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  “Article Review:
Reading Assessment”
                        KELLY BANES
                        ENGLISH 6170
           LINGUISTIC ABILITY ASSESSMENT
              T H U R S D A Y , J U N E 2 1 ST, 2 0 1 2
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
Lenski, Susan; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin (2006). Assessing English-
   language learners in mainstream classrooms. The Reading Teacher. 60:1, 24-36.
   http://www.madison.k12.in.us/MCSWeb/CSSU/ELL%20
   Resources/For%20ELL%20teachers/Assessing%20English-language%20learners.pdf
        “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms”
  1. Learn about ELLs’ literacy backgrounds
      Understanding that ELLs come from different types of literacy backgrounds can
      help teachers develop appropriate reading assessments.
Newly arrived students with adequate formal schooling          Students exposed to two languages simultaneously
• Have been in the country for fewer than five years,• Have • Were born in the United States but have grown up in
had an adequate degree of schooling in their native            households where a language other than English is spoken,•
country,• Perform in reading and writing at grade level,•      Live in communities of speakers who primarily
Find it relatively easy to catch up with their native–English- communicate in their L1 or go back and forth between
speaking peers,• Have difficulty with standardized tests,•     languages,• Have grown up being exposed to two languages
Have parents who are educated speakers of their L1(native simultaneously,• May have not developed academic literacy
language),• Developed a strong foundation in their L1,•        in eitherL1 or L2 (second language),• Often engage
Demonstrate the potential to make fast progress in English, in extensive code-switching, thus making use of
and• Have found it easy to acquire a second or third           both linguistic systems to communicate, and• Have
language.                                                      acquired oral proficiency in a language other than English
Newly arrived students with limited formal schooling           first but may not have learned to read or write in that
• Have recently arrived in an English-speaking school(fewer language.
than five years),• Have experienced interrupted schooling,• Long-term English-language learners
Have limited native-language and literacy skills,• Perform • Have already spent more than five years in an English-
poorly on achievement tasks,• May not have had previous        speaking school,• Have literacy skills that are below grade
schooling,• May experience feelings of loss of emotional and level,• Have had some English as a second language classes
social networks,• Have parents who have low literacy levels, or bilingual support, and• Require substantial and ongoing
and• Could have difficulty learning English.                   language and literacy support.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
  Continued… “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms”

                                                                 Alternative Assessment Practices
2. “Adopt a multidimensional approach including
alternative assessments.” Assessments can be modified
traditional or completely non-traditional. They should be
multidimensional and authentic.

3. “Encourage self-assessment.” Teach students that
They are in control and can direct their own learning.
Promote intrinsic motivation for learning. Model self-
assessment tasks and provide practice in group, pair, and
independent environments.

4. “Effective teaching means effective assessments.”
The best assessments are longitudinal and assess progress
over a period of time. Teachers should use a variety of
authentic assessment tools and materials (rubrics, checklists,
Observed data, portfolios).
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
Opitz, Michael, F. and Guzzione, Lindsey, M. (2009). Comprehension and English Language
  Learners. Heinemann: Porstmouth, NH. http://www.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources
  %5CE02678%5COpitzE02678Sample.pdf

          Comprehension and English Language Learners

1. Idea for beginning language learners: “Say it with the puppet”
    Use puppets to make the reading assessment feel safe for students. Puppets
     can lower a students affective filter (Krashen, 1982). Model puppet use first; then
    encourage students to practice with voices to develop characterization.

2. Idea for early-intermediate language learners: “Shared reading”
    When students share the reading experience they are exposed to both literature and
    socialization (Holdaway, 1979). Choral response can turn reading assessment in to a
    participatory game. Read the story to the students first (or even multiple times over the course
    of a few days); then have students chime in and read along with you. This works especially well
    with easy-to-memorize text features such as rhyme, rhythm, and repetition.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
              Continued…        Comprehension and English Language Learners

3. Idea for level intermediate language learners: “Find the signs”
    “Typographical cues are similar to road signs. The reader, like a driver, must be
    able to read the signs to navigate their way through the roads or pages of text” (96).
    Introduce typographical signs and their meaning (comma, period, question mark, etc). Read
    sample sentences from the text twice, once using the typographical signs in your reading and
    once without. Discuss the difference. Have students read aloud “find the signs” themselves.

