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EVOLUTION OF NETWORKING
COMPUTER SCIENCE
ART INTEGRATED PROJECT
Submitted By:
SharanKeshav· XI A8 30
Ilamparithi M · XI A8 07
AnirudhA.G. · XI A8 02
Rajiv Sukesh· XI A8 20
From the very early days,
communicationover long
distances had fascinated
people. Today, we will
briefly go over how the
present-day Internet
took shape from a private
research project to a
worldwide
interconnection.
In the 1960s a research project was commissioned by Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network (ARPANET) in the U.S. Department of Defence to connect the academic and research
institutions located at different places for scientific collaborations. This would mark the start of the
world wide network of the present.
Interconnectivityinthe USAover theyears
1. The ARPANET
The first message was communicated between the Universityof California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and
Stanford ResearchInstitute (SRI). ARPANET grew rapidlyin the early 1970s. Many universitiesand
governmentcomputers joined the network during this time.
In 1975, ARPANET was declared operationaland was used to develop further communications
technology.In time, severalcomputers in other countries were also added using satellite links.
HoneywellDDP-516–ThefirstARPANEThost
←Terminalusedfor communication–InterfaceMessageProcessors
“The goal was to exploit new computer technologies to meet the
needs of military command and control against nuclear threats,
achieve survivable control of US nuclear forces, and improve
military tactical and management decision making” ~ Stephen J.
Lukasik, Director of DARPA (1970)
1. The ARPANET
Many packet-based networks quickly came into operation after ARPANET became
popular. These various networks could not communicate with one another due to
the requirements of standardized equipment in the existing networks.
Therefore, The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was
developed as a protocol to enable communication between different networks. It
was first put into operation in 1977.
2. Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP)
TCP/IP enabled an interconnected network of networks and is the foundational technology of
the internet. In 1983, TCP/IP replaced NCP as the underlying packet-switching technology of
ARPANET.
TCP is a reliable and connection-oriented protocol used for establishing a connection
between two devices over a network. It guarantees the delivery of data packets in the right
order, without any data loss.
Packetsarereceivedin thesame order they are sentin TCP’s3-way handshakefor establishingconnection
2. Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP)
The DomainName System (DNS) is the
technology that maps human-readable
domain names (such as www.example.com)
to the numerical IP addresses used by
computers on the Internet. It is an essential
part of the Internet's infrastructure,
allowing web browsersto find websites,
send emails, and more.
DNS works by translatingdomain names
into numerical IP addresses,which allows
computers to communicate with each other.
It is an integral part of the Internet's
architecture, helping to make it easier for
users to find websites and services.
Working of theDomain Name System
4. Domain Name System (DNS)
In 1981, the U.S. National Science Foundation
(NSF) aimed to create an academic research
network facilitating access by researchers to
the supercomputing centers funded by NSF in
the United States. The NSF established the
National Science Foundation Network
(NSFNET) as a general-purpose research
network, a hub to connect five
supercomputing centers. As time passed by,
the NSFNET provided connectivity to eleven
regional networks and through these
networks to many smaller regional and
campus networks.
TheNSFNET‘s Backbone andRegionalNetworks, 1991
4. The NSFNET
“… its user-ship is enormously up, its cost to the users has come
down. […] you certainly have our congratulations for that excellent
success.” ~ Dr. Stephen Wolff, Director of NSF's Division of Networking
& Communications Research & Infrastructure (DNCRI)
Earlier, to access files residing in different computers, one had to login individually
to each computer through the Internet. Besides, files in different computers were
sometimes in different formats, and it was difficult to understand each other’s files
and documents.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee — a British computer scientist invented the revolutionary
World Wide Web in 1990 by defining three fundamental technologies that lead to
creation of web: HTML, URI/URL, and the HTTP.
5. The World Wide Web
(WWW)
HTML–Hyper Text Markup Language.It is a language which is used to
design standardised Web Pages so that the Web contents can be read
and understoodfrom any computer. Basic structure of every
webpage is designed using HTML.
URI–Uniform Resource Identifier. It is a unique address or path for
each resource located on the web. It is also known as Uniform
Resource Locator (URL).Every page on the web has a unique URL. A
URL is not only the domain name. It contains other information that
completes a web address, as depicted in the adjoiningfigure
HTTP – The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a set of rules which is
used to retrieve linked web pages across the web. The more secure
and advancedversion is HTTP Secure (HTTPS)
Simplepresent-dayHTMLcode
Structureof afullURI
SimpleHTTPworking principle
5. The World Wide Web
(WWW)
The history of Wireless Communication dates way
back to the 19th century when Heinrich Hertz first
discovered electromagnetic waves, which led to
Radio communication. Over the years, many
iterations of Radio communication utilizing various
frequencies were developed. Packet radio is a
radio communication technology that sends data
as packets.
