}
                  ➢      {MS Office 2003 → 2007} > {MS Office 2003 → OpenOffice}
                                                                          Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                 Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 55                                                                      55
FLOSS is
                             needed for security
    ➢    From the European Parliament investigation into the
         Echelon system (05/18/2001):

           ➢    “ensure that sensitive information is only transmitted via
                secure media....”

           ➢    “If security is to be taken seriously, only those operating
                systems should be used whose source code has been
                published and checked, since only then can it be
                determined with certainty what happens to the data.”



                                                                       Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                              Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 56                                                                   56
FLOSS is innovative

    ➢    Software development started Open Source avant la lettre
    ➢    1976: Bill Gates open letter to hobbyists: 'your sharing is stealing'
    ➢    Modifyable nature and modularity ideal for fostering innovation
          ➢ All major internet software started open

              ➢ TCP/IP, mail, web, newsgroups, irc, wiki, ...

          ➢ Community maintained software repositories

          ➢ Live CDs

          ➢ 3D desktops

          ➢ Virtual Networking Computing

          ➢ Netbooks, $100 laptop

          ➢ Google (File system, Chrome browser, ...)

          ➢ ...

           ➢
                                                                        Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                               Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 57                                                                    57
Why FLOSS?

    ➢    reduce (license) costs
    ➢    reduce digital divide
    ➢    eliminate software piracy
    ➢    easier license management
    ➢    easy to localize and customize
    ➢    better quality                   (peer review, intrinsic-motivated developers)
    ➢    increase security                (security by design vs security by obscurity)
    ➢    increase interoperability        (open standards)
    ➢    reduce dependencies              from monopolies & foreign software companies




                                                                                  Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                         Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 58                                                                              58
Why is FLOSS
                                   not used more?
    ➢    Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companies
           ➢    Monopoly abuse
           ➢    Secret formats & protocols
                  ➢      Data lock-in
                  ➢      Vendor lock-in

    ➢    Not a lot of advertising
    ➢    Not a lot of teaching




                                                          Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                 Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 59                                                      59
Who can
                            break the monopoly?
    ➢    Education
           ➢    We teach MS because that is what companies use
    ➢    Companies
           ➢    We cannot use OSS because our employees don't know it
    ➢    Employees
           ➢    Growing number starts using OSS at home
           ➢    Not happy with inferior software at work




                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 60                                                           60
The possible effects
                                    Example: extremadura
           ➢    poorly developed region → economic revival
                  ➢      based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx)
           ➢    computer access for every student
                  ➢      saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers
                  ➢      total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year
           ➢    bigger project
                  ➢      stimuli for companies, centres for citizens
           ➢    economic revival -> European regional innovation award




                                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 61                                                                          61
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 62                        62
FLOSS policy in Ecuador

    ➢    El Presidente de la República, Rafael Correa,
         mediante decreto No. 1014 de 10 de abril del 2008,
         establece como política pública para las entidades de la
         administración pública central la utilización de Software
         Libre en sus sistemas y equipamientos informáticos.
    ➢    Además el decreto faculta la utilización de software
         propietario (no Libre), únicamente cuando
           ➢    no exista una solución de Software Libre que supla las
                necesidades requeridas,
           ➢    o cuando esté en riesgo la seguridad nacional,
           ➢    o cuando el proyecto informático se encuentre en un
                punto de no retorno.
                                                                   Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                          Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 63                                                               63
Why for education?

    ➢    Social responsibility
           ➢    freedom and user rights
           ➢    home use for students without costs or piracy !
    ➢    Savings
           ➢    Zero cost of software acquisition
           ➢    Less administration effort
           ➢    No license management effort
    ➢    Study of internal workings of software
           ➢    Student projects
                  ➢      experience international online collaboration
           ➢    FLOSS knowledge = competitive advantage
                                                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 64                                                                        64
Institutional FLOSS taskforce /
  expertise / innovation center

    ➢    Create awareness
           ➢    Involve all stakeholders
                  ➢      including highest management
    ➢    Expertise & capacity building
    ➢    Resources for experimentation & innovation
    ➢    Provide support – sustainability
           ➢    Documentation
           ➢    Training → certification




                                                           Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                  Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 65                                                       65
Policies

    ➢    Purchasing policies
           ➢    FLOSS, except if no good alternative
           ➢    Ask
                  ➢      argumentation
                  ➢      which alternatives considered
    ➢    Build or buy?
    ➢    Open standards
    ➢    Open courseware
    ➢    Free & Open Licenses


                                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 66                                                        66
How to handle
  the plethora of choice?
  ➢    define requirements
  ➢    indicators of high quality & sustainability
        ➢ mature, stable software

        ➢ active community

        ➢ availability of support & documentation

  ➢    need/possibility to change the code?
  ➢    need/possibility to participate in the community?




