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Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Robust, Precise, Fast
Chose Two for Radiated EMC Measurements!
Dr.-Ing. Mathias Magdowski
Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility
Institute for Medical Engineering
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany
February 27, 2024
License: cb CC BY 4.0 (Attribution, ShareAlike)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 1 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Motivation
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 2 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Motivation
Ensuring electromagnetic compatibility:
▶ Will there be a radiated disturbance or interference?
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 2 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Don’t be that kind of test engineer!
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/8h538q
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 3 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Fundamental questions
What is a good measurand for emission?
▶ field strength in V
m (in a certain distance)
▶ power flux density in W
m2 (in a certain distance)
▶ total radiated power W (independent of the distance)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 4 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Fundamental questions
What is a good measurand for emission?
▶ field strength in V
m (in a certain distance)
▶ power flux density in W
m2 (in a certain distance)
▶ total radiated power W (independent of the distance)
In which environment is the measurement performed?
▶ reflection-free environment
▶ environment with reflections
▶ highly reflective environment
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 4 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Overview
Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers
Measurements in reverberation chambers
Conversion of results
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
Summary
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 5 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Simple idea of a semi-anechoic chamber
Figure: Schematic measurement setup in a semi-anechoic chamber (top view)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 6 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Practical semi-anechoic chamber
Figure: Semi-anechoic chamber with 10 m measurement distance in Magdeburg
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 7 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Measurand
What you would like to measure:
▶ radiated field strength in the far field
▶ maximum over all directions for all frequencies
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 8 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Measurand
What you would like to measure:
▶ radiated field strength in the far field
▶ maximum over all directions for all frequencies
What you actually measure:
▶ radiated field strength at a certain distance
▶ maximum over each sampled direction for each measured frequency
▶ radiation upwards (and downwards) is neglected
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 8 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Overview
Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers
Measurements in reverberation chambers
Conversion of results
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
Summary
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 9 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Simple idea of a reverberation chamber
Figure: Schematic setup of a reverberation chamber (top view)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 10 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Practical reverberation chamber
Figure: Large reverberation chamber in Magdeburg
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 11 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Think about it!
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sa6a6
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 12 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
How to stir the field?
Changes of the electromagnetic boundary conditions:
▶ mechanical stirrer(s)
▶ moving walls
▶ relocating the antenna(s)
▶ switching between several antennas
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 13 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
How to stir the field?
Changes of the electromagnetic boundary conditions:
▶ mechanical stirrer(s)
▶ moving walls
▶ relocating the antenna(s)
▶ switching between several antennas
Narrow band frequency changes:
▶ only for immunity testing
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 13 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber
(a) Demonstration with neon tubes (b) In-situ test on a ship
Source: Prof. Leferink, University of Twente and THALES, Netherlands
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 14 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Oscillating wall stirrer
Figure: Reverberation chamber with an oscillating wall stirrer at the Laboratory of
Electromagnetic Compatibility, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University,
Nanjing, China
Source: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEMC.2020.2983981
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 15 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Statistical properties of the field
Homogeneity:
▶ uniformity over the space
▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Statistical properties of the field
Homogeneity:
▶ uniformity over the space
▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume
Isotropy:
▶ uniformity in all directions
▶ orientation of the EUT does not matter
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Statistical properties of the field
Homogeneity:
▶ uniformity over the space
▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume
Isotropy:
▶ uniformity in all directions
▶ orientation of the EUT does not matter
Validity:
▶ only in the working volume
▶ minimum distance to the walls > λ
4
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Change my mind!
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sa4e8
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 17 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Measurand
What you would like to measure:
▶ total radiated power for all frequencies
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Measurand
What you would like to measure:
▶ total radiated power for all frequencies
What you actually measure:
▶ total radiated power for each measured frequency
▶ but falsified by the statistical uncertainty of the measurement
▶ Background: remaining field inhomogeneity, limited sample size
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Measurand
What you would like to measure:
▶ total radiated power for all frequencies
What you actually measure:
▶ total radiated power for each measured frequency
▶ but falsified by the statistical uncertainty of the measurement
▶ Background: remaining field inhomogeneity, limited sample size
For what limits exist:
▶ maximum radiated field strength at a certain distance
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Overview
Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers
Measurements in reverberation chambers
Conversion of results
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
Summary
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 19 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical size of an equipment under test
a
Definition as k · a:
k: wave number, k = 2πf
c = 2π
λ
a: radius of the smallest sphere surrounding the
EUT
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 20 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical size of an equipment under test
a
Definition as k · a:
k: wave number, k = 2πf
c = 2π
λ
a: radius of the smallest sphere surrounding the
EUT
Questions:
▶ What belongs to the EUT (case, cables, . . . )?