The first packet radio network was developed at
the University of Hawaii in 1971. ALOHAnet
connected seven campuses on four different
islands, ensuring that they could all communicate
with each other through a central computer
located on the island of Oahu.
TerminalNode Controller 2400 bits/spacketradio
modem
6. Wireless Networking
In 1985, the FCC chose to open up three frequency bands on the wireless spectrum for unlicensed use. Those
bands, also known as "the garbage bands", were 900MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz.
These bands were popularly in use for many things, most notable being microwave ovens, that cook food
using radio waves. The condition for using these bands for communication purposes, was therefore being
able to work around those interferences.
Many vendors did it by using their own, proprietary, non-interoperable standards. They slowly came to see
the need for a shared wireless standard, much like Ethernet had become a successful industry standard for
wired network communication.
Drawingof the2.4 GHzband (2.40-2.48) sharedwith
Bluetooth, Wi-Fiandmicrowave ovens. To minimize
theinterferencefrom thesedevices,Bluetooth uses
thefrequency-hoping spreadspectrumtechnology
(up to 1600 rotations persecond) whichparcelout the
databeingsentandtransmitted.Wi-Fi802.11aand
802.11gtechnologiesusetheradio spectrum
bandwidth20 MHz.
6. Wireless Networking
In 1991, NCR Corporationwith AT&T Corporation invented
the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier
systems. The first wireless products were under the
name WaveLAN.
The Australian radio-astronomerJohn O’Sullivanwith
his colleagues developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a
by-product of a research project -- “a failed experiment
to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an
atomic particle”. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained
patents for a method later used in Wi-Fi to “unsmear”
the signal.
The first versionof the 802.11 protocol was released in
1997, and providedup to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was
updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link
speeds,and this proved to be popular.
• Fun Fact:
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents
held by many different organizations. In
Australia, Wi-Fi is seen as an Australian
invention. This view is not shared
globally, and has generated controversy.
6. Wireless Networking
THANK YOU!
Illustrations& Organisation
Ilamparithi
DesignandContent
SharanKeshav
InformationGathering
AnirudhAG
RajivSukesh

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Evolution of Computer Networking

  • 1. EVOLUTION OF NETWORKING COMPUTER SCIENCE ART INTEGRATED PROJECT Submitted By: SharanKeshav· XI A8 30 Ilamparithi M · XI A8 07 AnirudhA.G. · XI A8 02 Rajiv Sukesh· XI A8 20
  • 2. From the very early days, communicationover long distances had fascinated people. Today, we will briefly go over how the present-day Internet took shape from a private research project to a worldwide interconnection.
  • 3. In the 1960s a research project was commissioned by Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in the U.S. Department of Defence to connect the academic and research institutions located at different places for scientific collaborations. This would mark the start of the world wide network of the present. Interconnectivityinthe USAover theyears 1. The ARPANET
  • 4. The first message was communicated between the Universityof California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford ResearchInstitute (SRI). ARPANET grew rapidlyin the early 1970s. Many universitiesand governmentcomputers joined the network during this time. In 1975, ARPANET was declared operationaland was used to develop further communications technology.In time, severalcomputers in other countries were also added using satellite links. HoneywellDDP-516–ThefirstARPANEThost ←Terminalusedfor communication–InterfaceMessageProcessors “The goal was to exploit new computer technologies to meet the needs of military command and control against nuclear threats, achieve survivable control of US nuclear forces, and improve military tactical and management decision making” ~ Stephen J. Lukasik, Director of DARPA (1970) 1. The ARPANET
  • 5. Many packet-based networks quickly came into operation after ARPANET became popular. These various networks could not communicate with one another due to the requirements of standardized equipment in the existing networks. Therefore, The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was developed as a protocol to enable communication between different networks. It was first put into operation in 1977. 2. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • 6. TCP/IP enabled an interconnected network of networks and is the foundational technology of the internet. In 1983, TCP/IP replaced NCP as the underlying packet-switching technology of ARPANET. TCP is a reliable and connection-oriented protocol used for establishing a connection between two devices over a network. It guarantees the delivery of data packets in the right order, without any data loss. Packetsarereceivedin thesame order they are sentin TCP’s3-way handshakefor establishingconnection 2. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • 7. The DomainName System (DNS) is the technology that maps human-readable domain names (such as www.example.com) to the numerical IP addresses used by computers on the Internet. It is an essential part of the Internet's infrastructure, allowing web browsersto find websites, send emails, and more. DNS works by translatingdomain names into numerical IP addresses,which allows computers to communicate with each other. It is an integral part of the Internet's architecture, helping to make it easier for users to find websites and services. Working of theDomain Name System 4. Domain Name System (DNS)