                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 67                                                          67
When to migrate?

  ➢    Time transitions
         ➢   at the end of existing contracts
         ➢   at hardware / software upgrade times
  ➢    Consider migrating in phases
         ➢   servers
         ➢   desktop applications
                ➢   → multi-platform
                ➢   → web-based
         ➢   desktop OS



                                                       Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                              Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 68                                                   68
Key success factors
  for migration & implementation

  ➢    resources to experiment
  ➢    an evidence-based choice
  ➢    involvement of both technical and non-technical users in the
       selection process
  ➢    choice for a new system which is in all aspects at least as good
       and easy as the previous one
  ➢    reporting detailed migration plan to management and get their
       approval and support
  ➢    in-house expertise with open source software and communities
  ➢    contact with the developers and users community
  ➢    Constant communication with all stakeholders


                                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 69                                                                69
Advantages of being a
  contributing community member
  ➢    co-decide the direction of development
  ➢    create extensions
        ➢ user requested

        ➢ research driven innovation

  ➢    more contacts with other educational institutions
  ➢    programming projects for students
  ➢    better knowledge of the system
  ➢    better trouble solving
  ➢    possibilities for grants



                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 70                                                          70
The open way

    ➢    avoid local customization without
           ➢    contributing back
           ➢    participating in the community

    ➢    establish an 'open source culture' of re-use,
         collaboration and sharing
           ➢    Provide FLOSS repositories / CDs
    ➢    share experiences




                                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 71                                                        71
Use Open Standards

    ➢    Use Open Standards such as
           ➢    HTML approved by w3c, XML
           ➢    Open Document Format
           ➢    SIP, Jabber
           ➢    PDF

    ➢    Don't use closed, secret formats and protocols such as
           ➢    MSHTML
           ➢    Microsoft Office
           ➢    Skype, MSN
           ➢    Flash
                                                           Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                  Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 72                                                       72
Reflection task

    ➢    Which problems do you see (in libraries) around
         copyright, scientific journals, access, … issues?




                                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 73                                                            73
Copyright / journal / access
                                    problems for libraries
    ➢    $$$ for access to scientific journals
           ➢    prices rising much faster than consumer price index
           ➢    difficult in developed countries
           ➢    impossible in developing countries
           ➢    only for universities and largest companies
                  ➢      problems for doctors, journalists, … the public
    ➢    Paper → Electronic subscriptions with centralized copies
           ➢    No access (to old material) after end of subscription
           ➢    All copies lost for the world
                  ➢      if data loss at publisher?
                  ➢      if publisher goes bankrupt?
                                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 74                                                                          74
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 75                        75
The scientific
                         publishing model

    Scientists                      Commercial publishers
    Have ideas
    Search funding
    Perform research
    Describe research
                          Search reviewers
    Review
                                    Demand all copyrights
                                    Print (or serve online)
    Pay for scientific journals     Make profit
                                                         Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 76                                                     76
Activism

    ➢    "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers"
           ➢    Signed by 34,000 scholars in 2001
           ➢    Wanted unrestricted free distribution rights after embargo
                time of 6 months since publication

    → Unsatisfying response from publishers
    → Foundation of Public Library of Science




                                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 77                                                                77
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 78                        78
Berlin Declaration on Open Access
                         to Knowledge
                         in the Sciences and Humanities

    ➢    free, irrevocable, worldwide
    ➢    right of access to,
    ➢    and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and
         display the work publicly
    ➢    and to make and distribute derivative works,
    ➢    in any digital medium for any responsible purpose,
    ➢    subject to proper attribution of authorship
    ➢    Published in a online repository by an academic
         institution, government agency, ...
    ➢




    ➢    274 signatories, including all Belgian Universities.
                                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 79                                                          79
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 80                        80
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 81                        81
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 82                        82
Open Content licenses

    ➢    Free licenses

           ➢    Public domain
                  ➢      No control at all
                  ➢      No attribution required
                  ➢      Can be locked up in commercial works

           ➢    Free Documentation License = GNU FDL
                  ➢      Interesting for technical documentation, manuals, ...

           ➢    Creative Commons Public License = CCPL

                                                                               Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                      Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 83                                                                           83
Creative Commons

  ➢    www.creativecommons.org
         Share what you
         want,
         keep what you want




                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 84                                            84
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 85                        85
Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 86                        86
Why Open Course Ware?

    ➢    Why not: should we consider academic knowledge as
         (secret) Intellectual Property?
           ➢    The dark ages of scarcity of information are over!

    ➢    (Peer) recognition
           ➢    for teacher
                  ➢      Whose course is referred to most?
                          ➢   Yours or the one one from your 'competitor'?
           ➢    for university/schools



                                                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 87                                                                            87
Why Open Course Ware?