▶ Which cable length has to be considered?
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 20 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical small EUTs
Condition: k · a ≤ 1
Figure: Radiation pattern of a small dipole (Source: Wikipedia)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 21 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical large EUTs
Condition: k · a > 1
Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical large EUTs
Condition: k · a > 1
Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Electrical large EUTs
Condition: k · a > 1
Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
The higher the frequency, the larger the problem!
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sagu4
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 23 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Directivity
Definition:
D(ϑ, φ) =
Φ(ϑ, φ)
Prad/4π
(1)
▶ Φ is the power density radiated per solid angle
▶ Prad is the total radiated power
▶ Prad/4π is the average radiated power
Maximum directivity Dmax:
▶ Directivity in the main beam direction
▶ electrically short dipole: Dmax = 3/2 = 1.76 dBi
▶ electrically large EUT: Dmax ≈ 10 = 10 dBi
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 24 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Free space or fully anechoic room (FAR)
Relationship between power and field strength:
E2
max = Dmax
η0
4πr2
Prad (2)
▶ η0 is the free space impedance
▶ r is the distance
▶ derivation with the help of a short electric dipole
▶ valid in the far field
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 25 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Half space or semi-anechoic chamber (SAC)
Relationship between power and field strength:
E2
max = Dmax
η0
4πr2
Prad g2
max (3)
▶ gmax is an additional geometry factor
▶ value range between 0 and 2
▶ consideration of the reflection at the ground plane
▶ interference of the direct and the reflected wave
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 26 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
How to estimate or model the directivity?
“Statistical Analysis of the Correlation
of Emission Limits for Established and
Alternative Test Sites”
by Hans Georg Krauthäuser
published in the IEEE Transactions on
EMC, vol. 53, no. 4, Nov. 2011
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/
document/5715864/
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 53, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 863
Statistical Analysis of the Correlation of Emission
Limits for Established and Alternative Test Sites
Hans Georg Krauthäuser, Member, IEEE
Abstract—This paper discusses the correlation of radiated emis-
sion measurements on open area test sites, in TEM waveguides,
fully anechoic rooms and reverberation chambers. Distributions
of all essential factors have been derived and mean and quantile
values are given. Influence of polarization mismatch and directivity
is discussed. Based on the analysis of uncertainties, an alternative
data treatment on open area test sites and in fully anechoic cham-
bers is proposed. A statistical link has been established between
the spherical wave expansion model and the array of point sources
model of directivity.
Index Terms—Directivity, fully anechoic room (FAR), gigahertz
transverse electromagnetic (GTEM), open area test sites (OATS),
polarization mismatch, radiated emission limits, reverberation
chamber (RC), unintentional emitters.
I. INTRODUCTION
HISTORICALLY, emission limits have been developed for
measurements on open area test sites (OATS). In order
to be independent of weather conditions and to reduce ambient
noise, most OATS-like emission measurements are nowadays
done in semianechoic chambers (SAC). No distinction between
OATS and SAC will be made within this paper. Alternative
methods claim to have advantages regarding one or more of
the aspects: speed, costs, reliability, frequency range, and ap-
proximation of reality. These alternative methods include the
reverberation chamber (RC) method and the TEM waveguide
method that are already covered by international standards, e.g.,
[1], [2], and also the fully anechoic room (FAR) method for
which an international standard is in development [3].
This paper will not address the validity of these claims. In-
stead, it focuses on the correlation of the physical quantities
measured by the methods in the case of unintentional radiators.
The analysis is strongly based on the discussion of the statistical
properties of the quantities involved.
