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TALL BUILDING: STUDY REPORT
SITE & ACTIVITY: STUDY &
ANALYSIS
SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
What is a high-rise building?
“A building whose height creates different
conditions in the design, construction, and use
than those that exist in common buildings of a
certain region and period.”
• Scarcity of land in urban areas
• Increasing demand for business
and residential space
• Economic growth
• Technological advancements
• Innovations in Structural Systems
• Desire for aesthetics in urban
settings
• Concept of city skyline
• Cultural significance and prestige
• Human aspiration to build higher
Demand for High-Rise Buildings
•Buildings between 75 feet and
491 feet (23 m to 150 m) high
are considered high-rises.
Buildings taller than 492 feet
(150 m) are classified as
skyscrapers.
•The materials used for the
structural system of high-rise
buildings are reinforced concrete
and steel. Most American style
skyscrapers have a steel frame,
while residential tower blocks are
usually constructed out of
concrete.
• The great pyramid of
Giza, 2560 bc, was 146
meters tall and its height
was unsurpassed until at
least the 14th century ad.
• The two towers of
bologna in the 12th
century reached 97.2
metres in height.
• The 16th-century city of
shibam consisted entirely
of over 500 high-rise
tower houses.
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
•
HISTORY
EARLY PERIOD
•An early development
was oriel chambers in
liverpool.
•Designed by local
architect peter ellis in
1864,
• The building was the
world's first iron-framed,
glass curtain-walled
office building.
Mete
r
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
World’s Tallest Buildings
Chart
STRUCTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
the floor slab & its supporting beams are on the 10th or
100th storey. Since each floor carries more or less the
same load. This is not the case with the core’s columns,
which carry the weights of all the floors above. The
lower-floor columns carry much larger than those at the
top. The topmost columns carry only the load of the roof
& their own weight.
What is Structure
Efficiency
- Materials
- Gravity
System
- Lateral
System
-Foundation
Constructability
- Simplicity
- Time
Equilibrium
Stability
StrengthS
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E
Stiffness Human Comfort
Structure under earthquake : Global Ductility
Structural Systems
Analyses of structural loads are generally given
precedence in calculations/design measurements
For high-rises. A structural equivalent load is often
used to analyze the dynamic influence and yet
dynamic are often especially important both for
construction and operation.
STRUCTURAL
SYSTEM
Types of floor systems
•In concrete floor systems, slabs of
uniform thickness are often used with
spans of 3m to 8m.
•Beam and slab system is used with
beams spaced at 3m to 8m. Beam
depths of L/15 to L/20 are used.
Concrete floor system
Concrete floor
Steel Floor Systems
•In steel floor systems, we use reinforced
concrete slabs on steel beams. Thickness
of slabs is in the range of L/30 to L/15 of
the span.
•The stub lengths are 1.5m to 2m long.
Stub girders are of composite
construction.
•Concrete • Prestressed concrete
• Steel • Composite
Prestressed concrete is a method for
overcoming concrete’s natural weakness in
tension. It can be used to produce beams ,
floors or bridges
Prestressed concrete Composite
1.Braced Frame
2.Rigid Frame Structure
3.Infilled Frame Structure
4.Flat Plate and flat slab
Structure
5.Shear wall structure
6.Coupled wall structure
7.Wall-frame structure
8.Framed tube structure
9.The trussed tube
10.Tube in tube or Hull core
structure
11.Bundled tube structure
12.Hybrid structure
13.Core and Outrigger
system
Type of High-Rise Structure
Shear Frame System
• Resists lateral deformation by
joint rotation
• Requires high bending stiffness of
columns and beams
• Rigid joints are essential for
stability
• Not effective for heights over 30
stories
Braced Frame System
• Lateral forces are resisted by
axial actions of bracing and
columns
• Steel bracing members or
filled-in bays
• More efficient than a rigid
frame
Frame-shear truss interaction
Braced Frame System
Wall-Frame Structure
•The walls and frame interact
horizontally, especially at the top, to
produce stiffer and stronger structure.
The interacting wall-frame combination
is appropriate for the building in the 40
–60 story range, well beyond that of
rigid frames or shear walls alone.
•The braced frames behave with an overall
flexural tendency to interact with the shear
mode of the rigid frames.
Rigid Frame Structure
•Consist of columns and girders
joined by moment resistant
connections. Lateral stiffness of
a rigid frame bent depends on
the bending stiffness of the
columns, girders, and
connection in the plane of the
bents.
•It suited for reinforced concrete
buildings and steel frame
Flat-Plate and Flat Slab Structure
•it consists of uniforms slabs, connected
rigidly to supporting columns.
•Economic for spans up to about 25 ft
(8m),above which drop panels can be
added to create a flat-slab structure for
span of up to 38 ft (12m).
•Suitable for building up to 25 stories
height.
In-filled Frame Structure
make it difficult to predict with
accuracy the stiffness and
strength of an in-filled frame.
In-filled Frame Structure
In-filled
Shear Wall Structure
•Technology exists to pump and to place
high-strength concrete at high elevation.
•Fire rating for service and passenger
elevator shafts is achieved by simply
placing concrete of a determined
thickness.
•Shear wall formed around elevator and
service riser requires a concentration of
opening at
ground level where stresses are critical.
•Shear wall vertical movements will
continue throughout the life of the
building.
Coupled Wall Structure
•Consist of two or more shear walls in the
same plane, or almost the same plane,
connected at the floor levels by beam or
stiff slabs.
•Suited for residential construction where
lateral-load resistant cross walls, which
separate the apartments, consist of in-
plane coupled pairs, or trios, of shear walls
between which there are corridor or
window openings.