    ➢    Increase quality
           ➢    Teachers working together
           ➢    Best course modules are
                  ➢      reused most often
                  ➢      getting most feedback
                  ➢      getting better again

    ➢    Saving time & costs
           ➢    Teachers can start building course from existing material
           ➢    Creation of animated or interactive learning objects is
                often too expensive for development/use by only one
                institution
                                                                    Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                           Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 88                                                                88
(Firefox) Creative
                         Commons Search




                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 89                                             89
www.gutenberg.org
                         (public domain)




                                                Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                       Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 90                                            90
ocw.mit.edu (CCPL)




                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 91                                             91
www.merlot.org




                                             Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                    Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 92                                         92
cnx.org




                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 93                                  93
wikibooks.org




                                            Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                   Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 94                                        94
Example made with my students
  nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Onderwijstechnologie




                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 95                                          95
Recommendations
                            for libraries
    ➢    Use FLOSS for
           ➢    Integrated Library System
           ➢    Repository
           ➢    library computers
    ➢    Use multiseat computers or thin clients
    ➢    Lend out or distribute CDs/DVDs with FLOSS
    ➢    Provide links to
           ➢    Open Access journals and repositories
    ➢    Consider local cache systems such as LOCKSS


                                                           Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                  Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 96                                                       96
Recommendations
                            for teachers & researchers
    ➢    Publish your research and teaching material using
           ➢    Free Licenses
           ➢    Open Access journals
           ➢    Open repositories
    ➢    Teach students FLOSS and give Free CD/DVDs




                                                          Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                 Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 97                                                      97
Recommendations
                              for universities
    ➢    Start with Open Source Lab and sensitization
    ➢    Consider migrating in phases
           ➢    servers / (multiplatform) desktop applications / desktop OS
           ➢    starting with new computers
    ➢    Policy: FLOSS, except if no good alternative
           ➢    Ask argumentation and which alternatives considered
    ➢    Policy: open formats
    ➢    Contribute to FLOSS
    ➢    Share experiences


                                                                         Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 98                                                                     98
Reflection task

    ➢    Which recommendations do you take home?

           ➢    How can we improve teaching and learning with ICT?
           ➢    What can we do for a more open Ucuenca/world?




                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 99                                                             99
Nominal group technique
                              University of Cuenca results
    ➢    Training in FLOSS
    ➢    Department to promote FLOSS
    ➢    Management policy for FLOSS implementation
    ➢    Search FLOSS alternative for every software used in teaching
    ➢    Implement FLOSS in curriculum
    ➢    Promotion of FLOSS for teachers and students - Motivate students for FLOSS use
    ➢    Professional networks to share experiences & information
    ➢    Create awareness about reasons to use FLOSS
    ➢    Create a portal for FLOSS
    ➢    Comply with government FLOSS decree
    ➢    Migrate ICT projects to FLOSS
    ➢    Deadline to start FLOSS
    ➢    Implement FLOSS in phases
    ➢    Open up research results and articles
    ➢    Make agreements with companies
                                                                                 Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                        Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 100                                                                           100
Open Society?

 ➢     "How open is the future?
         Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios
         based on Free & Open Source Software"
                Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks)

                Open Courseware and
                Open Scientific Publications
                Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs

                Openly published under CCPL
                See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be


                                                                      Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                             Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 101                                                                101
Questions? Comments?
                         Muchas gracias!




                                              Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                     Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 102                                        102
Credits

    ➢    Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by)
    ➢    Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in-
         Chief, LINUXMAG.com
    ➢    Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Manager's Journal,
         may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.olsonbroserv.com/autorepair.htm
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/05/right-repair-law-pro
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.lockss.org
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.doaj.org/
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.retrovirology.com/content/3/1/55/abstract/
    ➢    Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/



                                                                          Frederik Questier
Werken met portfolio's                                                 Ecuador, March 2010
04/10/05 | pag. 103                                                                    103

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Freedom And Openness For Higher Education - Management workshop for University of Cuenca