4. Idea for early-advanced language learners: “Get the picture”
    Proficient readers use their imagination to help with comprehension (Irwin ,
    1991). Teachers can encourage the use of mental imagining while reading. Read
    a short passage and have students draw what they imagined. They can share and
    explain their drawings with each other. Encourage them to pinpoint the written descriptors
    and mental connections that lead to their imaginings.

5. Idea for advanced language learners: “Directed reading thinking activity (DRTA)”
    Teachers can use the DRTA method to help students connect to their prior knowledge and
    “improve reading comprehension, schema, and thinking skills” (Stauffer, 1975). Mark logical
    stopping points in a text. Have students read to each stopping point before asking them to
    make connections, form predictions, and answer discussion questions, or summarize what
    they are reading. The teacher guides students through the text to assess and aid in
    comprehension.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
Woolley, Gary (2010). Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading difficulties for reading
   intervention. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 15:1, 81-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19404150903524564

      “Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading
                                difficulties for reading intervention”

1. Identify students with reading difficulties. Assessment of reading difficulties in English
     learners can be a difficult and complex process. Identify students with word-level difficulties,
     dyslexia, lacking vocabulary exposure/knowledge, poor comprehension skills, specific language
     impairments, or limited memory/metacogniction.
2. Provide ongoing assessment to prevent at-risk students from falling further behind.
    With quality ongoing assessment, students identified with reading difficulties can be successfully
    remediated over time. The most reliable assessment comes from teacher observation (not
    standardized testing) in the form of “formal testing as well as information obtained from an array of
    informal student-centered assessment procedures such as portfolios, curriculum-based measures,
    instructional rubrics, student journals, learning logs and self-assessment” (88). Reading assessment
    also must specific reading skills such as “phonological skill, word recognition ability, rapid naming
    speed, phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, listening and reading comprehension” (88).
3. Provide explicit support in language and literacy and ensure that students receive
    effective instruction. Teachers should use assessment to guide their instruction. Discovering that
    students have reading difficulties should be followed by intervention, response to intervention, and
    further assessment of progress. Students with reading difficulties re often disengaged and lack
    effective reading strategies. These students need a different type of reading instruction. They need to
    build skills in metacognition (goal-directed reading, comprehension strategies, self-awareness and
    self-motivation). Collaborative opportunities to read and discuss reading with other students can
    increase motivation. Student responses in reading groups can be valuable assessment data.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment

Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and
   classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13-
   814931-4
                           Chapter 9: Assessing Reading
4 types of reading
 Perceptive : perception of the components – letters, words, punctuation.
   Bottom-up processing is implied
 Selective : to check recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse
   features, within very short stretches of language.
 Interactive : longer stretches of language where reader must interact
   (psycho linguistically) with text. Checking for comprehension. Top-down
   processing required.
 Extensive : lengthy reading texts (more than 1 page). listening to develop
    top-down, global understanding

1. Best idea for perceptive reading assessment task: Picture-cued reading
   assessments. For beginning ESL readers pictures can be used to assess
   students ability to comprehend the meaning of words. This can inform a
   teacher of the student’s ability to recognize letters, words, sentences, and
   grammatical cues.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
                                   Continued… Chapter 9


  Example of picture-cued sentence identification
Point to the part of the picture that you read about in the sentence.

1.The woman is holding a cat.

2.It is snowing outside.

3.The man is reading the newspaper.


  2. Best idea for selective reading assessment task: Fill-in-the-blank
     assessments. These assessments are basically text with missing words that
     students have to fill in. There should be enough context in the remaining text
     that a student can use his/her linguistic schemata, content schemata, and
     strategic competence to make calculated guesses.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
                                  Continued… Chapter 9



3. Best idea for interactive reading assessment task: ordering or sequencing tasks.
Example of ordering assessment
Put the following sentences in order
A          it was called “The Last Waltz”
B          the street was in total darkness
C          because it was one he and Richard had learnt at school
D          Peter looked outside
E          he recognized the tune
F          and it seemed deserted
G          he thought he heard someone whistling

4. Best idea for extensive reading assessment task: scanning and skimming tasks.
   Students practice reading to look for some particular information. This helps with
   standardized test-taking strategies as well. Students look for main idea, purpose,
   evidence of genre, evidence of style, etc. These assessments are usually informal and
   formative.
Literature Review- Reading Assessment

Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom
   practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13-814931-4

                    Chapter 11: Assessing Grammar and Vocabulary

1. Defining Grammatical Knowledge for Reading: Students need knowledge of basic
   grammatical forms and functions to comprehend reading effectively. Word order and syntax
   carries meaning and knowledge of grammar should be assessed regularly and frequently.

