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Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
Mathias Magdowski
Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility
Institute for Medical Engineering
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg
Musik by KV https://youtube.com/c/KVmusicprod, Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported — CC BY 3.0
Free Download / Stream: https://bit.ly/3qNzbTg, Music promoted by Audio Library https://youtu.be/YPJc74M5wD4
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 1 / 53
On a scale of artificial intelligence, how are you doing today?
https://particify.esalsa.
de/p/04860461 Source: https://twitter.com/mhaseneyer/
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 2 / 53
Some words about myself
Personal background:
born in 1984
live in Magdeburg, Germany
married, two children
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 3 / 53
Some words about myself
Personal background:
born in 1984
live in Magdeburg, Germany
married, two children
Educational background:
2003 – 2008: studied “Electrical Engineering” at the Otto-von-Guericke-University in
Magdeburg
since 2008: Scientific co-worker at the Chair for EMC
2012: Ph. D. (Dr.-Ing.) with the dissertation “Comparison of the Coupling of
Deterministic and Stochastic Electromagnetic Field to Transmission Lines”
since 2015: teaching as flying faculty
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 3 / 53
Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 4 / 53
Cathedral of Magdeburg seen from the river “Elbe”
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 5 / 53
Location of Magdeburg inside Germany
Magdeburg
Hannover Berlin
Dresden
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 6 / 53
Who was Otto von Guericke?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 7 / 53
Same experiment – different force
Source: https://twitter.com/Isarmatrose/status/1465571898541187073
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 8 / 53
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Recording:
maybe
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Recording:
maybe
Questions:
with pleasure
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
What is EMC?
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation
4 Filters
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 10 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461
Electromagnetic compatibility . . .
. . . is the ability of electrical equipment and
systems to function acceptably in their
electromagnetic environment, by limiting the
unintentional generation, propagation and
reception of electromagnetic energy which
may cause unwanted effects such as
electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even
physical damage in operational equipment.
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461
Electromagnetic compatibility . . .
. . . is the ability of electrical equipment and
systems to function acceptably in their
electromagnetic environment, by limiting the
unintentional generation, propagation and
reception of electromagnetic energy which
may cause unwanted effects such as
electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even
physical damage in operational equipment.
Aspects:
Immunity
Emission
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Coupling model:
Source Coupling path Victim
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 12 / 53
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Coupling model:
Source Coupling path Victim
Example:
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 12 / 53
What is EMC?
Coupling paths
(a) conducted
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
What is EMC?
Coupling paths
(a) conducted (b) electric fields
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
What is EMC?
Coupling paths
(a) conducted (b) electric fields
(c) magnetic fields
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
What is EMC?
Coupling paths
(a) conducted (b) electric fields
(c) magnetic fields (d) wave fields
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
Examples
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation
4 Filters
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 14 / 53
Examples
Electric cars
Source: https://pixabay.com/photos/electric-car-car-electric-vehicle-1458836/
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 15 / 53
Examples
Schematic of the electric power flow in an electric car
Power
grid
Rectifier
Battery &
DC link
Inverter Motor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 16 / 53
Examples
Rectifier
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
L1
L2
L3
UDC
0
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 17 / 53
Examples
Inverter
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
0
UDC
L1
L2
L3
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 18 / 53
Examples
Looking at the spectrum of signals
Trapezoidal pulse:
û
τ
tr
Time
Amplitude
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 19 / 53
Examples
Looking at the spectrum of signals
Trapezoidal pulse:
û
τ
tr
Time
Amplitude
Amplitude spectrum (envelope):
1
πτ
1
πtr
2ûτ
constant
−20 dB per decade
−40 dB per decade
Frequency (log.)
Spectral density in dB
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 19 / 53
Examples
Conflict between power electronics and EMC
Switch open Switching process Switch closed
Time
Amplitude
Energy loss in the switch
Current through the switch
Voltage across the switch
Power loss in the switch
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 20 / 53
Examples
Survey on other EMC examples
https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 21 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation
4 Filters
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 22 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits?
Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL):
N
X
i=1
Ui = 0 (1)
Ui: voltage drop at ith element (in V)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits?
Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL):
N
X
i=1
Ui = 0 (1)
Ui: voltage drop at ith element (in V)
Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL):
N
X
i=1
Ii = 0 (2)
Ii: current flow at ith element (in A)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What else do you know about about current and voltage?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What else do you know about about current and voltage?
Ohm’s law:
U = R · I (3)
R: Resistance (in Ω)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What else do you know about about current and voltage?
Ohm’s law:
U = R · I (3)
R: Resistance (in Ω)
Faraday’s & Lenz’s law:
U = L · dI
dt (4)
L: Inductance (in H)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What else do you know about about current and voltage?
Ohm’s law:
U = R · I (3)
R: Resistance (in Ω)
Faraday’s & Lenz’s law:
U = L · dI
dt (4)
L: Inductance (in H)
Current and charge:
I = C · dU
dt (5)
C: Capacitance (in F)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain?
Resistor:
U = R · I (6)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain?
Resistor:
U = R · I (6)
Inductor:
U = jωL · I (7)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain?
Resistor:
U = R · I (6)
Inductor:
U = jωL · I (7)
Capacitor:
I = jωC · U (8)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain?
Resistor:
U = R · I (6)
Inductor:
U = jωL · I (7)
Capacitor:
I = jωC · U (8)
ω = 2πf: angular frequency (in 1
s)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Resistors
Source: Gerald_G, https://openclipart.org/detail/8281/resistors
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 26 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
The colors, the colors!
Color Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Multiplic. Tolerance
Black 0 0 0 100
(1Ω)
Brown 1 1 1 101
(10Ω) ± 1%
Red 2 2 2 102
(100Ω) ± 2%
Orange 3 3 3 103
(1kΩ)
Yellow 4 4 4 104
(10kΩ)
Green 5 5 5 105
(100kΩ) ± 0.5%
Blue 6 6 6 106
(1MΩ) ± 0.25%
Purple 7 7 7 107
(10MΩ) ± 0.1%
Gray 8 8 8 108
(100MΩ) ± 0.05%
White 9 9 9 109
(1GΩ)
Gold 10-1
(100mΩ) ± 5%
Silver 10-2
(10mΩ) ± 10%
5-Band-Resistor
4-Band-Resistor
234*100kΩ = 23.4MΩ @ 0.25%
23*10kΩ = 230kΩ @ 0.5%
Source: adlerweb, https://openclipart.org/detail/250258/resistor-color-code-table-german
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 27 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
This is why you need to learn it!
Source: https://twitter.com/pfmaggi/status/1576932773301932033
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 28 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a resistor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 29 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a resistor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 30 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Capacitors
Source: https://www.memedroid.com/memes/tag/capacitors
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 31 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Important advice
Source: https://twitter.com/stargonewrong/status/1553205960658735104
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 32 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a capacitor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 33 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a capacitor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 34 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of an inductor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 35 / 53
Reminder of Circuit Calculation
Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of an inductor
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 36 / 53
Filters
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation
4 Filters
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 37 / 53
Filters
What means filtering?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 38 / 53
Filters
What means filtering?
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1691278
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 38 / 53
Filters
How must a low-pass filter look like?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 39 / 53
Filters
How must a low-pass filter look like?
Requirements:
Pass band: at 50 Hz (almost) no attenuation
Stop band: at 10 kHz a reduction to 1⁄10
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 39 / 53
Filters
What is the transfer function of this filter?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 40 / 53
Filters
Experiment: measuring the transfer function
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 41 / 53
Filters
Experiment: measuring the transfer function
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 42 / 53
Filters
High-pass filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Sketch the circuit schematic of a
first-order high-pass filter!
