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Topic: Figures of Speech
A figure of speech is a word that departs from everyday literal language for the sake of
comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness.
1. SIMILE a comparison between two objects which are very different from each
other and yet alike in one way. The comparison is done by using words
such as like, as and as if.
Examples: “Life is like an onion.” (You peel off one layer at a time, and
sometimes you weep) (Carl Sandburg)
The old man is as meek as a lamb.
2. METAPHOR an indirect comparison between two unlike things that are so alike in
one way that they are identified with one another.
Example: The old man is a lamb.
3. PERSONIFICATION a figurative language that gives human characteristics to things
or non-human.
Example: The waves greeted King Canute when he went to the ocean.
4. IRONY this figure of speech says something but means the opposite.
Example: The boy is so intelligent that he failed in all subjects.
5. HYPERBOLE an exaggeration of things, often done for humorous effects.
Example: Their eyes fell out of their sockets when they realized what King
Canute was telling them.
6. METONYMY substituting a literal noun for another word, because in one way or the
other, they are associated with one another.
Example: “Is it knife of the coffin?” the doctors asked the old man.
(Knife is a substitute for the word operation or surgery while the coffin is a
substitute for the word death.
7. APOSTROPHE addressing inanimate objects as if they were alive, addressing
people who are absent or dead as if they were present, or alive.
Example: “Oh kindness and generosity of heart! Where were you when
the old man needed you most?”
8. ASSONANCE the recurrence of the same vowel sound that begins with the different
consonant sounds.
Example: Lo and behold! The Lord really knows those whose hearts are
gold.
9. ALLITERATION the recurrence of the initial consonant sound at the beginning of the
words within the sentence.
Example: “In the hospital, some stood, some swayed, and some slowly
stayed.”
10. ONOMATOPOEIA uses words whose sound suggests the sense.
Example: The mean neighbour banged the door on the old man’s face.
11. ALLUSION a clever referring to a well-known person, event, saying or thing to put
into comparison with the present scene.
Example: He is not aware that he is an Adonis.

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Figures of speech

  • 1. Topic: Figures of Speech A figure of speech is a word that departs from everyday literal language for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness. 1. SIMILE a comparison between two objects which are very different from each other and yet alike in one way. The comparison is done by using words such as like, as and as if. Examples: “Life is like an onion.” (You peel off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep) (Carl Sandburg) The old man is as meek as a lamb. 2. METAPHOR an indirect comparison between two unlike things that are so alike in one way that they are identified with one another. Example: The old man is a lamb. 3. PERSONIFICATION a figurative language that gives human characteristics to things or non-human. Example: The waves greeted King Canute when he went to the ocean. 4. IRONY this figure of speech says something but means the opposite. Example: The boy is so intelligent that he failed in all subjects. 5. HYPERBOLE an exaggeration of things, often done for humorous effects. Example: Their eyes fell out of their sockets when they realized what King Canute was telling them. 6. METONYMY substituting a literal noun for another word, because in one way or the other, they are associated with one another. Example: “Is it knife of the coffin?” the doctors asked the old man. (Knife is a substitute for the word operation or surgery while the coffin is a substitute for the word death.
  • 2. 7. APOSTROPHE addressing inanimate objects as if they were alive, addressing people who are absent or dead as if they were present, or alive. Example: “Oh kindness and generosity of heart! Where were you when the old man needed you most?” 8. ASSONANCE the recurrence of the same vowel sound that begins with the different consonant sounds. Example: Lo and behold! The Lord really knows those whose hearts are gold. 9. ALLITERATION the recurrence of the initial consonant sound at the beginning of the words within the sentence. Example: “In the hospital, some stood, some swayed, and some slowly stayed.” 10. ONOMATOPOEIA uses words whose sound suggests the sense. Example: The mean neighbour banged the door on the old man’s face. 11. ALLUSION a clever referring to a well-known person, event, saying or thing to put into comparison with the present scene. Example: He is not aware that he is an Adonis.