2. Defining Lexical Knowledge for Reading: Lexical knowledge is knowledge of word
   meanings and relationships between words. A student’s lexical knowledge can be assessed
   through context or word mapping and other vocabulary-based assessment (Receptive and
   productive vocabulary).

3. Considerations for Designing Assessment Tasks for Reading: Make assessment an
   ongoing part of instruction. Every time a student reads, a formative assessment can be
   conducted to gain information about a student’s progress (selected response, limited
   production, extended production).
Literature Review- Reading Assessment
Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles
and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-
0-13-814931-4


     Chapter 12: Linguistic Skill Grading and Evaluation

1.Guidelines for grading criteria should: be consistent with the philosophy/regulation
of the educational institution, be clearly and explicitly stated at the beginning of the term
(syllabus and rubrics), be observable and measurable (proof) even for subjective grading
components, and be primarily focused on achievement with the more subjective areas
contributing to only 5-10%.
2. Letter grades over-generalize student achievement/performance. Teachers need
to understand that a letter grade is just one interpretation of a students learning experience. A
letter grading system needs to be carefully designed, clearly and explicitly stated, and based on
the main objectives of the course.
3. Alternatives to letter grading can include: teacher notes and comments, self-
assessment, peer-assessment, student-teacher conferences, checklists, and narrative
evaluations. Because letter grades are a necessary part of most educational institutions, I
recommend using these alternatives methods for feedback in addition to traditional letter
grading.
Classroom Assessment Techniques For
                Reading Development
1. Assessment technique: checklists                        From: Reading Teacher's Book of Lists.
      Checklists for reading progress can be completed by both teachers and students. Checklists can be
      used by teachers to assess word/letter knowledge, or a student’s ability to retell or analyze a text.
      First develop a list of concepts/skills to be assessed, and clearly ask students to demonstrate
      understanding of these concepts/skills in reading. Then use a simple checklist to identify which
      concepts/skills have been mastered and which need further work. Students can also use the
      checklists strategy as self-assessment or to review their own work. Teachers and students can
      work together to prepare a list of concepts/skills to be the focus of future goals/objectives and this
      can provide feedback to the students and wash back to the teacher for future lesson planning.
2. Assessment technique: personal reactions and connections to text
    One way to help students record their reactions and connections to text is to have students keep a
    log of all their independent reading at school and at home. Teacher observation of regular
    discussions of these logs with peers, groups, or whole class can provide insight on how the student
    is developing as an independent reader and at this point teachers can provide encouragement,
    feedback, or suggest additional reading strategies. Reading logs can be used in students' portfolios.
    Reading logs can also be more directed by the teacher. This can make it easier for students just
    starting out. Teacher’s can provide sample prompts to helps students generate ideas and focus their
    thoughts. Or, I think it might be helpful for students to begin with a rubric to help them make
    decisions about the text, and then write the reading log in response to their rubric scores.
3. Assessment technique: retelling / summarizing
    Have students tell the story in their words after they have heard it once or twice. They can practice
    telling the story to a partner before sharing with a bigger group. Prepare a rubric or checklist for
    this activity so students can be more quantitatively assessed and so students know what is expected
    of them before the story begins. To assess on qualitative levels, focus on a students overall ability to
    comprehend and make inferences about the story. For non-fiction texts, have students summarize
    the main points and details in their own “retelling” of the text. These can be oral and/or written and
    teachers should provide feedback to students to let them know how they are progressing.
Classroom Materials For
                       Reading Assessment
                                                                                From: “Assessing
                                                                                English Learners…”
                                                                                and Kate Kinsella


 1. Sample checklist for longitudinal reading assessment (K-3)
 ESL Goal, ESL Standard: Goal 1, Standard 3“To use English to communicate in social settings:
 Students will use learning strategies to extend their communicative competence” (TESOL,
 1997, p.39).