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 43 / 53
Filters
Answer: high-pass filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Topologies of a first-order high-pass
filter:
U2(ω)
R
U1(ω) L
U2(ω)
C
U1(ω) R
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 44 / 53
Filters
High-pass filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
How does the amplitude response
function of a high-pass filter look like?
U2(ω)
C
U1(ω) R
ω (log.)
|U
2
(ω)|
|U
1
(ω)|
(log.)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 45 / 53
Filters
Answer: high-pass filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Amplitude response function of a
high-pass filter:
U2(ω)
C
U1(ω) R
ωc = 1
RC
1
ω (log.)
|U
2
(ω)|
|U
1
(ω)|
(log.)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 46 / 53
Filters
Transfer function
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Sketch the corresponding circuit
schematic for this transfer function!
U2(ω)
U1(ω)
=
R
R + jωL + 1
jωC
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 47 / 53
Filters
Answer: transfer function
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Corresponding circuit schematic for
this transfer function:
U2(ω)
U1(ω)
=
R
R + jωL + 1
jωC
U1
L
C
U2
R
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 48 / 53
Filters
Filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
How does the amplitude response
function of this filter look like?
U1
L
C U2
R
ω (log.)
|U
2
(ω)|
|U
1
(ω)|
(log.)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 49 / 53
Filters
Answer: filter
https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/
index1.php?38N9w
Amplitude response function of a
band-pass filter:
U1
L
C U2
R
ωc = 1
√
LC
1
ω (log.)
|U
2
(ω)|
|U
1
(ω)|
(log.)
Q = 1/2
Q = 1
Q = 2
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 50 / 53
Filters
Kahoot! quiz
https://create.kahoot.it/share/filters-for-emc-applications/55985b82-b058-4e3b-b59b-487a9eb02f54
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 51 / 53
Filters
Let’s ask ChatGPT!
Source: OpenAI, public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=98220235
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 52 / 53
Filters
https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/
1523708966039351297
Thank you very much for
your attention!
Which questions do you
have?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 53 / 53

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Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications

  • 1. Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications Mathias Magdowski Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility Institute for Medical Engineering Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg Musik by KV https://youtube.com/c/KVmusicprod, Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported — CC BY 3.0 Free Download / Stream: https://bit.ly/3qNzbTg, Music promoted by Audio Library https://youtu.be/YPJc74M5wD4 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 1 / 53
  • 2. On a scale of artificial intelligence, how are you doing today? https://particify.esalsa. de/p/04860461 Source: https://twitter.com/mhaseneyer/ Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 2 / 53
  • 3. Some words about myself Personal background: born in 1984 live in Magdeburg, Germany married, two children Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 3 / 53
  • 4. Some words about myself Personal background: born in 1984 live in Magdeburg, Germany married, two children Educational background: 2003 – 2008: studied “Electrical Engineering” at the Otto-von-Guericke-University in Magdeburg since 2008: Scientific co-worker at the Chair for EMC 2012: Ph. D. (Dr.-Ing.) with the dissertation “Comparison of the Coupling of Deterministic and Stochastic Electromagnetic Field to Transmission Lines” since 2015: teaching as flying faculty Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 3 / 53
  • 5. Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 4 / 53
  • 6. Cathedral of Magdeburg seen from the river “Elbe” Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 5 / 53
  • 7. Location of Magdeburg inside Germany Magdeburg Hannover Berlin Dresden Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 6 / 53
  • 8. Who was Otto von Guericke? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 7 / 53
  • 9. Same experiment – different force Source: https://twitter.com/Isarmatrose/status/1465571898541187073 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 8 / 53
  • 10. Organizational matters Slides: yes Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
  • 11. Organizational matters Slides: yes Recording: maybe Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
  • 12. Organizational matters Slides: yes Recording: maybe Questions: with pleasure Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 9 / 53
  • 13. What is EMC? Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation 4 Filters Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 10 / 53
  • 14. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
  • 15. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
  • 16. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function acceptably in their electromagnetic environment, by limiting the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment. Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