  • 1. Freedom and Openness for Higher Education Prof. dr. Frederik Questier Vrije Universiteit Brussel Management workshop for University of Cuenca, Ecuador March 2010
  • 2. Our social responsibility: how open is the future? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 2 2
  • 3. Would you accept tools with these rules? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ modify this paper-clip ➢ let other people use your hammer ➢ use this hammer for removing nails ➢ tell others what is written in this book Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 3 3
  • 4. Why do we accept such rules for software tools? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ copy ➢ reverse engineer ➢ modify ➢ use in certain circumstances ➢ use in certain countries ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 4 4
  • 5. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 5 5
  • 6. Electronic books? ➢ Would you buy or advise your students ➢ electronic versions of (educational) books ➢ if they were 30% cheaper than paper books ➢ maybe many books on a good reading device ~ paper? ➢ ➢ Be aware: often ➢ limited to 1 year ➢ no access in the higher years of study ➢ limited to buyer ➢ no second hand buying or sale ➢ no library ➢ no extensive printing Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 6 6
  • 7. Expensive and incompatible Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 7 7
  • 8. Text To Speech software on e-books ➢ Blessing for the blind ➢ 'Copyright violation' according to 'Author's Guild' (publishers) → TTS disabled in Amazon Kindle 2 Remote kill flags discovered! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 8 8
  • 9. DRM: Digital Rights Management or Digital Restrictions Management? ➢ Restricted ➢ export ➢ copying ➢ printing ➢ Text To Speech ➢ in time ➢ to buyer (no second hand market) ➢ biometric identification ➢ user info “inscribed” in the work (Microsoft Reader) ➢ access info sent back to publisher ➢ to certain hardware (e.g. Mac OS X - Apple hardware) ➢ to geographic regions Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 9 9
  • 10. Regional lockout (DVDs, Videogames, UMD, ...) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 10 10
  • 11. DRM ➢ is killing innovation ➢ can prevent legal rights such as ➢ fair use private copying ➢ time shifting ➢ lending services (library) ➢ 2nd hand resale of works ➢ donation ➢ access for disabled ➢ archival ➢ public domain ➢ … Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 11 11
  • 12. Copyright Law started good... ➢ UK 1710: ➢ “for the encouragement of learning” ➢ 1 copy for royal library and each academic library ➢ protection for authors ➢ against abuse and monopoly of publishers ! ➢ reproduction privilege ➢ on request 14 year; on request 14 year renewal ➢ afterwards public domain Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 12 12
  • 13. Copyright Law started good... ➢ US 1790: ➢ “to promote the progress of science and useful arts ➢ by securing for limited times ➢ to authors and inventors ➢ the exclusive right ➢ to their respective writings and discoveries." Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 13 13
  • 14. Copyright Law started good... ➢ Balance between ➢ stimulating authors ➢ and allowing reuse → Private or non-commercial reproductions allowed Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 14 14
  • 15. Today disturbed balance ➢ Educational and scientific goals ➢ replaced by economic goals ➢ Protection automatically, not on request ➢ Copyrights most often again owned by publishers ➢ Protection term extended: ➢ now 70 years after dead author ➢ American & international lobby work ➢ pro ➢ copyright protection term extension ➢ against ➢ exceptions for private, educational and scientific use Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 15 15
  • 16. Today disturbed balance ➢ Technological anti-copy measures (DRM) ➢ are bypassing legal exceptions and public domain ➢ are protecting ➢ not authors or artists ➢ but corporate profits and broken business models ➢ The law provides protection ➢ for "technological measures", ➢ in any technology device or component ➢ which is designed ➢ to restrict or prevent certain acts ➢ which are not authorised by the right-holder. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 16 16
  • 17. Software Patents ➢ Software can be protected by ➢ copyright ➢ (not perfect, but acceptable) ➢ software patents ➢ killing (incremental) innovation ➢ killing fair competition ➢ Compare with patent on books with passionate murder story ➢ Companies file patents to get protection against patents ➢ ~ People buy guns to get protection against guns Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 17 17
  • 18. Software Patents ➢ Valid and enforceable in US ➢ Not valid nor enforceable in EU ➢ but already >30.000 EU software patents ➢ registrered by European Patent Office (€ € €) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 18 18
  • 19. Limiting your control Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 19 19
  • 20. The horror of 'Trusted' computing ➢ DVD User Operation Prohibition ➢ HD-DVD key revocation system (disable your player) ➢ Broadcast flag (no TV recording) ➢ Advanced Access Content System (AACP) ➢ High-Definition Content Protection (HDCP) ➢ Image Constraint Token (ICT) ➢ MS Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) ➢ not protecting ➢ users against viruses and malware, ➢ but media companies against users Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 20 20
  • 21. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 21 21
  • 22. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 22 22
  • 23. DRM in cars Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 23 23
  • 24. Side effects of DRM ➢ extra cost ➢ extra waste ➢ lower quality ➢ less competition ➢ less innovation Digital Rights Management: A failure in the developed world, a danger to the developing world http://www.eff.org/IP/DRM/itu_drm.php Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 24 24