 Progress indicator            Performed independently   Performed with help Unable to perform
 Understands new vocab.              (√)

 Retells stories                     (√)

 Uses new vocabulary                                             (√)

 Formulates inferences                                                                  (√)

Sample checklist for vocabulary self-assessment and word recognition
 3 I am familiar with the word __.
  It means __.
 2 I recognize the word __.
  It has something to do with __.
 1 I am unfamiliar with the word __.
 Do you know what it means?                                   How do you assess
                                                              student ability?
Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment


 2.




From:
Read,
Write,
Think.
Classroom Materials For
                        Reading Assessment

3. Sentence frames for quick summary assessments of reading
  comprehension.

Q & A for Main Idea and Supporting Details of a non-fiction text
Q: What is the topic of this article/report/paragraph/section?
A: The topic of this __________________ is ___________________.
Q: What is this paragraph/section/selection/article/report mainly about?
A: It is mainly about __________________.
A: This _________________ focuses on ___________________.
A: This ______________ is primarily about ________________.
A: This ______________ addresses the topic of/reasons for _________.
Q: What is the author’s main idea/point?
A: The author’s main idea/point is that __________________.
Q: What is/are the most important detail(s) in this paragraph/section?
A: One important detail in this paragraph/section is _______________.
A: An essential detail in this paragraph/section is .
A: Another significant detail in this paragraph/section is ____________.     From:
A: The most critical/vital detail in this paragraph/section is __________.   Kate
A: An interesting but nonessential detail in this paragraph/section is ___   Kinsella
Recommendations for Assessment and
            Closing Remarks
      All of the readings seem to agree on several points about reading
assessment. Assessment should be varied, authentic, and
multidimensional. It should be frequent, regular, and ongoing.
Assessment should be collaborative, shared, and reflective. Assessment
should help students set goals, guide instruction and pacing, and
demonstrate student growth and achievement. It should be
developmentally and culturally appropriate. To summarize, we know there
are many types of assessment to choose from, and it’s our job as teachers
to pick the assessments that will be the most meaningful to our students,
will provide us with the most accurate details of student development, and
will help students identify their strengths.
Recommendations for Assessment Materials
          and Closing Remarks
          Assessment materials are necessary for turning any reading
development task into a reading assessment. Checklists and rubrics help make
expectations clear to students from the start. These materials can also help
students get a more tangible grasp on their own progress, help with goal
setting, and help with developing metacognitive skills and strategies.
Assessment materials should be varied and easily understood by students.
They should be appropriate for the age and acquisition level for the students.
Pair assessment rubrics and checklists with clearly written directions and then
keep track of student growth through longitudinal records, charts, and
portfolios.
“The end of all education
 should surely be service
       to others.”


              -Cesar Chavez
Thank you for your attention!