Also, this paper will not address the intrinsic uncertainties of
the measurement methods itself. This study is focused on uncer-
tainties of the prediction of a measurement result for a certain
measurement site based on the (supposedly correct) measure-
ment results from another site.
Understanding the directivity patterns for electrically large
sources turns out to be a key topic for the application of alter-
Manuscript received September 15, 2010; revised December 6, 2010;
accepted December 21, 2010. Date of publication February 17, 2011; date
of current version November 18, 2011. Review of this manuscript was arranged
by Department Editor H. Garbe
H. G. Krauthäuser is with the TU Dresden 01069 Dresden, Germany (e-mail:
hgk@ieee.org).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEMC.2010.2102764
native radiated emission and immunity measurement methods
and is already addressed in various papers, e.g., [4]–[15].
A second important quantity for the correlation of uninten-
tional emissions is the polarization mismatch factor μ.
A. Directivity
Directivity D is defined as the ratio of the radiated power per
unit solid angle Θ(θ, φ) in direction (θ, φ) and the average radi-
ated power 1/(4π) ·
 2π
0
 π
0 Θ(φ, θ) sin θdθdφ = 1/(4π)·PT ,
D(φ, θ) =
4π · Θ(φ, θ)
PT
(1)
where PT is the total radiated power. Most often, one is not
interested in the whole radiation pattern, but in the maximum
of the directivity Dmax which is the directivity of the largest
radiation:
Dmax =
4π · max [Θ(φ, θ)]
PT
. (2)
It is clear that a measured value of Dmax depends on the
angular sampling. The true value is only achieved for very fine
angular resolution on the whole surface of a sphere surrounding
the source region. In this paper, a sampling of the complete
surface of a sphere is denoted as a 3D scan or a 3D case. In
contrast to this 3D case, a 1D case will also be investigated.
The 1D case describes a situation where the samples are located
along a great circle of the sphere surrounding the sources. An
intermediate case occurs in the context of OATS measurements.
Directivity models for unintentional radiators are discussed
in Section III.
B. Polarization Mismatch
The polarization mismatch factor μ ∈ [0, 1] is the fraction of
the measured power to the emitted power in a certain direction
μ(θ, φ) =
Pmeasured(θ, φ)
Pradiated(θ, φ)
. (3)
Linearly polarized antennas are used on OATS or in FAR to
pick up equipment under test (EUT) radiation. Measurements
are done in horizontal and vertical polarizations. For uninten-
tional emitters, having emissions with uniformly distributed po-
larization angles, none of the orientations of the receiving an-
tenna will completely pick up all radiated power. Thus, also
the maximum of both measurements is an uncertain quantity (a
random variable, RV).
The influence of this additional source of uncertainty has been
neglected until now. It will be addressed in Section II-A.
0018-9375/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 27 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Conversion SAC to RC w. r. t. f for a = 0.75 m and r = 10 m
107
108
109
1010
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Frequency, f in Hz
Conversion
factor
E
2
max
P
rad
in
V
2
W
m
2
95. percentile
average
50. percentile
5. percentile
https://octav.onl/corr_OATS_RC
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 28 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Conversion FAR to RC w. r. t. f for a = 0.75 m and r = 3 m
107
108
109
1010
0
5
10
15
20
25
Frequency, f in Hz
Conversion
factor
E
2
max
P
rad
in
V
2
W
m
2
95. percentile
average
50. percentile
5. percentile
https://octav.onl/corr_FAR_RC_f
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 29 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Conversion between FAR and RC with respect to ka for r = 10 m
10−1
100
101
102
103
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Product of wavenumber and EUT size, ka
Conversion
factor
E
2
max
P
rad
in
V
2
W
m
2
95. percentile
average
50. percentile
5. percentile
https://octav.onl/corr_FAR_RC
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 30 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Environment: deterministic
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Environment: deterministic
EUT: random
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Environment: deterministic
EUT: random
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Environment: deterministic
EUT: random
Environment: random
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Which type of measurement would you like to have?