  • 25. The computer of the future? ➢ # Mobile phones = 3 x # PCs ➢ performance ~ end-1990s PC ➢ positive mobile e-learning studies! ➢ P. Thornton & C. Houser, Using mobile phones in English education in Japan, 2005, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 21, pp217–228 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 25 25
  • 26. → Dead of the multi purpose computer ! ➢ (Initially) forbidden to ➢ run your own programs ➢ use other phone company ➢ Unlocked iPhones remotely destroyed ➢ Now ➢ software requires ➢ approval ➢ non disclosure agreement ➢ no approval for 'duplicate software' ➢ e.g. no iTunes competition ➢ remote software kill switch Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 26 26
  • 27. iPad tablet-pc Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 27 27
  • 28. Secret data formats Secret protocols ➢ Vendor and data lock-in ➢ (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again) ➢ → viral ➢ vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data ➢ vendors want us to use buy their products ➢ no free competition ➢ no guarantee eternal access ➢ Students need more and more (costly?) software ➢ Students' IT diversity risks to be beaten down ➢ Integration with other tools is hindered (e.g. indexing on e-learning platforms) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 28 28
  • 29. (Media and software) companies will do everything possible to limit your possibility to copy their works, or to maximize their profits, even if it means that user freedoms and privacy are reduced in internet, technologies and law, to an unworkable level. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 29 29
  • 30. Effect on education? ➢ Computers without programming environment ➢ Black box devices and software ➢ Point and click courses → less students study computer science Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 30 30
  • 31. 1 computer per user? ➢ Esperenza Computer Classroom ➢ with software sponsored by Microsoft Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 31 31
  • 32. 1 computer per user? Computer access for every person is a nice goal ! But is there really a need for one computer per user? Microsoft: “maximum one concurrent user per license (computer)!” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 32 32
  • 33. Free yourself from dogmas! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 33 33
  • 34. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 34 34
  • 35. Ucuenca library catalog computers Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 35 Frederik Questier Ecuador, March 2010 35
  • 36. K12LTSP Linux Terminal Server Project Networked classrooms Fat server runs the applications Thin clients visualize the applications Frederik Questier need no hard disk Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | be 36 years old PC's can pag. 15 36
  • 37. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 37 37
  • 38. Sharing "The most fundamental way of helping other people, is to teach people how to do things better or how to better their lives. For people who use computers, this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer, in other words the programs you run." Richard Stallman Free Software Foundation. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 38 38
  • 39. Free (Open Source Libre) Software FLOSS ➢ The freedom to ➢ run the program for any purpose ➢ study how the program works, and to adapt it to your needs ➢ redistribute copies ➢ improve the program, and release your improvements to the public. ➢ These freedoms require access to the source code Source code: if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, end Compiled code: 001001011101010011001100001111011000110001110001101 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 39 39
  • 40. Free Software Licenses ➢ The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses, e.g. ➢ GNU GPL (General Public License) ➢ The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike) ➢ if binary offered, source code must be offered too ➢ (on request, at low cost) ➢ redistributed modified GPL programs must stay GPL. ➢ BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) ➢ Attribution ➢ No copyleft requirements for distribution ➢ BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...) ➢ Apple Public Source License v2 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 40 40
  • 41. Different kinds of software ➢ Proprietary software (closed source – 'commercial') ➢ $$$ ➢ Shareware ➢ x days for free, afterwards $ ➢ Adware ➢ for free, with ads ➢ Freeware ➢ for free (small projects and often spyware!) ➢ Free Software / Open Source Software ➢ Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer ➢ OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 41 41
  • 42. Servers Internet / Institution ➢ Operating systems: Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris, Android, ... ➢ Domain Name Resolving: BIND ➢ Web server: Apache ➢ Mail: Sendmail, Postfix, Cyrus, Exim ➢ E-learning: Moodle, Chamilo, Dokeos, Chisimba ➢ Helpdesk: Open Ticket Request System, RT ➢ ERP: Compière, SugarCRM, (Chisimba) ➢ Library: ABCD, Greenstone, Koha, Evergreen ➢ Institutional repository: Greenstone, Dspace, Eprints, Fedora ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 42 42
  • 43. Desktop Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 43 43
  • 44. Linux ➢ GPL unix-like kernel ➢ 1991 Comp Sci student Linus Torvalds -> 1000 dev, 100 professionals ➢ GNU/Linux distributions ➢ (K)ubuntu, Debian (30K programs), Redhat, Mandriva, Suse, ... ➢ With user friendly window managers (KDE, Gnome, ...) ➢ Support for many languages, also the non-commercial profitable Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 44 44
  • 45. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 45 45
  • 46. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 46 46