 Questions, comments, ideas…

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Eng 6170 powerpoint

  • 1. Click me to hear the oral presentation for each slide! “Article Review: Reading Assessment” KELLY BANES ENGLISH 6170 LINGUISTIC ABILITY ASSESSMENT T H U R S D A Y , J U N E 2 1 ST, 2 0 1 2
  • 2. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Lenski, Susan; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin (2006). Assessing English- language learners in mainstream classrooms. The Reading Teacher. 60:1, 24-36. http://www.madison.k12.in.us/MCSWeb/CSSU/ELL%20 Resources/For%20ELL%20teachers/Assessing%20English-language%20learners.pdf “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms” 1. Learn about ELLs’ literacy backgrounds Understanding that ELLs come from different types of literacy backgrounds can help teachers develop appropriate reading assessments. Newly arrived students with adequate formal schooling Students exposed to two languages simultaneously • Have been in the country for fewer than five years,• Have • Were born in the United States but have grown up in had an adequate degree of schooling in their native households where a language other than English is spoken,• country,• Perform in reading and writing at grade level,• Live in communities of speakers who primarily Find it relatively easy to catch up with their native–English- communicate in their L1 or go back and forth between speaking peers,• Have difficulty with standardized tests,• languages,• Have grown up being exposed to two languages Have parents who are educated speakers of their L1(native simultaneously,• May have not developed academic literacy language),• Developed a strong foundation in their L1,• in eitherL1 or L2 (second language),• Often engage Demonstrate the potential to make fast progress in English, in extensive code-switching, thus making use of and• Have found it easy to acquire a second or third both linguistic systems to communicate, and• Have language. acquired oral proficiency in a language other than English Newly arrived students with limited formal schooling first but may not have learned to read or write in that • Have recently arrived in an English-speaking school(fewer language. than five years),• Have experienced interrupted schooling,• Long-term English-language learners Have limited native-language and literacy skills,• Perform • Have already spent more than five years in an English- poorly on achievement tasks,• May not have had previous speaking school,• Have literacy skills that are below grade schooling,• May experience feelings of loss of emotional and level,• Have had some English as a second language classes social networks,• Have parents who have low literacy levels, or bilingual support, and• Require substantial and ongoing and• Could have difficulty learning English. language and literacy support.
  • 3. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms” Alternative Assessment Practices 2. “Adopt a multidimensional approach including alternative assessments.” Assessments can be modified traditional or completely non-traditional. They should be multidimensional and authentic. 3. “Encourage self-assessment.” Teach students that They are in control and can direct their own learning. Promote intrinsic motivation for learning. Model self- assessment tasks and provide practice in group, pair, and independent environments. 4. “Effective teaching means effective assessments.” The best assessments are longitudinal and assess progress over a period of time. Teachers should use a variety of authentic assessment tools and materials (rubrics, checklists, Observed data, portfolios).
  • 4. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Opitz, Michael, F. and Guzzione, Lindsey, M. (2009). Comprehension and English Language Learners. Heinemann: Porstmouth, NH. http://www.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources %5CE02678%5COpitzE02678Sample.pdf Comprehension and English Language Learners 1. Idea for beginning language learners: “Say it with the puppet” Use puppets to make the reading assessment feel safe for students. Puppets can lower a students affective filter (Krashen, 1982). Model puppet use first; then encourage students to practice with voices to develop characterization. 2. Idea for early-intermediate language learners: “Shared reading” When students share the reading experience they are exposed to both literature and socialization (Holdaway, 1979). Choral response can turn reading assessment in to a participatory game. Read the story to the students first (or even multiple times over the course of a few days); then have students chime in and read along with you. This works especially well with easy-to-memorize text features such as rhyme, rhythm, and repetition.
  • 5. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Comprehension and English Language Learners 3. Idea for level intermediate language learners: “Find the signs” “Typographical cues are similar to road signs. The reader, like a driver, must be able to read the signs to navigate their way through the roads or pages of text” (96). Introduce typographical signs and their meaning (comma, period, question mark, etc). Read sample sentences from the text twice, once using the typographical signs in your reading and once without. Discuss the difference. Have students read aloud “find the signs” themselves. 4. Idea for early-advanced language learners: “Get the picture” Proficient readers use their imagination to help with comprehension (Irwin , 1991). Teachers can encourage the use of mental imagining while reading. Read a short passage and have students draw what they imagined. They can share and explain their drawings with each other. Encourage them to pinpoint the written descriptors and mental connections that lead to their imaginings. 5. Idea for advanced language learners: “Directed reading thinking activity (DRTA)” Teachers can use the DRTA method to help students connect to their prior knowledge and “improve reading comprehension, schema, and thinking skills” (Stauffer, 1975). Mark logical stopping points in a text. Have students read to each stopping point before asking them to make connections, form predictions, and answer discussion questions, or summarize what they are reading. The teacher guides students through the text to assess and aid in comprehension.
