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Logos
Ethos
Pathos
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
studied rhetoric, the art of
composing powerful and
persuasive language.
Persuasive speeches were
presented to spread
knowledge, promote ideas,
and entertain. His ideas are
important for academic
writing today.
Rhetoric is the art of
persuasion. The
choices a writer
makes with his/her
audience in mind.
The goal of persuasion
is to change a reader’s
point of view or to
move readers to take
action.
Logos = Logic, facts, reasons
Ethos = Ethics, Image/character
Pathos = Emotions, Passion
Using logos, ethos, and pathos will help you to
master the art of persuasion and become a better
writer and speaker.
Through language, you will be able to change the
point of view of others!
Through language, you will be able to motivate
others to take action!
Start analyzing everything you see and hear in a
whole new way.
Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence,
statistics, and reason.
Using logos means appealing to the readers’
sense of what is logical. Carefully craft
logical reasons and clear examples. (Watch
out for fallacies, arguments that are not
clear, or examples that are too vague!) Using
carefully researched facts, numbers, and
statistics can also be persuasive.
Ethos is an argument based on character.
Appeal to the audience’s sense of ethics by
demonstrating that your idea is “the right
thing to do.”
The other way to use ethos is for the writer to
present him or herself to the audience as
credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical.
Do this by either demonstrating your
expertise on the subject matter, or
demonstrating your extensive research and
using the ideas/quotes of the experts.
Using carefully chosen quotations and citing
expert sources can be persuasive!
Pathos = argument based on feelings
Using pathos means appealing to readers’
emotions and feelings. Carefully choose your
words for this one. Consider the impact of
word connotations– the image or emotions
tied to the use of a particular word. Powerful
diction and be very persuasive.
At my age, however, I don't spend much time thinking
about my appearance. The burning egocentricity of
adolescence, which assures one that all the world is
looking all the time, has passed; I'm also too old to
believe in the accuracy of self-image. I know, in fact,
that when I'm rested, well dressed, and well made up, I
look fine. The self-loathing I feel is neither physically
nor intellectually substantial. What I hate is not me but
a disease.
I am not a disease.
And a disease is not--at least not single-handedly--going
to determine who I am.
—Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
Nancy Mairs presents a logical argument. Negative
feelings about her appearance are not based on
reality. She is a person, not a disease. These ideas
make sense; they are logical and convincing.
When you use logos to support an argument, make
sure your reasons are based on logic and not fallacies
(bad example: I was an egotistical teenager,
therefore all teenagers are egotistical). Make sure
your examples are numerous, clear, and specific.
Examples also need to be relevant and typical (your
addiction to social media, does not demonstrate that
social media is bad for everyone!)
First, the matter of semantics. I am a cripple. I choose
this word to name me. I choose from among several
possibilities, the most common of which are
“handicapped” and “disabled.” I made the choice a
number of years ago, without thinking, unaware of my
motives for doing so. Even now, I am not sure what
those motives are, but I recognize that they are complex
and not entirely flattering. People—crippled or not—
wince at the word “cripple,” as they do not at
“handicapped” or “disabled.” Perhaps I want them to
wince. I want them to see me as a tough customer, one
to whom the fates/gods/viruses have not been kind, but
who can face the brutal truth of her existence squarely.
As a cripple, I swagger.
—Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
Nancy Mairs demonstrated herself as trustworthy
and credible by being brutally honest with her
readers and admitting that she’s not entirely
sure of her reasons. She demonstrates that she
has the authority to speak on the subject by
sharing the personal experiences she has as “a
cripple.”
When you do not have personal experiences with
your paper topic, you can demonstrate your
authority through the use of extensive research.
Quote/paraphrase the experts and cite credible
texts.
Faking. There's the rub. Tugging at the fringes of my
consciousness always is the terror that people are kind
to me only because I'm a cripple. My mother almost
shattered me once, with that instinct mothers have for
striking blows along the fault-lines of their children's
hearts, by telling me, in an attack on my selfishness, "We
all have to make allowances for you, of course, because
of the way you are." She was awfully angry but at the
time I felt my worst fear, suddenly realized. I could bear
being called selfish: I am. But I couldn't bear the
corroboration that those around me were doing what I'd
always suspected them of doing, professing fondness
while silently putting up with me because of the way I
am. A cripple. I've been a little cracked ever since.
—Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
Nancy Mairs chooses her words carefully for the
connotation (feeling) behind them. Take another
look at her diction (word choice) in the passage.
Which words have a strong feeling for you?
She describes the experience with phrases like
“terror,” “shattered,” “striking blows,” “fear,”
and “cracked.”