  • 47. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 47 47
  • 48. Free Open Source version of Sun's StarOffice ➢ Compatible with MS Office ➢ Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...) ➢ Open document Format (ODF) XML based, OASIS & ISO standard ➢ ➢ >50M users, 170K community members, 12500 developers ➢ 60 languages ➢ PDF & Flash export ➢ Bibliographic manager Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 48 48
  • 49. Platform independent web browser (Win, Linux, Mac, PDA, ...) ➢ 40 languages ➢ '101 reasons why Mozilla is better than MS IE' ➢ Standards compliancy, popup-blokkers, tabbed browsing, ... ➢ >< MS IE ➢ Security problems! ➢ Only for Windows. (no longer for Mac) ➢ Development was stalled for many years ➢ MSHTML violates W3C standards ➢ Try validator.w3.org ! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 49 49
  • 50. Personal example: Dokeos → Chamilo ➢ http://chamilo.org/ ➢ Open Source Learning & Collaboration Management ➢ started by T. Depraetere, professor in philosophy at UCL ➢ used by >1700 organisations ➢ multi-lingual (>34 languages) ➢ > 21 main developers ➢ Dokeos company ➢ support, consulting, development, hosting, migration, ... ➢ GPL licensed ➢ Easy for programmers [PHP; MySQL] ➢ User friendly ➢ Excellent features Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 50 50
  • 51. Where to find FLOSS? ➢ Use your software package manager ➢ if your are using a Free and Open Operating System! ➢ Sourceforge.net ➢ Hosting and tools for >230K Open Source projects ➢ >2M registered users (contributors) ➢ Freshmeat.net ➢ >40.000 projects, mostly Free Software ➢ Google: x AND GPL OR “open source” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 51 51
  • 52. Where to find FLOSS? ➢ http://livecdlist.com/ ➢ If you want to test software without installing ➢ http://www.theopendisc.com/ ➢ If you want to use FLOSS on Windows: Firefox, Openoffice, Inkscape, Scribus, Clamwin, GIMP, Audacity, Filezilla, 7-zip, PDFCreator, ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 52 52
  • 53. The free software world Characteristics ➢ Huge ➢ "Linux Revenue" exceeds $35 billion per year ➢ 230K projects, 2M contributors @ sourceforge.net ➢ Well organised ➢ Several business models ➢ User friendly ← written by users for users ➢ Cross-platform ← recompile source code ➢ High development pace ← reuse of best modules ➢ High quality ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest ➢ High security ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryption Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 53 53
  • 54. FLOSS has many business models ➢ "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage", John Koenig, IT Manager's Journal, may 2004 ➢ “Companies continue to waste their development dollars on software functionality that is otherwise free and available through Open Source. They persist in buying third-party proprietary platforms or creating their own proprietary development platforms that deliver marginal product differentiation and limited value to customers” Picture reproduced with permission Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 54 54
  • 55. FLOSS saves you money Total Cost of Ownership ➢ Free Software is about freedom, not price ➢ In practice: zero cost acquisition ➢ Support is similar or cheaper because of competition ➢ No license management / procurement needed ➢ Cheaper hardware can be used ➢ Less administration work ➢ Bandwidth savings (local central update/software repository) ➢ Training ➢ Usability tests ➢ {MS Windows XP → Vista} = {MS Windows → Linux} ➢ {MS Office 2003 → 2007} > {MS Office 2003 → OpenOffice} Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 55 55
  • 56. FLOSS is needed for security ➢ From the European Parliament investigation into the Echelon system (05/18/2001): ➢ “ensure that sensitive information is only transmitted via secure media....” ➢ “If security is to be taken seriously, only those operating systems should be used whose source code has been published and checked, since only then can it be determined with certainty what happens to the data.” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 56 56
  • 57. FLOSS is innovative ➢ Software development started Open Source avant la lettre ➢ 1976: Bill Gates open letter to hobbyists: 'your sharing is stealing' ➢ Modifyable nature and modularity ideal for fostering innovation ➢ All major internet software started open ➢ TCP/IP, mail, web, newsgroups, irc, wiki, ... ➢ Community maintained software repositories ➢ Live CDs ➢ 3D desktops ➢ Virtual Networking Computing ➢ Netbooks, $100 laptop ➢ Google (File system, Chrome browser, ...) ➢ ... ➢ Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 57 57
  • 58. Why FLOSS? ➢ reduce (license) costs ➢ reduce digital divide ➢ eliminate software piracy ➢ easier license management ➢ easy to localize and customize ➢ better quality (peer review, intrinsic-motivated developers) ➢ increase security (security by design vs security by obscurity) ➢ increase interoperability (open standards) ➢ reduce dependencies from monopolies & foreign software companies Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 58 58
  • 59. Why is FLOSS not used more? ➢ Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companies ➢ Monopoly abuse ➢ Secret formats & protocols ➢ Data lock-in ➢ Vendor lock-in ➢ Not a lot of advertising ➢ Not a lot of teaching Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 59 59
  • 60. Who can break the monopoly? ➢ Education ➢ We teach MS because that is what companies use ➢ Companies ➢ We cannot use OSS because our employees don't know it ➢ Employees ➢ Growing number starts using OSS at home ➢ Not happy with inferior software at work Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 60 60