Shear wall structure
Shear wall
Coupled wall
Coupled Wall Structure
The Trussed tube
•Interconnect all exterior columns to
form a rigid box, which can resist lateral
shears by axial
• Making the diagonal intersect at the
same point at the corner column.
•This creates the x form between corner
columns on each façade.
•Relatively broad column spacing can
resulted large clear spaces for windows,
a particular characteristic of steel
buildings.
Example of trussed tube
Tube-in-Tube or Hull Core Structure
•consists of an outer frame tube, the “Hull,”
together with an internal elevator and service
core.
•The Hull and core act jointly in resisting both
gravity and lateral loading.
•The outer framed tube and the inner core
interact horizontally as the shear and flexural
components of a wall-frame structure, with the
benefit of increased lateral stiffness.
Bundled-Tube structures
•The concept allows for wider
column spacing in the tubular walls
than would be possible with only
the exterior frame tube form.
•It modulate the cells vertically can
create a powerful vocabulary for a
variety of dynamic shapes
Core and Outrigger Systems
•The outrigger systems may be formed in any combination of steel,
concrete, or composite construction.
•the complete elimination of uplift and net tension forces
throughout the column and the foundation systems.
•Exterior framing can consist of “simple” beam and column
framing without the need for rigid-frame-type connections,
resulting in economies.
•Locating outrigger in mechanical and the natural
sloping lines of the building profile
Vertical Loads
LOADS ON THE HIGHRISE STRUCTURES
•Dead loads arise from the
weigh to the individual
construction elements and
the finishing loads.
•Live loads are dependent
on use depending on the
number of stories; live
loads can be reduced for
load transfer and the
dimensioning of vertical
load-bearing elements.
· However, the reduction of
the total live load on a
construction element may
not exceed 40%.
Horizontal loads
•Calculation of
lateral loads should
be carefully
scrutinized.
•It generally arises
from unexpected
deflections, wind
and earthquake
loads
Vertical load
Horizontal load
Ground surface
Steel beam
Foundation
Steel column
Structural Loads
• Gravity loads
– Dead loads
– Live loads
– Snow loads
• Lateral loads
– Wind loads
– Seismic loads
• Special load cases
– Impact loads
– Blast loads
Earthquake Load
Blast
Load
Wind Load
Impact
Load
Snow Load
Dead Loads
Live Loads
Wind
load
High pressure
Law pressure
Wind direction
Ground floor
Wind flow system
STUDY ON HIGH RISE BUILDING: PARKIN
Parking is the act of stopping a vehicle and
leaving it unoccupied for more than a brief
time . Parking facilities are constructed in
combination with most buildings ,to facilities
the coming and going of the buildings
users.
5’6”
5’3”
14’
Measurement of car
FIG:
CHANGE
OF
GRADIENT
ON RAMPS
FIG: CAR TURNING RADIU
TRACK
PARKING LAYOUT
PARKING
FOR ONE-
WAY
TRAFFIC
WITH
SPACES
FOR
PLANTS
30
DEGREE
OBLIQUE
SPACES,
ONE
WAY
TRAFFIC
PARKING
PARALLEL TO
THE ROAD
45 DEGREE
OBLIQUE PARKING,
ONE WAY TRAFFIC
60 DEGREE
OBLIQUE PARKING,
ONE WAY TRAFFIC
45 DEGREE ANGLED
PARKING,
ONE WAY TRAFFIC
8
’
Parking layout
90 DEGREE
ENTRY/EXIT
TO
PARKING
SPACES
FOR TWO
WAY
TRAFFIC
1. SURFACE PARKING
2. BASEMENT PARKING
3. MULTI-STORIED PARKING
4. MECHANIZED & AUTOMATED
PARKING
TYPES OF PARKING
SURFACE PARKING. BASEMENT PARKING
MULTI-
STORIED
PARKING
MECHANIZED &
AUTOMATED
PARKING
10’
14’
One way traffic
Two way traffic
8’6”
16’
GROUND FLOOR PLAN SEMI BASEMENT PLAN
50’ 50’
16’
Measurement of basement ramp
Core of High-rise building
In tall buildings in particular, the
service core can provide the principal
structure
Element for both the gravity load-
resisting system and lateral load-
resisting system,
With the latter becoming increasingly
important as the height of the building
increases.
Function of core
Vertical circulation 1.Lift
2.Lobby
3.Fire stair
4.Toilet zone
5.Duct
6.Mechanical room
-Elevators
-Escalators
-Stairs
-Ramp
Plan of Core
Core
Central core Split core End core Atrium core
Plan
Single tenant
Double tenant
Multiple tenant
Detail of Core
Diagram of elevators (three zone system in which
Users have to change floors after each zone
Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Elevator
Escalators are "moving stairs" where
the tread moves on a track at an incline
or decline to transport people from one
floor to another.
Escalators
Stair
6”
10”
6”
Elevator shafts are demanding areas within
a building., especially when it involves
measuring the dimensions.