  • 17. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function acceptably in their electromagnetic environment, by limiting the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment. Aspects: Immunity Emission Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 11 / 53
  • 18. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Coupling model: Source Coupling path Victim Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 12 / 53
  • 19. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Coupling model: Source Coupling path Victim Example: Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 12 / 53
  • 20. What is EMC? Coupling paths (a) conducted Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
  • 21. What is EMC? Coupling paths (a) conducted (b) electric fields Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
  • 22. What is EMC? Coupling paths (a) conducted (b) electric fields (c) magnetic fields Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
  • 23. What is EMC? Coupling paths (a) conducted (b) electric fields (c) magnetic fields (d) wave fields Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 13 / 53
  • 24. Examples Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation 4 Filters Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 14 / 53
  • 26. Examples Schematic of the electric power flow in an electric car Power grid Rectifier Battery & DC link Inverter Motor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 16 / 53
  • 29. Examples Looking at the spectrum of signals Trapezoidal pulse: û τ tr Time Amplitude Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 19 / 53
  • 30. Examples Looking at the spectrum of signals Trapezoidal pulse: û τ tr Time Amplitude Amplitude spectrum (envelope): 1 πτ 1 πtr 2ûτ constant −20 dB per decade −40 dB per decade Frequency (log.) Spectral density in dB Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 19 / 53
  • 31. Examples Conflict between power electronics and EMC Switch open Switching process Switch closed Time Amplitude Energy loss in the switch Current through the switch Voltage across the switch Power loss in the switch Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 20 / 53
  • 32. Examples Survey on other EMC examples https://particify.esalsa.de/p/04860461 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 21 / 53
  • 33. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation 4 Filters Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 22 / 53
  • 34. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
  • 35. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits? Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL): N X i=1 Ui = 0 (1) Ui: voltage drop at ith element (in V) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
  • 36. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What do you know about about current and voltage in circuits? Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL): N X i=1 Ui = 0 (1) Ui: voltage drop at ith element (in V) Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): N X i=1 Ii = 0 (2) Ii: current flow at ith element (in A) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 23 / 53
  • 37. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What else do you know about about current and voltage? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
  • 38. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What else do you know about about current and voltage? Ohm’s law: U = R · I (3) R: Resistance (in Ω) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
  • 39. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What else do you know about about current and voltage? Ohm’s law: U = R · I (3) R: Resistance (in Ω) Faraday’s & Lenz’s law: U = L · dI dt (4) L: Inductance (in H) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
  • 40. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What else do you know about about current and voltage? Ohm’s law: U = R · I (3) R: Resistance (in Ω) Faraday’s & Lenz’s law: U = L · dI dt (4) L: Inductance (in H) Current and charge: I = C · dU dt (5) C: Capacitance (in F) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 24 / 53
  • 41. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
  • 42. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain? Resistor: U = R · I (6) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
  • 43. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain? Resistor: U = R · I (6) Inductor: U = jωL · I (7) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
  • 44. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain? Resistor: U = R · I (6) Inductor: U = jωL · I (7) Capacitor: I = jωC · U (8) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
  • 45. Reminder of Circuit Calculation What happens for harmonic (AC) signals in the frequency domain? Resistor: U = R · I (6) Inductor: U = jωL · I (7) Capacitor: I = jωC · U (8) ω = 2πf: angular frequency (in 1 s) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 25 / 53
  • 46. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Resistors Source: Gerald_G, https://openclipart.org/detail/8281/resistors Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 26 / 53