  • 61. The possible effects Example: extremadura ➢ poorly developed region → economic revival ➢ based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx) ➢ computer access for every student ➢ saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers ➢ total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year ➢ bigger project ➢ stimuli for companies, centres for citizens ➢ economic revival -> European regional innovation award Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 61 61
  • 62. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 62 62
  • 63. FLOSS policy in Ecuador ➢ El Presidente de la República, Rafael Correa, mediante decreto No. 1014 de 10 de abril del 2008, establece como política pública para las entidades de la administración pública central la utilización de Software Libre en sus sistemas y equipamientos informáticos. ➢ Además el decreto faculta la utilización de software propietario (no Libre), únicamente cuando ➢ no exista una solución de Software Libre que supla las necesidades requeridas, ➢ o cuando esté en riesgo la seguridad nacional, ➢ o cuando el proyecto informático se encuentre en un punto de no retorno. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 63 63
  • 64. Why for education? ➢ Social responsibility ➢ freedom and user rights ➢ home use for students without costs or piracy ! ➢ Savings ➢ Zero cost of software acquisition ➢ Less administration effort ➢ No license management effort ➢ Study of internal workings of software ➢ Student projects ➢ experience international online collaboration ➢ FLOSS knowledge = competitive advantage Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 64 64
  • 65. Institutional FLOSS taskforce / expertise / innovation center ➢ Create awareness ➢ Involve all stakeholders ➢ including highest management ➢ Expertise & capacity building ➢ Resources for experimentation & innovation ➢ Provide support – sustainability ➢ Documentation ➢ Training → certification Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 65 65
  • 66. Policies ➢ Purchasing policies ➢ FLOSS, except if no good alternative ➢ Ask ➢ argumentation ➢ which alternatives considered ➢ Build or buy? ➢ Open standards ➢ Open courseware ➢ Free & Open Licenses Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 66 66
  • 67. How to handle the plethora of choice? ➢ define requirements ➢ indicators of high quality & sustainability ➢ mature, stable software ➢ active community ➢ availability of support & documentation ➢ need/possibility to change the code? ➢ need/possibility to participate in the community? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 67 67
  • 68. When to migrate? ➢ Time transitions ➢ at the end of existing contracts ➢ at hardware / software upgrade times ➢ Consider migrating in phases ➢ servers ➢ desktop applications ➢ → multi-platform ➢ → web-based ➢ desktop OS Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 68 68
  • 69. Key success factors for migration & implementation ➢ resources to experiment ➢ an evidence-based choice ➢ involvement of both technical and non-technical users in the selection process ➢ choice for a new system which is in all aspects at least as good and easy as the previous one ➢ reporting detailed migration plan to management and get their approval and support ➢ in-house expertise with open source software and communities ➢ contact with the developers and users community ➢ Constant communication with all stakeholders Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 69 69
  • 70. Advantages of being a contributing community member ➢ co-decide the direction of development ➢ create extensions ➢ user requested ➢ research driven innovation ➢ more contacts with other educational institutions ➢ programming projects for students ➢ better knowledge of the system ➢ better trouble solving ➢ possibilities for grants Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 70 70
  • 71. The open way ➢ avoid local customization without ➢ contributing back ➢ participating in the community ➢ establish an 'open source culture' of re-use, collaboration and sharing ➢ Provide FLOSS repositories / CDs ➢ share experiences Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 71 71
  • 72. Use Open Standards ➢ Use Open Standards such as ➢ HTML approved by w3c, XML ➢ Open Document Format ➢ SIP, Jabber ➢ PDF ➢ Don't use closed, secret formats and protocols such as ➢ MSHTML ➢ Microsoft Office ➢ Skype, MSN ➢ Flash Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 72 72
  • 73. Reflection task ➢ Which problems do you see (in libraries) around copyright, scientific journals, access, … issues? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 73 73
  • 74. Copyright / journal / access problems for libraries ➢ $$$ for access to scientific journals ➢ prices rising much faster than consumer price index ➢ difficult in developed countries ➢ impossible in developing countries ➢ only for universities and largest companies ➢ problems for doctors, journalists, … the public ➢ Paper → Electronic subscriptions with centralized copies ➢ No access (to old material) after end of subscription ➢ All copies lost for the world ➢ if data loss at publisher? ➢ if publisher goes bankrupt? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 74 74
  • 75. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 75 75
  • 76. The scientific publishing model Scientists Commercial publishers Have ideas Search funding Perform research Describe research Search reviewers Review Demand all copyrights Print (or serve online) Pay for scientific journals Make profit Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 76 76
  • 77. Activism ➢ "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers" ➢ Signed by 34,000 scholars in 2001 ➢ Wanted unrestricted free distribution rights after embargo time of 6 months since publication → Unsatisfying response from publishers → Foundation of Public Library of Science Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 77 77
  • 78. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 78 78