  • 8. In 1981, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) aimed to create an academic research network facilitating access by researchers to the supercomputing centers funded by NSF in the United States. The NSF established the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) as a general-purpose research network, a hub to connect five supercomputing centers. As time passed by, the NSFNET provided connectivity to eleven regional networks and through these networks to many smaller regional and campus networks. TheNSFNET‘s Backbone andRegionalNetworks, 1991 4. The NSFNET “… its user-ship is enormously up, its cost to the users has come down. […] you certainly have our congratulations for that excellent success.” ~ Dr. Stephen Wolff, Director of NSF's Division of Networking & Communications Research & Infrastructure (DNCRI)
  • 9. Earlier, to access files residing in different computers, one had to login individually to each computer through the Internet. Besides, files in different computers were sometimes in different formats, and it was difficult to understand each other’s files and documents. Sir Tim Berners-Lee — a British computer scientist invented the revolutionary World Wide Web in 1990 by defining three fundamental technologies that lead to creation of web: HTML, URI/URL, and the HTTP. 5. The World Wide Web (WWW)
  • 10. HTML–Hyper Text Markup Language.It is a language which is used to design standardised Web Pages so that the Web contents can be read and understoodfrom any computer. Basic structure of every webpage is designed using HTML. URI–Uniform Resource Identifier. It is a unique address or path for each resource located on the web. It is also known as Uniform Resource Locator (URL).Every page on the web has a unique URL. A URL is not only the domain name. It contains other information that completes a web address, as depicted in the adjoiningfigure HTTP – The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a set of rules which is used to retrieve linked web pages across the web. The more secure and advancedversion is HTTP Secure (HTTPS) Simplepresent-dayHTMLcode Structureof afullURI SimpleHTTPworking principle 5. The World Wide Web (WWW)
  • 11. The history of Wireless Communication dates way back to the 19th century when Heinrich Hertz first discovered electromagnetic waves, which led to Radio communication. Over the years, many iterations of Radio communication utilizing various frequencies were developed. Packet radio is a radio communication technology that sends data as packets. The first packet radio network was developed at the University of Hawaii in 1971. ALOHAnet connected seven campuses on four different islands, ensuring that they could all communicate with each other through a central computer located on the island of Oahu. TerminalNode Controller 2400 bits/spacketradio modem 6. Wireless Networking
  • 12. In 1985, the FCC chose to open up three frequency bands on the wireless spectrum for unlicensed use. Those bands, also known as "the garbage bands", were 900MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. These bands were popularly in use for many things, most notable being microwave ovens, that cook food using radio waves. The condition for using these bands for communication purposes, was therefore being able to work around those interferences. Many vendors did it by using their own, proprietary, non-interoperable standards. They slowly came to see the need for a shared wireless standard, much like Ethernet had become a successful industry standard for wired network communication. Drawingof the2.4 GHzband (2.40-2.48) sharedwith Bluetooth, Wi-Fiandmicrowave ovens. To minimize theinterferencefrom thesedevices,Bluetooth uses thefrequency-hoping spreadspectrumtechnology (up to 1600 rotations persecond) whichparcelout the databeingsentandtransmitted.Wi-Fi802.11aand 802.11gtechnologiesusetheradio spectrum bandwidth20 MHz. 6. Wireless Networking
  • 13. In 1991, NCR Corporationwith AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems. The first wireless products were under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomerJohn O’Sullivanwith his colleagues developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a research project -- “a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle”. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method later used in Wi-Fi to “unsmear” the signal. The first versionof the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, and providedup to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds,and this proved to be popular. • Fun Fact: Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In Australia, Wi-Fi is seen as an Australian invention. This view is not shared globally, and has generated controversy. 6. Wireless Networking