Environment: deterministic
EUT: random
Environment: random
EUT: deterministic
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Overview
Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers
Measurements in reverberation chambers
Conversion of results
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
Summary
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 32 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
(a) in the reverberation chamber (b) in the semi-anechoic chamber
Figure: Utilized equipment under test (Source: Matthias Hirte, OVGU)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 33 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1 000
55
60
65
70
75
Frequency in MHz
Field
strength
in
dB
µV
m Measurement in the semi-anechoic chamber
Measurement in the reverberation chamber
Figure: Comparison of the emission measurement in different environments, directivity = 1
(Source: Matthias Hirte, OVGU)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 34 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1 000
55
60
65
70
75
Frequency in MHz
Field
strength
in
dB
µV
m 10◦ steps
90◦ steps
Figure: Comparison of the emission measurement for different turntable steps (Source:
Matthias Hirte, OVGU)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 35 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Overview
Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers
Measurements in reverberation chambers
Conversion of results
Emission measurements with a generic EUT
Summary
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 36 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Catch my radiation, if you can!
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sae2q
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 37 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
There is a solution, wait, not.
Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sahm3
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 38 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
All good things are never together.
robust
precise fast
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
All good things are never together.
robust
precise fast
reverberation
chamber
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
All good things are never together.
robust
precise fast
reverberation
chamber
semi-anechoic
chamber
(full sampling)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
All good things are never together.
robust
precise fast
reverberation
chamber
semi-anechoic
chamber
(full sampling)
semi-anechoic chamber
(undersampling for known radiators)
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
All good things are never together.
robust
precise fast
reverberation
chamber
semi-anechoic
chamber
(full sampling)
semi-anechoic chamber
(undersampling for known radiators)
perfect
test
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary
Source: https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/
1523708966039351297
Thank you very much for
your attention!
Are there any questions?
Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 40 / 40

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Robust, Precise, Fast - Chose Two for Radiated EMC Measurements!

  • 1. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Robust, Precise, Fast Chose Two for Radiated EMC Measurements! Dr.-Ing. Mathias Magdowski Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility Institute for Medical Engineering Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany February 27, 2024 License: cb CC BY 4.0 (Attribution, ShareAlike) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 1 / 40
  • 2. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Motivation Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 2 / 40
  • 3. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Motivation Ensuring electromagnetic compatibility: ▶ Will there be a radiated disturbance or interference? Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 2 / 40
  • 4. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Don’t be that kind of test engineer! Source: https://imgflip.com/i/8h538q Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 3 / 40
  • 5. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Fundamental questions What is a good measurand for emission? ▶ field strength in V m (in a certain distance) ▶ power flux density in W m2 (in a certain distance) ▶ total radiated power W (independent of the distance) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 4 / 40
  • 6. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Fundamental questions What is a good measurand for emission? ▶ field strength in V m (in a certain distance) ▶ power flux density in W m2 (in a certain distance) ▶ total radiated power W (independent of the distance) In which environment is the measurement performed? ▶ reflection-free environment ▶ environment with reflections ▶ highly reflective environment Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 4 / 40
  • 7. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Overview Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers Measurements in reverberation chambers Conversion of results Emission measurements with a generic EUT Summary Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 5 / 40
  • 8. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Simple idea of a semi-anechoic chamber Figure: Schematic measurement setup in a semi-anechoic chamber (top view) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 6 / 40
  • 9. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Practical semi-anechoic chamber Figure: Semi-anechoic chamber with 10 m measurement distance in Magdeburg Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 7 / 40
  • 10. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Measurand What you would like to measure: ▶ radiated field strength in the far field ▶ maximum over all directions for all frequencies Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 8 / 40
  • 11. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Measurand What you would like to measure: ▶ radiated field strength in the far field ▶ maximum over all directions for all frequencies What you actually measure: ▶ radiated field strength at a certain distance ▶ maximum over each sampled direction for each measured frequency ▶ radiation upwards (and downwards) is neglected Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 8 / 40