  • 6. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Woolley, Gary (2010). Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading difficulties for reading intervention. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 15:1, 81-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19404150903524564 “Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading difficulties for reading intervention” 1. Identify students with reading difficulties. Assessment of reading difficulties in English learners can be a difficult and complex process. Identify students with word-level difficulties, dyslexia, lacking vocabulary exposure/knowledge, poor comprehension skills, specific language impairments, or limited memory/metacogniction. 2. Provide ongoing assessment to prevent at-risk students from falling further behind. With quality ongoing assessment, students identified with reading difficulties can be successfully remediated over time. The most reliable assessment comes from teacher observation (not standardized testing) in the form of “formal testing as well as information obtained from an array of informal student-centered assessment procedures such as portfolios, curriculum-based measures, instructional rubrics, student journals, learning logs and self-assessment” (88). Reading assessment also must specific reading skills such as “phonological skill, word recognition ability, rapid naming speed, phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, listening and reading comprehension” (88). 3. Provide explicit support in language and literacy and ensure that students receive effective instruction. Teachers should use assessment to guide their instruction. Discovering that students have reading difficulties should be followed by intervention, response to intervention, and further assessment of progress. Students with reading difficulties re often disengaged and lack effective reading strategies. These students need a different type of reading instruction. They need to build skills in metacognition (goal-directed reading, comprehension strategies, self-awareness and self-motivation). Collaborative opportunities to read and discuss reading with other students can increase motivation. Student responses in reading groups can be valuable assessment data.
  • 7. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13- 814931-4 Chapter 9: Assessing Reading 4 types of reading Perceptive : perception of the components – letters, words, punctuation. Bottom-up processing is implied Selective : to check recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse features, within very short stretches of language. Interactive : longer stretches of language where reader must interact (psycho linguistically) with text. Checking for comprehension. Top-down processing required. Extensive : lengthy reading texts (more than 1 page). listening to develop top-down, global understanding 1. Best idea for perceptive reading assessment task: Picture-cued reading assessments. For beginning ESL readers pictures can be used to assess students ability to comprehend the meaning of words. This can inform a teacher of the student’s ability to recognize letters, words, sentences, and grammatical cues.
  • 8. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Chapter 9 Example of picture-cued sentence identification Point to the part of the picture that you read about in the sentence. 1.The woman is holding a cat. 2.It is snowing outside. 3.The man is reading the newspaper. 2. Best idea for selective reading assessment task: Fill-in-the-blank assessments. These assessments are basically text with missing words that students have to fill in. There should be enough context in the remaining text that a student can use his/her linguistic schemata, content schemata, and strategic competence to make calculated guesses.
  • 9. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Chapter 9 3. Best idea for interactive reading assessment task: ordering or sequencing tasks. Example of ordering assessment Put the following sentences in order A it was called “The Last Waltz” B the street was in total darkness C because it was one he and Richard had learnt at school D Peter looked outside E he recognized the tune F and it seemed deserted G he thought he heard someone whistling 4. Best idea for extensive reading assessment task: scanning and skimming tasks. Students practice reading to look for some particular information. This helps with standardized test-taking strategies as well. Students look for main idea, purpose, evidence of genre, evidence of style, etc. These assessments are usually informal and formative.
  • 10. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13-814931-4 Chapter 11: Assessing Grammar and Vocabulary 1. Defining Grammatical Knowledge for Reading: Students need knowledge of basic grammatical forms and functions to comprehend reading effectively. Word order and syntax carries meaning and knowledge of grammar should be assessed regularly and frequently. 2. Defining Lexical Knowledge for Reading: Lexical knowledge is knowledge of word meanings and relationships between words. A student’s lexical knowledge can be assessed through context or word mapping and other vocabulary-based assessment (Receptive and productive vocabulary). 3. Considerations for Designing Assessment Tasks for Reading: Make assessment an ongoing part of instruction. Every time a student reads, a formative assessment can be conducted to gain information about a student’s progress (selected response, limited production, extended production).
  • 11. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Brown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978- 0-13-814931-4 Chapter 12: Linguistic Skill Grading and Evaluation 1.Guidelines for grading criteria should: be consistent with the philosophy/regulation of the educational institution, be clearly and explicitly stated at the beginning of the term (syllabus and rubrics), be observable and measurable (proof) even for subjective grading components, and be primarily focused on achievement with the more subjective areas contributing to only 5-10%. 2. Letter grades over-generalize student achievement/performance. Teachers need to understand that a letter grade is just one interpretation of a students learning experience. A letter grading system needs to be carefully designed, clearly and explicitly stated, and based on the main objectives of the course. 3. Alternatives to letter grading can include: teacher notes and comments, self- assessment, peer-assessment, student-teacher conferences, checklists, and narrative evaluations. Because letter grades are a necessary part of most educational institutions, I recommend using these alternatives methods for feedback in addition to traditional letter grading.