1. Reception for 3 person 40 sft
2. Lobby for 50 person 300 sft
3. Waiting room for 30 person 200 sft
4. Auditorium for 200 person 4000 sft
Green room, Toilet, Stage, Stair
5. Prayer room for 50 person 300 sft
6. Café for 80 person 1700 sft
7. Storage room 500 sft
8. Substation room 1000 sft
9. Guard room 120 sft
10. Bank space 4500 sft
TOWER FUNCTION
1. official space, (5000-6000sft)
service core per floor
BASEMENT FUNCTION
1. 3 floor
2. Parking car, Parking bike
3. Generator room 300 sft
4. Water machine room 400 sft
5. Chiller room 250 sft
6. Control room 80 sqft
7. Security room 120 sqft
8. Drivers waiting room 150 sft
SERVICE CORE/ FLOOR
1. Lift
2. Stair
3. Fire exit
4. Toilet zone 500 sft
5. Kitchen room 80sft
6. Ac duct 100 sft
7. Electrical room 150 sft
PODIUM FUNCTION 1- 3 FLOOR
Top of the Tower
Machine room [chiller & aver ]
STAIR, RAMP & FIRE EXIT OFFICIAL BUILDING
STAIR
Minimum required Stair wide 1.5 meter
RAMP
Minimum required for car 1:8
Maximum required for car 1:15
FIRE EXIT
Per head user person floor area -------------------------10 gross
50> ------------------------1.1m
FIRE EXIT PASSAGE
<50 ------------------------0.9m
150 > ------------------------1.8m
LIFT
Per lift lobby space -------------------------1.5*1.5m
TOILET
Per floor total gross area ------------------------------5% toilet area
Minimum toilet volume ------------------------------ 1.5*1.5meter
PAGE-3051
PAGE-3070
PAGE-3065
PAGE-3075
PAGE-3075
Means of Escape, has three parts : 1. Exit Access, 2 . Exit, 3. Exit Discharge
FIRE EXIT
Per head user person width of exit ------------------------- without sprinkler system
Stair , Ramp & Corridor , Door 8 mm , 5 mm , 4 mm.
With sprinkler system -------------------- Stair , Ramp & Corridor , Door
PAGE-3066
5mm , 4 mm , 4 mm.
FIRE EXIT PASSAGE WAY DISTANCE PAGE-3067
Maximum required for 50 person -------------------- 23 m
Design Criteria:
01 Maximum ground coverage (MGC) 50%
02 Basic FAR ( for 12 m road width ) 9.5
03 Podium 75% OF
LAND AREA
04 Additional ground coverage for Parking, Drive way, Paved
area
(25% of land
area)
05 Mandatory green area (25% of land
area)
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) = Total Floor Area / Land Area
Total Floor Area = Floor Area Ratio (FAR) * Land Area
= 9.5 * Land Area
FAR ANALYSIS
CASE STUDY
Project status: December 2012
PROJECT OVERVIEW
 Project name: Babylonia
 Architect: Mustapha Khalid
Palash
 Location: Bir Uttam Mir
Shawkat Sarak, Tejgoan
 Land area: 40 katha, 28818
sq.ft
 Occupancy type: commercial
 Building stories: 12 stories + 3
basement
 No of floor: 14
 Size of spaces: 4363-14566
sq.ft
 No of lift: 5
 Car parking :128+
Concept
The concept is to relate is to office space
with its surrounding environment and
cityscape through urban scaled gigantic
windows, let insiders enjoy the city
specifically the northern greener Dhaka.
The hanging garden of Babylon, the most
impressive example of ancient
architecture still
so relevant and so adaptable for
modern building concept of Green
Architecture.
Structural Design
Criteria
•Structural design parameters to be
based on BNBC, ACI and ASTM
code.
•For all service connections British /
Amerian / BNBC building code will
be followed
•Consider wind load up to 210km/hr.
•Building is design to sustain
earthquake load with return period of
100 years.
•All RCC works will withstand
crushing strengths of 4500 psi after
28 days curing period and for column
and 30000 psi for other member.
General Floors and terraces
Best quality homogeneous tiles (RAK or equivalent 24“ * 24“
/ 16“ * 16") on general floors with good quality terrace tiles
(As per design)
Lift Lobby
Stair
Fire Exit
Toilet Block
Toilet Block Lift LobbyFire Exit Stair
Functions Of Core
Basement 1
Functions
1) Lift lobby
2) Stair
3) Stair
4) Generator room
5) Substation
6) Ramp
7) Driver’s waiting
Car parking – 34 car
1
3
1
2
4
6 6
7
Basement 2
Functions
3
1
2
4
5
4
1) Lift lobby
2) Stair
3) Chiller room
4) Driver’s waiting
5) ) Ramp
Car parking – 48 car
Basement 3
Functions
1. Stair
2. Pump Room
3. Drivers Waiting
4. Water Reservoir
5. Car Parking- 46 car
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
1. Lift Lobby
2. Stair
3. Fire Exit
4. Toilet Block
5. Commercial space 423 sq.ft
6. Commercial Space 5311 sq.ft
7. Void Above
8. Water Body
9. Entry Plaza
18ft wide internal drive way Control
Room
BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (AS PER DESIGN)
 Air Distribution System.
 Ventilation System
 The ventilation for car parking lot.
 cooling plant (includes chiller, condenser pump, chiller water pump & extant
fan from chiller room) will be monitored & controlled by chiller management
system (CMS) in coordination with BMS.
 Public area lighting via lighting control system.
 air conditioning system such as AHUs, VAV, pumps, fans etc.
 Chillers. heat exchanges & pumps via chiller manager with high level
interface.
•Metering (main utility meters) including
gas, water & electricity.
•Generators (monitoring).
•fire alarms (high level interface).
•Smoke control fans (monitoring)
•Main power supply system (monitoring)
•Lifts (high level interface)
•Security system(monitoring)
•Fire & domestic water level in water tanks
(monitoring)
•Sufficient height of basement one to
arrange multi level car parking in future.
1.Lift Lobby
2.Stair
3.Fire Exit
4.Toilet Block
5.Commercial space
CASE STUDY-02
FIELD SURVAY, DHAKA
A.Bangladesh chemical industry corporation
(BCIC).
Architect: Bashirul haq.
B.Babiloniya, Tajgao.
Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
SUMME
R
WIND
FLOW
SUNPATH DIAGRAM(BCIC)
N
W
S
E
BCIC
TowerLocation: Motijheel,Dhaka
Land area: 25710 sq ft
Built area: 292214 sq ft
Architect: Bashirul haq
Building Types: Official
Height Total: 240ft
Stories: 19
Basement: 1
CASE STUDY-02
FIELD SURVAY, DHAKA
A.Bangladesh chemical industry corporation
(BCIC).
Architect: Bashirul haq.
B.Babiloniya, Tajgao.
Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
SUMME
R
WIND
FLOW
SUNPATH DIAGRAM(BCIC)
N
W
S
E
BCIC
TowerLocation: Motijheel,Dhaka
Land area: 25710 sq ft
Built area: 292214 sq ft
Architect: Bashirul haq
Building Types: Official
Height Total: 240ft
Stories: 19
Basement: 1
• Reinforced concrete
– large net tension forces exist can negate the inherent efficiency of concrete in compression
resistance
– Walls become thick
• Concrete
– Fire-resistance, in particular of lift and piping shafts, is good
– Execution is efficient
– Lateral forces can be transmitted employing the surrounding skeleton
– sufficient stiffness
Materials:
CASE STUDY-03
LITARATURE SURVAY, FOREIGN
A.EDDIT TOWER , SINGAPORE
Architect: Dr.Ken yeang
B.Babiloniya, Tajgao.
Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
Architect : T.R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn
Bhd
Client:
URA (Urban Redevelopment
Authority) Singapore (Sponsor)
EDITT (Ecological Design in The
Tropics) (Sponsor)
NUS (National University of
Singapore) (Sponsor)
Location: Junction of Waterloo Road
and Victoria Street, Singapore
Nos. of Storeys: 26
Date Start:1998 (Competition: design)
Completion Date: Pending Areas:
Total gross area: 6,033 sqm
Total nett area: 3,567.16 sqm
Total area of plantation: 3,841.34 sqm
Site Area: 838 sqm
Plot Ratio: 7.1EDITT Tower – Project Team
Principal-in-charge: Dr. Ken Yeang
Project Architect: Andy Chong
Design Architects: Ridzwa Fathan (PIC), Claudia Ritsch,
Azman Che Mat
Design Team: Azuddin Sulaiman, See Ee Ling
Drafting: Sze Tho Kok Cheng
C&S and M&E Engineers: Battle McCarthy (London)
Embodied Energy Expert: Bill Lawson (University of
Sydney)
Swan & Maclaren Architects: James Leong (Architect-of-
Record)
EDITT Tower – Building Information
Design Features
Our design sets out to demonstrate an
ecological approach to tower design. Besides
meeting the Client’s program requirements for
an exposition tower (i.e. for retail, exhibition
spaces, auditorium uses,etc.), the design has
the following ecological responses
Loose- fit design (e.g Sky courts,
removable partition,
Removable floor, mechanical-jointing,
flexible design).(Increase space function
reusability over the-150 years Life span) .
Level-2:
Service core, food court.
Level-3:
Service core, Art & craft stalls.
Level-4:
Same of ass level 3
Dr. Yeang is among the leaders who
seek to prove not only that wind,
rain, sun and nature can and should
be in harmony with human
development, but that the
ecologically balanced urban
environment is itself a living
organism
Level-5:
Service core, food court.
Level-6:
Service core, Cafe.
Level-9:
Service core, Auditorium, Seating area.
Level-10:
Service core, sky park, seating, upper
link.
The architects have completed a study
of the embodied energy and
greenhouse-gas efficiency of the
building materials as well, but have
opted in some cases for higher energy
intensity construction materials,
especially the solar panels due to their
payback in energy during the life of
the building and recyclable building
materials such as steel and
aluminium. Composite timber-floor
cassettes will replace the commonly
used concrete floors to achieve gains
in energy-efficient construction.
The building will have over 55% water self-sufficiency
based on collection or rainwater and water reuse relying on
built-in filter systems. In a country which captures less
than 60% of its own fresh water needs and is currently
reliant on its neighbor, Malaysia, for water, this is an
especially important feature.
The EDITT tower will achieve
almost 40% energy self-
sufficiency through a system of
solar panels.The 26-story high-rise will boast
photovoltaic panels, natural
ventilation, and a biogas generation
plant all wrapped within an
insulating living wall that covers half
of its surface area. The verdant
skyscraper was designed to
increase its location’s bio-diversity
and rehabilitate the local ecosystem
in Singapore’s ‘zero culture’
metropolis.
SOM: Diagonal tower yongsan
international business district
Structural columns will be concealed within the building's faceted glass skin,
while a series of shading fins will help to reduce solar gain.
Diagonal Tower
Structure in General
skyscraperBuilding type
Building status planned [approved]
Facade material glass
Usage
Main usage commercial office
Side usage shop(s)
Location
Address as text Yongsan International
Business District
City Seoul
Province Seoul Metropolitan City
Country South Korea
Technical Data
Height
(architectural)
343.00 m
Floors (above
ground)
64
Construction end 2016
Involved Companies
Architect:
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
Features & Amenities
Sky lobby is present
Identification
Name Diagonal Tower
Daniel libeskindArchitect
aerial view night view
Aerial view Night view
auditorium night view
sky lobby cafeteria
sky lobby fitness center
Tower base
Auditorium from south east
Interior lobby
A small auditorium will be
housed in an adjacent glazed
cube covered in matching
netting.
RENDERED SITE PLAN
(left) typical square tower form
(middle) rotated to address seoul
landmarks
(right) diagonal mega frame increase
structural efficiency
(left) faceted form decreases effects of the wind
(right) louvers spacing and orientation varies for
optimal shading on each facet
Diagonal Tower is a 343-meter-tall office building in the Yongsan International Business
District,
62-story tower provides over 145,000 square meters of open office space, two double-height sky lobbies
with a cafeteria and fitness center, and a penthouse executive lounge.
includes two retail pavilions and a multifunctional auditorium, cubic in dimension, directly to
the west of the tower.
rotated 45 degrees at one third the height of the tower and then rotated again at two thirds the height of
the tower.