  • 12. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Overview Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers Measurements in reverberation chambers Conversion of results Emission measurements with a generic EUT Summary Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 9 / 40
  • 13. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Simple idea of a reverberation chamber Figure: Schematic setup of a reverberation chamber (top view) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 10 / 40
  • 14. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Practical reverberation chamber Figure: Large reverberation chamber in Magdeburg Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 11 / 40
  • 15. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Think about it! Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sa6a6 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 12 / 40
  • 16. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary How to stir the field? Changes of the electromagnetic boundary conditions: ▶ mechanical stirrer(s) ▶ moving walls ▶ relocating the antenna(s) ▶ switching between several antennas Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 13 / 40
  • 17. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary How to stir the field? Changes of the electromagnetic boundary conditions: ▶ mechanical stirrer(s) ▶ moving walls ▶ relocating the antenna(s) ▶ switching between several antennas Narrow band frequency changes: ▶ only for immunity testing Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 13 / 40
  • 18. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber (a) Demonstration with neon tubes (b) In-situ test on a ship Source: Prof. Leferink, University of Twente and THALES, Netherlands Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 14 / 40
  • 19. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Oscillating wall stirrer Figure: Reverberation chamber with an oscillating wall stirrer at the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Compatibility, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China Source: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEMC.2020.2983981 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 15 / 40
  • 20. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Statistical properties of the field Homogeneity: ▶ uniformity over the space ▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
  • 21. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Statistical properties of the field Homogeneity: ▶ uniformity over the space ▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume Isotropy: ▶ uniformity in all directions ▶ orientation of the EUT does not matter Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
  • 22. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Statistical properties of the field Homogeneity: ▶ uniformity over the space ▶ free placement of the EUT in the working volume Isotropy: ▶ uniformity in all directions ▶ orientation of the EUT does not matter Validity: ▶ only in the working volume ▶ minimum distance to the walls > λ 4 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 16 / 40
  • 23. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Change my mind! Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sa4e8 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 17 / 40
  • 24. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Measurand What you would like to measure: ▶ total radiated power for all frequencies Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
  • 25. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Measurand What you would like to measure: ▶ total radiated power for all frequencies What you actually measure: ▶ total radiated power for each measured frequency ▶ but falsified by the statistical uncertainty of the measurement ▶ Background: remaining field inhomogeneity, limited sample size Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
  • 26. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Measurand What you would like to measure: ▶ total radiated power for all frequencies What you actually measure: ▶ total radiated power for each measured frequency ▶ but falsified by the statistical uncertainty of the measurement ▶ Background: remaining field inhomogeneity, limited sample size For what limits exist: ▶ maximum radiated field strength at a certain distance Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 18 / 40
  • 27. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Overview Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers Measurements in reverberation chambers Conversion of results Emission measurements with a generic EUT Summary Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 19 / 40
  • 28. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical size of an equipment under test a Definition as k · a: k: wave number, k = 2πf c = 2π λ a: radius of the smallest sphere surrounding the EUT Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 20 / 40
  • 29. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical size of an equipment under test a Definition as k · a: k: wave number, k = 2πf c = 2π λ a: radius of the smallest sphere surrounding the EUT Questions: ▶ What belongs to the EUT (case, cables, . . . )? ▶ Which cable length has to be considered? Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 20 / 40
  • 30. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical small EUTs Condition: k · a ≤ 1 Figure: Radiation pattern of a small dipole (Source: Wikipedia) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 21 / 40
  • 31. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical large EUTs Condition: k · a > 1 Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
  • 32. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical large EUTs Condition: k · a > 1 Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
  • 33. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Electrical large EUTs Condition: k · a > 1 Figure: Radiation pattern (planar cut) of a practical EUT (Source: Magnus Höijer, FOI) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 22 / 40