  • 47. Reminder of Circuit Calculation The colors, the colors! Color Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Multiplic. Tolerance Black 0 0 0 100 (1Ω) Brown 1 1 1 101 (10Ω) ± 1% Red 2 2 2 102 (100Ω) ± 2% Orange 3 3 3 103 (1kΩ) Yellow 4 4 4 104 (10kΩ) Green 5 5 5 105 (100kΩ) ± 0.5% Blue 6 6 6 106 (1MΩ) ± 0.25% Purple 7 7 7 107 (10MΩ) ± 0.1% Gray 8 8 8 108 (100MΩ) ± 0.05% White 9 9 9 109 (1GΩ) Gold 10-1 (100mΩ) ± 5% Silver 10-2 (10mΩ) ± 10% 5-Band-Resistor 4-Band-Resistor 234*100kΩ = 23.4MΩ @ 0.25% 23*10kΩ = 230kΩ @ 0.5% Source: adlerweb, https://openclipart.org/detail/250258/resistor-color-code-table-german Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 27 / 53
  • 48. Reminder of Circuit Calculation This is why you need to learn it! Source: https://twitter.com/pfmaggi/status/1576932773301932033 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 28 / 53
  • 49. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a resistor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 29 / 53
  • 50. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a resistor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 30 / 53
  • 51. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Capacitors Source: https://www.memedroid.com/memes/tag/capacitors Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 31 / 53
  • 52. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Important advice Source: https://twitter.com/stargonewrong/status/1553205960658735104 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 32 / 53
  • 53. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a capacitor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 33 / 53
  • 54. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of a capacitor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 34 / 53
  • 55. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of an inductor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 35 / 53
  • 56. Reminder of Circuit Calculation Measuring the frequency-dependent impedance of an inductor Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 36 / 53
  • 57. Filters Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Reminder of Circuit Calculation 4 Filters Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 37 / 53
  • 58. Filters What means filtering? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 38 / 53
  • 59. Filters What means filtering? Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1691278 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 38 / 53
  • 60. Filters How must a low-pass filter look like? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 39 / 53
  • 61. Filters How must a low-pass filter look like? Requirements: Pass band: at 50 Hz (almost) no attenuation Stop band: at 10 kHz a reduction to 1⁄10 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 39 / 53
  • 62. Filters What is the transfer function of this filter? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 40 / 53
  • 63. Filters Experiment: measuring the transfer function Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 41 / 53
  • 64. Filters Experiment: measuring the transfer function Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 42 / 53
  • 65. Filters High-pass filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Sketch the circuit schematic of a first-order high-pass filter! Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 43 / 53
  • 66. Filters Answer: high-pass filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Topologies of a first-order high-pass filter: U2(ω) R U1(ω) L U2(ω) C U1(ω) R Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 44 / 53
  • 67. Filters High-pass filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w How does the amplitude response function of a high-pass filter look like? U2(ω) C U1(ω) R ω (log.) |U 2 (ω)| |U 1 (ω)| (log.) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 45 / 53
  • 68. Filters Answer: high-pass filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Amplitude response function of a high-pass filter: U2(ω) C U1(ω) R ωc = 1 RC 1 ω (log.) |U 2 (ω)| |U 1 (ω)| (log.) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 46 / 53
  • 69. Filters Transfer function https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Sketch the corresponding circuit schematic for this transfer function! U2(ω) U1(ω) = R R + jωL + 1 jωC Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 47 / 53
  • 70. Filters Answer: transfer function https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Corresponding circuit schematic for this transfer function: U2(ω) U1(ω) = R R + jωL + 1 jωC U1 L C U2 R Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 48 / 53
  • 71. Filters Filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w How does the amplitude response function of this filter look like? U1 L C U2 R ω (log.) |U 2 (ω)| |U 1 (ω)| (log.) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 49 / 53
  • 72. Filters Answer: filter https://www.j3L7h2.de/wall/ index1.php?38N9w Amplitude response function of a band-pass filter: U1 L C U2 R ωc = 1 √ LC 1 ω (log.) |U 2 (ω)| |U 1 (ω)| (log.) Q = 1/2 Q = 1 Q = 2 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 50 / 53
  • 74. Filters Let’s ask ChatGPT! Source: OpenAI, public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=98220235 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 52 / 53
  • 75. Filters https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/ 1523708966039351297 Thank you very much for your attention! Which questions do you have? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) Filters for EMC Applications 53 / 53