A megaframe carries loads diagonally
vertical columns running along the facade at 12 meter spacing.
The structural diagonal grid mitigates wind and seismic forces and uses 25% less steel than a
conventionally framed building.
Located to the west of the tower, a perfectly cubic 40m x 40mx 40m glass auditorium provides
multifunctional space
Akramul haque : 2013200600018
Tazrina akter: 2012200600017
Abdul alim :2012200600001
Tania akter suny: 2012100600008

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Final presentation by Akramul masum from southeast university bangladesh.

  • 1. TALL BUILDING: STUDY REPORT SITE & ACTIVITY: STUDY & ANALYSIS SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
  • 2. What is a high-rise building? “A building whose height creates different conditions in the design, construction, and use than those that exist in common buildings of a certain region and period.”
  • 3. • Scarcity of land in urban areas • Increasing demand for business and residential space • Economic growth • Technological advancements • Innovations in Structural Systems • Desire for aesthetics in urban settings • Concept of city skyline • Cultural significance and prestige • Human aspiration to build higher Demand for High-Rise Buildings •Buildings between 75 feet and 491 feet (23 m to 150 m) high are considered high-rises. Buildings taller than 492 feet (150 m) are classified as skyscrapers. •The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel. Most American style skyscrapers have a steel frame, while residential tower blocks are usually constructed out of concrete.
  • 4. • The great pyramid of Giza, 2560 bc, was 146 meters tall and its height was unsurpassed until at least the 14th century ad. • The two towers of bologna in the 12th century reached 97.2 metres in height. • The 16th-century city of shibam consisted entirely of over 500 high-rise tower houses. MEDIEVAL PERIOD • HISTORY EARLY PERIOD •An early development was oriel chambers in liverpool. •Designed by local architect peter ellis in 1864, • The building was the world's first iron-framed, glass curtain-walled office building.
  • 5.
  • 7. STRUCTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS the floor slab & its supporting beams are on the 10th or 100th storey. Since each floor carries more or less the same load. This is not the case with the core’s columns, which carry the weights of all the floors above. The lower-floor columns carry much larger than those at the top. The topmost columns carry only the load of the roof & their own weight. What is Structure Efficiency - Materials - Gravity System - Lateral System -Foundation Constructability - Simplicity - Time
  • 9. Stiffness Human Comfort Structure under earthquake : Global Ductility
  • 10.
  • 11. Structural Systems Analyses of structural loads are generally given precedence in calculations/design measurements For high-rises. A structural equivalent load is often used to analyze the dynamic influence and yet dynamic are often especially important both for construction and operation.
  • 13. Types of floor systems •In concrete floor systems, slabs of uniform thickness are often used with spans of 3m to 8m. •Beam and slab system is used with beams spaced at 3m to 8m. Beam depths of L/15 to L/20 are used. Concrete floor system Concrete floor Steel Floor Systems •In steel floor systems, we use reinforced concrete slabs on steel beams. Thickness of slabs is in the range of L/30 to L/15 of the span. •The stub lengths are 1.5m to 2m long. Stub girders are of composite construction. •Concrete • Prestressed concrete • Steel • Composite
  • 14. Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete’s natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce beams , floors or bridges Prestressed concrete Composite
  • 15. 1.Braced Frame 2.Rigid Frame Structure 3.Infilled Frame Structure 4.Flat Plate and flat slab Structure 5.Shear wall structure 6.Coupled wall structure 7.Wall-frame structure 8.Framed tube structure 9.The trussed tube 10.Tube in tube or Hull core structure 11.Bundled tube structure 12.Hybrid structure 13.Core and Outrigger system Type of High-Rise Structure
  • 16. Shear Frame System • Resists lateral deformation by joint rotation • Requires high bending stiffness of columns and beams • Rigid joints are essential for stability • Not effective for heights over 30 stories Braced Frame System • Lateral forces are resisted by axial actions of bracing and columns • Steel bracing members or filled-in bays • More efficient than a rigid frame Frame-shear truss interaction Braced Frame System
  • 17. Wall-Frame Structure •The walls and frame interact horizontally, especially at the top, to produce stiffer and stronger structure. The interacting wall-frame combination is appropriate for the building in the 40 –60 story range, well beyond that of rigid frames or shear walls alone. •The braced frames behave with an overall flexural tendency to interact with the shear mode of the rigid frames. Rigid Frame Structure •Consist of columns and girders joined by moment resistant connections. Lateral stiffness of a rigid frame bent depends on the bending stiffness of the columns, girders, and connection in the plane of the bents. •It suited for reinforced concrete buildings and steel frame
  • 18. Flat-Plate and Flat Slab Structure •it consists of uniforms slabs, connected rigidly to supporting columns. •Economic for spans up to about 25 ft (8m),above which drop panels can be added to create a flat-slab structure for span of up to 38 ft (12m). •Suitable for building up to 25 stories height. In-filled Frame Structure make it difficult to predict with accuracy the stiffness and strength of an in-filled frame. In-filled Frame Structure In-filled
  • 19. Shear Wall Structure •Technology exists to pump and to place high-strength concrete at high elevation. •Fire rating for service and passenger elevator shafts is achieved by simply placing concrete of a determined thickness. •Shear wall formed around elevator and service riser requires a concentration of opening at ground level where stresses are critical. •Shear wall vertical movements will continue throughout the life of the building. Coupled Wall Structure •Consist of two or more shear walls in the same plane, or almost the same plane, connected at the floor levels by beam or stiff slabs. •Suited for residential construction where lateral-load resistant cross walls, which separate the apartments, consist of in- plane coupled pairs, or trios, of shear walls between which there are corridor or window openings. Shear wall structure Shear wall Coupled wall Coupled Wall Structure
  • 20. The Trussed tube •Interconnect all exterior columns to form a rigid box, which can resist lateral shears by axial • Making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column. •This creates the x form between corner columns on each façade. •Relatively broad column spacing can resulted large clear spaces for windows, a particular characteristic of steel buildings. Example of trussed tube Tube-in-Tube or Hull Core Structure •consists of an outer frame tube, the “Hull,” together with an internal elevator and service core. •The Hull and core act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. •The outer framed tube and the inner core interact horizontally as the shear and flexural components of a wall-frame structure, with the benefit of increased lateral stiffness.