  • 34. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary The higher the frequency, the larger the problem! Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sagu4 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 23 / 40
  • 35. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Directivity Definition: D(ϑ, φ) = Φ(ϑ, φ) Prad/4π (1) ▶ Φ is the power density radiated per solid angle ▶ Prad is the total radiated power ▶ Prad/4π is the average radiated power Maximum directivity Dmax: ▶ Directivity in the main beam direction ▶ electrically short dipole: Dmax = 3/2 = 1.76 dBi ▶ electrically large EUT: Dmax ≈ 10 = 10 dBi Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 24 / 40
  • 36. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Free space or fully anechoic room (FAR) Relationship between power and field strength: E2 max = Dmax η0 4πr2 Prad (2) ▶ η0 is the free space impedance ▶ r is the distance ▶ derivation with the help of a short electric dipole ▶ valid in the far field Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 25 / 40
  • 37. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Half space or semi-anechoic chamber (SAC) Relationship between power and field strength: E2 max = Dmax η0 4πr2 Prad g2 max (3) ▶ gmax is an additional geometry factor ▶ value range between 0 and 2 ▶ consideration of the reflection at the ground plane ▶ interference of the direct and the reflected wave Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 26 / 40
  • 38. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary How to estimate or model the directivity? “Statistical Analysis of the Correlation of Emission Limits for Established and Alternative Test Sites” by Hans Georg Krauthäuser published in the IEEE Transactions on EMC, vol. 53, no. 4, Nov. 2011 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ document/5715864/ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 53, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 863 Statistical Analysis of the Correlation of Emission Limits for Established and Alternative Test Sites Hans Georg Krauthäuser, Member, IEEE Abstract—This paper discusses the correlation of radiated emis- sion measurements on open area test sites, in TEM waveguides, fully anechoic rooms and reverberation chambers. Distributions of all essential factors have been derived and mean and quantile values are given. Influence of polarization mismatch and directivity is discussed. Based on the analysis of uncertainties, an alternative data treatment on open area test sites and in fully anechoic cham- bers is proposed. A statistical link has been established between the spherical wave expansion model and the array of point sources model of directivity. Index Terms—Directivity, fully anechoic room (FAR), gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM), open area test sites (OATS), polarization mismatch, radiated emission limits, reverberation chamber (RC), unintentional emitters. I. INTRODUCTION HISTORICALLY, emission limits have been developed for measurements on open area test sites (OATS). In order to be independent of weather conditions and to reduce ambient noise, most OATS-like emission measurements are nowadays done in semianechoic chambers (SAC). No distinction between OATS and SAC will be made within this paper. Alternative methods claim to have advantages regarding one or more of the aspects: speed, costs, reliability, frequency range, and ap- proximation of reality. These alternative methods include the reverberation chamber (RC) method and the TEM waveguide method that are already covered by international standards, e.g., [1], [2], and also the fully anechoic room (FAR) method for which an international standard is in development [3]. This paper will not address the validity of these claims. In- stead, it focuses on the correlation of the physical quantities measured by the methods in the case of unintentional radiators. The analysis is strongly based on the discussion of the statistical properties of the quantities involved. Also, this paper will not address the intrinsic uncertainties of the measurement methods itself. This study is focused on uncer- tainties of the prediction of a measurement result for a certain measurement site based on the (supposedly correct) measure- ment results from another site. Understanding the directivity patterns for electrically large sources turns out to be a key topic for the application of alter- Manuscript received September 15, 2010; revised December 6, 2010; accepted December 21, 2010. Date of publication February 17, 2011; date of current version November 18, 2011. Review of this manuscript was arranged by Department Editor H. Garbe H. G. Krauthäuser is with the TU Dresden 01069 Dresden, Germany (e-mail: hgk@ieee.org). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEMC.2010.2102764 native radiated emission and immunity measurement methods and is already addressed in various papers, e.g., [4]–[15]. A second important quantity for the correlation of uninten- tional emissions is the polarization mismatch factor μ. A. Directivity Directivity D is defined as the ratio of the radiated power per unit solid angle Θ(θ, φ) in direction (θ, φ) and the average radi- ated power 1/(4π) · 2π 0 π 0 Θ(φ, θ) sin θdθdφ = 1/(4π)·PT , D(φ, θ) = 4π · Θ(φ, θ) PT (1) where PT is the total radiated power. Most often, one is not interested in the whole radiation pattern, but in the maximum of the directivity Dmax which is the directivity of the largest radiation: Dmax = 4π · max [Θ(φ, θ)] PT . (2) It is clear that a measured value of Dmax depends on the angular sampling. The true value is only achieved for very fine angular resolution on the whole surface of a sphere surrounding the source region. In this paper, a sampling of the complete surface of a sphere is denoted as a 3D scan or a 3D case. In contrast to this 3D case, a 1D case will also be investigated. The 1D case describes a situation where the samples are located along a great circle of the sphere surrounding the sources. An intermediate case occurs in the context of OATS measurements. Directivity models for unintentional radiators are discussed in Section III. B. Polarization Mismatch The polarization mismatch factor μ ∈ [0, 1] is the fraction of the measured power to the emitted power in a certain direction μ(θ, φ) = Pmeasured(θ, φ) Pradiated(θ, φ) . (3) Linearly polarized antennas are used on OATS or in FAR to pick up equipment under test (EUT) radiation. Measurements are done in horizontal and vertical polarizations. For uninten- tional emitters, having emissions with uniformly distributed po- larization angles, none of the orientations of the receiving an- tenna will completely pick up all radiated power. Thus, also the maximum of both measurements is an uncertain quantity (a random variable, RV). The influence of this additional source of uncertainty has been neglected until now. It will be addressed in Section II-A. 0018-9375/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 27 / 40