  • 12. Classroom Assessment Techniques For Reading Development 1. Assessment technique: checklists From: Reading Teacher's Book of Lists. Checklists for reading progress can be completed by both teachers and students. Checklists can be used by teachers to assess word/letter knowledge, or a student’s ability to retell or analyze a text. First develop a list of concepts/skills to be assessed, and clearly ask students to demonstrate understanding of these concepts/skills in reading. Then use a simple checklist to identify which concepts/skills have been mastered and which need further work. Students can also use the checklists strategy as self-assessment or to review their own work. Teachers and students can work together to prepare a list of concepts/skills to be the focus of future goals/objectives and this can provide feedback to the students and wash back to the teacher for future lesson planning. 2. Assessment technique: personal reactions and connections to text One way to help students record their reactions and connections to text is to have students keep a log of all their independent reading at school and at home. Teacher observation of regular discussions of these logs with peers, groups, or whole class can provide insight on how the student is developing as an independent reader and at this point teachers can provide encouragement, feedback, or suggest additional reading strategies. Reading logs can be used in students' portfolios. Reading logs can also be more directed by the teacher. This can make it easier for students just starting out. Teacher’s can provide sample prompts to helps students generate ideas and focus their thoughts. Or, I think it might be helpful for students to begin with a rubric to help them make decisions about the text, and then write the reading log in response to their rubric scores. 3. Assessment technique: retelling / summarizing Have students tell the story in their words after they have heard it once or twice. They can practice telling the story to a partner before sharing with a bigger group. Prepare a rubric or checklist for this activity so students can be more quantitatively assessed and so students know what is expected of them before the story begins. To assess on qualitative levels, focus on a students overall ability to comprehend and make inferences about the story. For non-fiction texts, have students summarize the main points and details in their own “retelling” of the text. These can be oral and/or written and teachers should provide feedback to students to let them know how they are progressing.
  • 13. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment From: “Assessing English Learners…” and Kate Kinsella 1. Sample checklist for longitudinal reading assessment (K-3) ESL Goal, ESL Standard: Goal 1, Standard 3“To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will use learning strategies to extend their communicative competence” (TESOL, 1997, p.39). Progress indicator Performed independently Performed with help Unable to perform Understands new vocab. (√) Retells stories (√) Uses new vocabulary (√) Formulates inferences (√) Sample checklist for vocabulary self-assessment and word recognition  3 I am familiar with the word __. It means __.  2 I recognize the word __. It has something to do with __.  1 I am unfamiliar with the word __. Do you know what it means? How do you assess student ability?
  • 14. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment 2. From: Read, Write, Think.
  • 15. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment 3. Sentence frames for quick summary assessments of reading comprehension. Q & A for Main Idea and Supporting Details of a non-fiction text Q: What is the topic of this article/report/paragraph/section? A: The topic of this __________________ is ___________________. Q: What is this paragraph/section/selection/article/report mainly about? A: It is mainly about __________________. A: This _________________ focuses on ___________________. A: This ______________ is primarily about ________________. A: This ______________ addresses the topic of/reasons for _________. Q: What is the author’s main idea/point? A: The author’s main idea/point is that __________________. Q: What is/are the most important detail(s) in this paragraph/section? A: One important detail in this paragraph/section is _______________. A: An essential detail in this paragraph/section is . A: Another significant detail in this paragraph/section is ____________. From: A: The most critical/vital detail in this paragraph/section is __________. Kate A: An interesting but nonessential detail in this paragraph/section is ___ Kinsella
  • 16. Recommendations for Assessment and Closing Remarks All of the readings seem to agree on several points about reading assessment. Assessment should be varied, authentic, and multidimensional. It should be frequent, regular, and ongoing. Assessment should be collaborative, shared, and reflective. Assessment should help students set goals, guide instruction and pacing, and demonstrate student growth and achievement. It should be developmentally and culturally appropriate. To summarize, we know there are many types of assessment to choose from, and it’s our job as teachers to pick the assessments that will be the most meaningful to our students, will provide us with the most accurate details of student development, and will help students identify their strengths.
  • 17. Recommendations for Assessment Materials and Closing Remarks Assessment materials are necessary for turning any reading development task into a reading assessment. Checklists and rubrics help make expectations clear to students from the start. These materials can also help students get a more tangible grasp on their own progress, help with goal setting, and help with developing metacognitive skills and strategies. Assessment materials should be varied and easily understood by students. They should be appropriate for the age and acquisition level for the students. Pair assessment rubrics and checklists with clearly written directions and then keep track of student growth through longitudinal records, charts, and portfolios.
  • 18. “The end of all education should surely be service to others.” -Cesar Chavez
  • 19. Thank you for your attention! Questions, comments, ideas…