  • 21. Bundled-Tube structures •The concept allows for wider column spacing in the tubular walls than would be possible with only the exterior frame tube form. •It modulate the cells vertically can create a powerful vocabulary for a variety of dynamic shapes Core and Outrigger Systems •The outrigger systems may be formed in any combination of steel, concrete, or composite construction. •the complete elimination of uplift and net tension forces throughout the column and the foundation systems. •Exterior framing can consist of “simple” beam and column framing without the need for rigid-frame-type connections, resulting in economies. •Locating outrigger in mechanical and the natural sloping lines of the building profile
  • 22. Vertical Loads LOADS ON THE HIGHRISE STRUCTURES •Dead loads arise from the weigh to the individual construction elements and the finishing loads. •Live loads are dependent on use depending on the number of stories; live loads can be reduced for load transfer and the dimensioning of vertical load-bearing elements. · However, the reduction of the total live load on a construction element may not exceed 40%. Horizontal loads •Calculation of lateral loads should be carefully scrutinized. •It generally arises from unexpected deflections, wind and earthquake loads Vertical load Horizontal load Ground surface Steel beam Foundation Steel column
  • 23. Structural Loads • Gravity loads – Dead loads – Live loads – Snow loads • Lateral loads – Wind loads – Seismic loads • Special load cases – Impact loads – Blast loads Earthquake Load Blast Load Wind Load Impact Load Snow Load Dead Loads Live Loads Wind load
  • 24.
  • 25. High pressure Law pressure Wind direction Ground floor Wind flow system
  • 26. STUDY ON HIGH RISE BUILDING: PARKIN Parking is the act of stopping a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied for more than a brief time . Parking facilities are constructed in combination with most buildings ,to facilities the coming and going of the buildings users. 5’6” 5’3” 14’ Measurement of car
  • 28. PARKING LAYOUT PARKING FOR ONE- WAY TRAFFIC WITH SPACES FOR PLANTS 30 DEGREE OBLIQUE SPACES, ONE WAY TRAFFIC PARKING PARALLEL TO THE ROAD 45 DEGREE OBLIQUE PARKING, ONE WAY TRAFFIC 60 DEGREE OBLIQUE PARKING, ONE WAY TRAFFIC 45 DEGREE ANGLED PARKING, ONE WAY TRAFFIC 8 ’
  • 30. 1. SURFACE PARKING 2. BASEMENT PARKING 3. MULTI-STORIED PARKING 4. MECHANIZED & AUTOMATED PARKING TYPES OF PARKING SURFACE PARKING. BASEMENT PARKING MULTI- STORIED PARKING MECHANIZED & AUTOMATED PARKING 10’ 14’ One way traffic Two way traffic
  • 31. 8’6” 16’ GROUND FLOOR PLAN SEMI BASEMENT PLAN 50’ 50’ 16’ Measurement of basement ramp
  • 32. Core of High-rise building In tall buildings in particular, the service core can provide the principal structure Element for both the gravity load- resisting system and lateral load- resisting system, With the latter becoming increasingly important as the height of the building increases. Function of core Vertical circulation 1.Lift 2.Lobby 3.Fire stair 4.Toilet zone 5.Duct 6.Mechanical room -Elevators -Escalators -Stairs -Ramp
  • 34. Central core Split core End core Atrium core Plan Single tenant Double tenant Multiple tenant Detail of Core
  • 35. Diagram of elevators (three zone system in which Users have to change floors after each zone Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical
  • 36. Elevator Escalators are "moving stairs" where the tread moves on a track at an incline or decline to transport people from one floor to another. Escalators Stair 6” 10” 6” Elevator shafts are demanding areas within a building., especially when it involves measuring the dimensions.