We can feel her pain here and she chose these
words to communicate those feelings clearly and
powerfully to her audience.
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio

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Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio

  • 2. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) studied rhetoric, the art of composing powerful and persuasive language. Persuasive speeches were presented to spread knowledge, promote ideas, and entertain. His ideas are important for academic writing today.
  • 3. Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The choices a writer makes with his/her audience in mind. The goal of persuasion is to change a reader’s point of view or to move readers to take action.
  • 4. Logos = Logic, facts, reasons Ethos = Ethics, Image/character Pathos = Emotions, Passion
  • 5. Using logos, ethos, and pathos will help you to master the art of persuasion and become a better writer and speaker. Through language, you will be able to change the point of view of others! Through language, you will be able to motivate others to take action! Start analyzing everything you see and hear in a whole new way.
  • 6. Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence, statistics, and reason. Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical. Carefully craft logical reasons and clear examples. (Watch out for fallacies, arguments that are not clear, or examples that are too vague!) Using carefully researched facts, numbers, and statistics can also be persuasive.
  • 7. Ethos is an argument based on character. Appeal to the audience’s sense of ethics by demonstrating that your idea is “the right thing to do.” The other way to use ethos is for the writer to present him or herself to the audience as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical. Do this by either demonstrating your expertise on the subject matter, or demonstrating your extensive research and using the ideas/quotes of the experts. Using carefully chosen quotations and citing expert sources can be persuasive!
  • 8. Pathos = argument based on feelings Using pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings. Carefully choose your words for this one. Consider the impact of word connotations– the image or emotions tied to the use of a particular word. Powerful diction and be very persuasive.
  • 9. At my age, however, I don't spend much time thinking about my appearance. The burning egocentricity of adolescence, which assures one that all the world is looking all the time, has passed; I'm also too old to believe in the accuracy of self-image. I know, in fact, that when I'm rested, well dressed, and well made up, I look fine. The self-loathing I feel is neither physically nor intellectually substantial. What I hate is not me but a disease. I am not a disease. And a disease is not--at least not single-handedly--going to determine who I am. —Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
  • 10. Nancy Mairs presents a logical argument. Negative feelings about her appearance are not based on reality. She is a person, not a disease. These ideas make sense; they are logical and convincing. When you use logos to support an argument, make sure your reasons are based on logic and not fallacies (bad example: I was an egotistical teenager, therefore all teenagers are egotistical). Make sure your examples are numerous, clear, and specific. Examples also need to be relevant and typical (your addiction to social media, does not demonstrate that social media is bad for everyone!)
  • 11. First, the matter of semantics. I am a cripple. I choose this word to name me. I choose from among several possibilities, the most common of which are “handicapped” and “disabled.” I made the choice a number of years ago, without thinking, unaware of my motives for doing so. Even now, I am not sure what those motives are, but I recognize that they are complex and not entirely flattering. People—crippled or not— wince at the word “cripple,” as they do not at “handicapped” or “disabled.” Perhaps I want them to wince. I want them to see me as a tough customer, one to whom the fates/gods/viruses have not been kind, but who can face the brutal truth of her existence squarely. As a cripple, I swagger. —Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
  • 12. Nancy Mairs demonstrated herself as trustworthy and credible by being brutally honest with her readers and admitting that she’s not entirely sure of her reasons. She demonstrates that she has the authority to speak on the subject by sharing the personal experiences she has as “a cripple.” When you do not have personal experiences with your paper topic, you can demonstrate your authority through the use of extensive research. Quote/paraphrase the experts and cite credible texts.
  • 13. Faking. There's the rub. Tugging at the fringes of my consciousness always is the terror that people are kind to me only because I'm a cripple. My mother almost shattered me once, with that instinct mothers have for striking blows along the fault-lines of their children's hearts, by telling me, in an attack on my selfishness, "We all have to make allowances for you, of course, because of the way you are." She was awfully angry but at the time I felt my worst fear, suddenly realized. I could bear being called selfish: I am. But I couldn't bear the corroboration that those around me were doing what I'd always suspected them of doing, professing fondness while silently putting up with me because of the way I am. A cripple. I've been a little cracked ever since. —Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
  • 14. Nancy Mairs chooses her words carefully for the connotation (feeling) behind them. Take another look at her diction (word choice) in the passage. Which words have a strong feeling for you? She describes the experience with phrases like “terror,” “shattered,” “striking blows,” “fear,” and “cracked.” We can feel her pain here and she chose these words to communicate those feelings clearly and powerfully to her audience.