  • 79. Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities ➢ free, irrevocable, worldwide ➢ right of access to, ➢ and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly ➢ and to make and distribute derivative works, ➢ in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, ➢ subject to proper attribution of authorship ➢ Published in a online repository by an academic institution, government agency, ... ➢ ➢ 274 signatories, including all Belgian Universities. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 79 79
  • 80. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 80 80
  • 81. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 81 81
  • 82. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 82 82
  • 83. Open Content licenses ➢ Free licenses ➢ Public domain ➢ No control at all ➢ No attribution required ➢ Can be locked up in commercial works ➢ Free Documentation License = GNU FDL ➢ Interesting for technical documentation, manuals, ... ➢ Creative Commons Public License = CCPL Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 83 83
  • 84. Creative Commons ➢ www.creativecommons.org Share what you want, keep what you want Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 84 84
  • 85. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 85 85
  • 86. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 86 86
  • 87. Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Why not: should we consider academic knowledge as (secret) Intellectual Property? ➢ The dark ages of scarcity of information are over! ➢ (Peer) recognition ➢ for teacher ➢ Whose course is referred to most? ➢ Yours or the one one from your 'competitor'? ➢ for university/schools Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 87 87
  • 88. Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Increase quality ➢ Teachers working together ➢ Best course modules are ➢ reused most often ➢ getting most feedback ➢ getting better again ➢ Saving time & costs ➢ Teachers can start building course from existing material ➢ Creation of animated or interactive learning objects is often too expensive for development/use by only one institution Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 88 88
  • 89. (Firefox) Creative Commons Search Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 89 89
  • 90. www.gutenberg.org (public domain) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 90 90
  • 91. ocw.mit.edu (CCPL) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 91 91
  • 92. www.merlot.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 92 92
  • 93. cnx.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 93 93
  • 94. wikibooks.org Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 94 94
  • 95. Example made with my students nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Onderwijstechnologie Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 95 95
  • 96. Recommendations for libraries ➢ Use FLOSS for ➢ Integrated Library System ➢ Repository ➢ library computers ➢ Use multiseat computers or thin clients ➢ Lend out or distribute CDs/DVDs with FLOSS ➢ Provide links to ➢ Open Access journals and repositories ➢ Consider local cache systems such as LOCKSS Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 96 96
  • 97. Recommendations for teachers & researchers ➢ Publish your research and teaching material using ➢ Free Licenses ➢ Open Access journals ➢ Open repositories ➢ Teach students FLOSS and give Free CD/DVDs Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 97 97
  • 98. Recommendations for universities ➢ Start with Open Source Lab and sensitization ➢ Consider migrating in phases ➢ servers / (multiplatform) desktop applications / desktop OS ➢ starting with new computers ➢ Policy: FLOSS, except if no good alternative ➢ Ask argumentation and which alternatives considered ➢ Policy: open formats ➢ Contribute to FLOSS ➢ Share experiences Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 98 98
  • 99. Reflection task ➢ Which recommendations do you take home? ➢ How can we improve teaching and learning with ICT? ➢ What can we do for a more open Ucuenca/world? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 99 99
  • 100. Nominal group technique University of Cuenca results ➢ Training in FLOSS ➢ Department to promote FLOSS ➢ Management policy for FLOSS implementation ➢ Search FLOSS alternative for every software used in teaching ➢ Implement FLOSS in curriculum ➢ Promotion of FLOSS for teachers and students - Motivate students for FLOSS use ➢ Professional networks to share experiences & information ➢ Create awareness about reasons to use FLOSS ➢ Create a portal for FLOSS ➢ Comply with government FLOSS decree ➢ Migrate ICT projects to FLOSS ➢ Deadline to start FLOSS ➢ Implement FLOSS in phases ➢ Open up research results and articles ➢ Make agreements with companies Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 100 100
  • 101. Open Society? ➢ "How open is the future? Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios based on Free & Open Source Software" Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks) Open Courseware and Open Scientific Publications Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs Openly published under CCPL See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 101 101
  • 102. Questions? Comments? Muchas gracias! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 102 102
  • 103. Credits ➢ Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by) ➢ Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in- Chief, LINUXMAG.com ➢ Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Manager's Journal, may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig ➢ Screenshot http://www.olsonbroserv.com/autorepair.htm ➢ Screenshot http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/05/right-repair-law-pro ➢ Screenshot http://www.lockss.org ➢ Screenshot http://www.doaj.org/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.retrovirology.com/content/3/1/55/abstract/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's Ecuador, March 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 103 103