  • 37. 1. Reception for 3 person 40 sft 2. Lobby for 50 person 300 sft 3. Waiting room for 30 person 200 sft 4. Auditorium for 200 person 4000 sft Green room, Toilet, Stage, Stair 5. Prayer room for 50 person 300 sft 6. Café for 80 person 1700 sft 7. Storage room 500 sft 8. Substation room 1000 sft 9. Guard room 120 sft 10. Bank space 4500 sft TOWER FUNCTION 1. official space, (5000-6000sft) service core per floor BASEMENT FUNCTION 1. 3 floor 2. Parking car, Parking bike 3. Generator room 300 sft 4. Water machine room 400 sft 5. Chiller room 250 sft 6. Control room 80 sqft 7. Security room 120 sqft 8. Drivers waiting room 150 sft SERVICE CORE/ FLOOR 1. Lift 2. Stair 3. Fire exit 4. Toilet zone 500 sft 5. Kitchen room 80sft 6. Ac duct 100 sft 7. Electrical room 150 sft PODIUM FUNCTION 1- 3 FLOOR Top of the Tower Machine room [chiller & aver ]
  • 38. STAIR, RAMP & FIRE EXIT OFFICIAL BUILDING STAIR Minimum required Stair wide 1.5 meter RAMP Minimum required for car 1:8 Maximum required for car 1:15 FIRE EXIT Per head user person floor area -------------------------10 gross 50> ------------------------1.1m FIRE EXIT PASSAGE <50 ------------------------0.9m 150 > ------------------------1.8m LIFT Per lift lobby space -------------------------1.5*1.5m TOILET Per floor total gross area ------------------------------5% toilet area Minimum toilet volume ------------------------------ 1.5*1.5meter PAGE-3051 PAGE-3070 PAGE-3065 PAGE-3075 PAGE-3075 Means of Escape, has three parts : 1. Exit Access, 2 . Exit, 3. Exit Discharge
  • 39. FIRE EXIT Per head user person width of exit ------------------------- without sprinkler system Stair , Ramp & Corridor , Door 8 mm , 5 mm , 4 mm. With sprinkler system -------------------- Stair , Ramp & Corridor , Door PAGE-3066 5mm , 4 mm , 4 mm. FIRE EXIT PASSAGE WAY DISTANCE PAGE-3067 Maximum required for 50 person -------------------- 23 m
  • 40. Design Criteria: 01 Maximum ground coverage (MGC) 50% 02 Basic FAR ( for 12 m road width ) 9.5 03 Podium 75% OF LAND AREA 04 Additional ground coverage for Parking, Drive way, Paved area (25% of land area) 05 Mandatory green area (25% of land area) Floor Area Ratio (FAR) = Total Floor Area / Land Area Total Floor Area = Floor Area Ratio (FAR) * Land Area = 9.5 * Land Area FAR ANALYSIS
  • 43. PROJECT OVERVIEW  Project name: Babylonia  Architect: Mustapha Khalid Palash  Location: Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak, Tejgoan  Land area: 40 katha, 28818 sq.ft  Occupancy type: commercial  Building stories: 12 stories + 3 basement  No of floor: 14  Size of spaces: 4363-14566 sq.ft  No of lift: 5  Car parking :128+
  • 44. Concept The concept is to relate is to office space with its surrounding environment and cityscape through urban scaled gigantic windows, let insiders enjoy the city specifically the northern greener Dhaka. The hanging garden of Babylon, the most impressive example of ancient architecture still so relevant and so adaptable for modern building concept of Green Architecture.
  • 45. Structural Design Criteria •Structural design parameters to be based on BNBC, ACI and ASTM code. •For all service connections British / Amerian / BNBC building code will be followed •Consider wind load up to 210km/hr. •Building is design to sustain earthquake load with return period of 100 years. •All RCC works will withstand crushing strengths of 4500 psi after 28 days curing period and for column and 30000 psi for other member. General Floors and terraces Best quality homogeneous tiles (RAK or equivalent 24“ * 24“ / 16“ * 16") on general floors with good quality terrace tiles (As per design)
  • 46. Lift Lobby Stair Fire Exit Toilet Block Toilet Block Lift LobbyFire Exit Stair Functions Of Core
  • 47. Basement 1 Functions 1) Lift lobby 2) Stair 3) Stair 4) Generator room 5) Substation 6) Ramp 7) Driver’s waiting Car parking – 34 car 1 3 1 2 4 6 6 7
  • 48. Basement 2 Functions 3 1 2 4 5 4 1) Lift lobby 2) Stair 3) Chiller room 4) Driver’s waiting 5) ) Ramp Car parking – 48 car
  • 49. Basement 3 Functions 1. Stair 2. Pump Room 3. Drivers Waiting 4. Water Reservoir 5. Car Parking- 46 car
  • 50. GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1. Lift Lobby 2. Stair 3. Fire Exit 4. Toilet Block 5. Commercial space 423 sq.ft 6. Commercial Space 5311 sq.ft 7. Void Above 8. Water Body 9. Entry Plaza 18ft wide internal drive way Control Room
  • 51. BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (AS PER DESIGN)  Air Distribution System.  Ventilation System  The ventilation for car parking lot.  cooling plant (includes chiller, condenser pump, chiller water pump & extant fan from chiller room) will be monitored & controlled by chiller management system (CMS) in coordination with BMS.  Public area lighting via lighting control system.  air conditioning system such as AHUs, VAV, pumps, fans etc.  Chillers. heat exchanges & pumps via chiller manager with high level interface.