  • 39. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Conversion SAC to RC w. r. t. f for a = 0.75 m and r = 10 m 107 108 109 1010 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Frequency, f in Hz Conversion factor E 2 max P rad in V 2 W m 2 95. percentile average 50. percentile 5. percentile https://octav.onl/corr_OATS_RC Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 28 / 40
  • 40. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Conversion FAR to RC w. r. t. f for a = 0.75 m and r = 3 m 107 108 109 1010 0 5 10 15 20 25 Frequency, f in Hz Conversion factor E 2 max P rad in V 2 W m 2 95. percentile average 50. percentile 5. percentile https://octav.onl/corr_FAR_RC_f Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 29 / 40
  • 41. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Conversion between FAR and RC with respect to ka for r = 10 m 10−1 100 101 102 103 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Product of wavenumber and EUT size, ka Conversion factor E 2 max P rad in V 2 W m 2 95. percentile average 50. percentile 5. percentile https://octav.onl/corr_FAR_RC Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 30 / 40
  • 42. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 43. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Environment: deterministic Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 44. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Environment: deterministic EUT: random Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 45. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Environment: deterministic EUT: random Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 46. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Environment: deterministic EUT: random Environment: random Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 47. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Which type of measurement would you like to have? Environment: deterministic EUT: random Environment: random EUT: deterministic Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 31 / 40
  • 48. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Overview Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers Measurements in reverberation chambers Conversion of results Emission measurements with a generic EUT Summary Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 32 / 40
  • 49. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Emission measurements with a generic EUT (a) in the reverberation chamber (b) in the semi-anechoic chamber Figure: Utilized equipment under test (Source: Matthias Hirte, OVGU) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 33 / 40
  • 50. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Emission measurements with a generic EUT 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1 000 55 60 65 70 75 Frequency in MHz Field strength in dB µV m Measurement in the semi-anechoic chamber Measurement in the reverberation chamber Figure: Comparison of the emission measurement in different environments, directivity = 1 (Source: Matthias Hirte, OVGU) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 34 / 40
  • 51. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Emission measurements with a generic EUT 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1 000 55 60 65 70 75 Frequency in MHz Field strength in dB µV m 10◦ steps 90◦ steps Figure: Comparison of the emission measurement for different turntable steps (Source: Matthias Hirte, OVGU) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 35 / 40
  • 52. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Overview Measurements in semi-anechoic chambers Measurements in reverberation chambers Conversion of results Emission measurements with a generic EUT Summary Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 36 / 40
  • 53. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Catch my radiation, if you can! Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sae2q Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 37 / 40
  • 54. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary There is a solution, wait, not. Source: https://imgflip.com/i/6sahm3 Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 38 / 40
  • 55. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary All good things are never together. robust precise fast Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
  • 56. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary All good things are never together. robust precise fast reverberation chamber Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
  • 57. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary All good things are never together. robust precise fast reverberation chamber semi-anechoic chamber (full sampling) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
  • 58. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary All good things are never together. robust precise fast reverberation chamber semi-anechoic chamber (full sampling) semi-anechoic chamber (undersampling for known radiators) Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
  • 59. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary All good things are never together. robust precise fast reverberation chamber semi-anechoic chamber (full sampling) semi-anechoic chamber (undersampling for known radiators) perfect test Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 39 / 40
  • 60. Semi-anechoic chambers Reverberation chambers Conversion of results Generic EUT Summary Source: https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/ 1523708966039351297 Thank you very much for your attention! Are there any questions? Mathias Magdowski Robust, Precise, Fast – Chose Two! 2024-02-27 40 / 40