  • 52. •Metering (main utility meters) including gas, water & electricity. •Generators (monitoring). •fire alarms (high level interface). •Smoke control fans (monitoring) •Main power supply system (monitoring) •Lifts (high level interface) •Security system(monitoring) •Fire & domestic water level in water tanks (monitoring) •Sufficient height of basement one to arrange multi level car parking in future. 1.Lift Lobby 2.Stair 3.Fire Exit 4.Toilet Block 5.Commercial space
  • 53. CASE STUDY-02 FIELD SURVAY, DHAKA A.Bangladesh chemical industry corporation (BCIC). Architect: Bashirul haq. B.Babiloniya, Tajgao. Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
  • 54. SUMME R WIND FLOW SUNPATH DIAGRAM(BCIC) N W S E BCIC TowerLocation: Motijheel,Dhaka Land area: 25710 sq ft Built area: 292214 sq ft Architect: Bashirul haq Building Types: Official Height Total: 240ft Stories: 19 Basement: 1
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  • 57. CASE STUDY-02 FIELD SURVAY, DHAKA A.Bangladesh chemical industry corporation (BCIC). Architect: Bashirul haq. B.Babiloniya, Tajgao. Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
  • 58. SUMME R WIND FLOW SUNPATH DIAGRAM(BCIC) N W S E BCIC TowerLocation: Motijheel,Dhaka Land area: 25710 sq ft Built area: 292214 sq ft Architect: Bashirul haq Building Types: Official Height Total: 240ft Stories: 19 Basement: 1
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  • 65. • Reinforced concrete – large net tension forces exist can negate the inherent efficiency of concrete in compression resistance – Walls become thick • Concrete – Fire-resistance, in particular of lift and piping shafts, is good – Execution is efficient – Lateral forces can be transmitted employing the surrounding skeleton – sufficient stiffness Materials:
  • 66. CASE STUDY-03 LITARATURE SURVAY, FOREIGN A.EDDIT TOWER , SINGAPORE Architect: Dr.Ken yeang B.Babiloniya, Tajgao. Architect: khan Md. Mostafa kahled Polas
  • 67. Architect : T.R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn Bhd Client: URA (Urban Redevelopment Authority) Singapore (Sponsor) EDITT (Ecological Design in The Tropics) (Sponsor) NUS (National University of Singapore) (Sponsor) Location: Junction of Waterloo Road and Victoria Street, Singapore Nos. of Storeys: 26 Date Start:1998 (Competition: design) Completion Date: Pending Areas: Total gross area: 6,033 sqm Total nett area: 3,567.16 sqm Total area of plantation: 3,841.34 sqm Site Area: 838 sqm Plot Ratio: 7.1EDITT Tower – Project Team Principal-in-charge: Dr. Ken Yeang Project Architect: Andy Chong Design Architects: Ridzwa Fathan (PIC), Claudia Ritsch, Azman Che Mat Design Team: Azuddin Sulaiman, See Ee Ling Drafting: Sze Tho Kok Cheng C&S and M&E Engineers: Battle McCarthy (London) Embodied Energy Expert: Bill Lawson (University of Sydney) Swan & Maclaren Architects: James Leong (Architect-of- Record) EDITT Tower – Building Information
  • 68. Design Features Our design sets out to demonstrate an ecological approach to tower design. Besides meeting the Client’s program requirements for an exposition tower (i.e. for retail, exhibition spaces, auditorium uses,etc.), the design has the following ecological responses Loose- fit design (e.g Sky courts, removable partition, Removable floor, mechanical-jointing, flexible design).(Increase space function reusability over the-150 years Life span) .
  • 69. Level-2: Service core, food court. Level-3: Service core, Art & craft stalls. Level-4: Same of ass level 3 Dr. Yeang is among the leaders who seek to prove not only that wind, rain, sun and nature can and should be in harmony with human development, but that the ecologically balanced urban environment is itself a living organism
  • 70. Level-5: Service core, food court. Level-6: Service core, Cafe. Level-9: Service core, Auditorium, Seating area. Level-10: Service core, sky park, seating, upper link. The architects have completed a study of the embodied energy and greenhouse-gas efficiency of the building materials as well, but have opted in some cases for higher energy intensity construction materials, especially the solar panels due to their payback in energy during the life of the building and recyclable building materials such as steel and aluminium. Composite timber-floor cassettes will replace the commonly used concrete floors to achieve gains in energy-efficient construction.
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  • 72. The building will have over 55% water self-sufficiency based on collection or rainwater and water reuse relying on built-in filter systems. In a country which captures less than 60% of its own fresh water needs and is currently reliant on its neighbor, Malaysia, for water, this is an especially important feature.
  • 73. The EDITT tower will achieve almost 40% energy self- sufficiency through a system of solar panels.The 26-story high-rise will boast photovoltaic panels, natural ventilation, and a biogas generation plant all wrapped within an insulating living wall that covers half of its surface area. The verdant skyscraper was designed to increase its location’s bio-diversity and rehabilitate the local ecosystem in Singapore’s ‘zero culture’ metropolis.
  • 74. SOM: Diagonal tower yongsan international business district
  • 75. Structural columns will be concealed within the building's faceted glass skin, while a series of shading fins will help to reduce solar gain.
  • 76. Diagonal Tower Structure in General skyscraperBuilding type Building status planned [approved] Facade material glass Usage Main usage commercial office Side usage shop(s) Location Address as text Yongsan International Business District City Seoul Province Seoul Metropolitan City Country South Korea Technical Data Height (architectural) 343.00 m Floors (above ground) 64 Construction end 2016 Involved Companies Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Features & Amenities Sky lobby is present Identification Name Diagonal Tower Daniel libeskindArchitect
  • 77. aerial view night view Aerial view Night view
  • 78. auditorium night view sky lobby cafeteria sky lobby fitness center
  • 79. Tower base Auditorium from south east Interior lobby A small auditorium will be housed in an adjacent glazed cube covered in matching netting.
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  • 84. (left) typical square tower form (middle) rotated to address seoul landmarks (right) diagonal mega frame increase structural efficiency
  • 85. (left) faceted form decreases effects of the wind (right) louvers spacing and orientation varies for optimal shading on each facet
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  • 87. Diagonal Tower is a 343-meter-tall office building in the Yongsan International Business District, 62-story tower provides over 145,000 square meters of open office space, two double-height sky lobbies with a cafeteria and fitness center, and a penthouse executive lounge. includes two retail pavilions and a multifunctional auditorium, cubic in dimension, directly to the west of the tower. rotated 45 degrees at one third the height of the tower and then rotated again at two thirds the height of the tower. A megaframe carries loads diagonally vertical columns running along the facade at 12 meter spacing. The structural diagonal grid mitigates wind and seismic forces and uses 25% less steel than a conventionally framed building. Located to the west of the tower, a perfectly cubic 40m x 40mx 40m glass auditorium provides multifunctional space
  • 88. Akramul haque : 2013200600018 Tazrina akter: 2012200600017 Abdul alim :2012200600001 Tania akter suny: 2012100600008