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Encoding Patron Information in RDF


                   Jakob Voß (VZG)




Semantic Web in Libraries (SWIB12), November 28th, 2012
Library data in the Semantic Web


Patron information

Essential patron information


Summary


Sources
Sorry, no final ontology yet, but work in progress.
Feedback and contributions are very welcome!
Section 1

Library data in the Semantic Web
It’s been around for some time. . .


       Stefan Gradman (2004): rdfs:frbr - Towards an
       Implementation Model for Library Catalogs Using rdfs.
       Cataloging Classification Quarterly v39, n3/4, pp. 63-75
       http://hdl.handle.net/10760/8021.
       Ian Davis, Richard Newman, Bruce D’Arcus (2005):
       Expression of Core FRBR Concepts in RDF
       http://vocab.org/frbr/.
       Talis!
       Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report
       http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/XGR-lld/.
       LoC BIBFRAME (successor of MARC21) will be LOD:
       http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/.
. . . data is being published.


       BNB (bibliography): http://bnb.data.bl.uk/
       LIBRIS (bibliography, authority):
       http://data.libris.kb.se/
       DNB (bibliography, authority):
       Nature (bibliography): http://data.nature.com/
       VIAF (authority): http://viaf.org/viaf/data/
       LoC (authorities): http://id.loc.gov/
       Lobid (organizations): http://lobid.org/
       Europeana (authorities): http://data.europeana.eu/
       . . . your library next (?)
       http://datahub.io/group/lld
What kind of library data?




        bibliographic data (title, author, date. . . )
        authority data (thesauri, classification, subjects. . . )
        organizations (to a limited degree. . . )

   Is this really the core stuff that libraries deal with day by day?
Questions you should be nervous about



      How does LOD actually increase efficency (to safe money)?
      Does LOD model how data actually is (instead of how it
      should be)? In fact practical library data is quite dirty.
      What about the data that makes libraries unique:
          Not bibliographic data
          Data about holdings, access, buildings, opening hours. . .
      What about the patrons?
Section 2

Patron information
Library patron information




   Eventually it is not that much

       user profiles
       loans and reservations
Why is patron information so neglected?




      Privacy: it is not Open Data
      Difficulties to get data out of legacy systems
      Lack of motivation (is it just boring?)
Motivation at GBV




      Access to library patron information
      for mobile apps and discovery interfaces
      Primarily required as API
      Alignment with RDF only as by-product
      to facilitate reuse and to enforce quality
      Same procedure as DAIA (API, data model & ontology)
Potential ontologies to build on



       BIBO, FRBR, RDA. . . (bibliographic data)
       FOAF (people)
       SIOC (online communities, access, services)
       DAIA (availability and library services)
       Organization ontology (organizations and places)
       OWL-S (discontinued Service Ontology)
       ...
Section 3

Essential patron information
Data modeling rules of thumb



      RDFS and OWL are not conceptual modeling languages but
      schema languages, such as XSD, SQL Schema etc.
      Better don’t begin with RDF at all.
      Begin with:
          Requirements: what information do we need?
          Possibilites: what information do we have?
      Strip down to the least common denominator
Which patron information do we care about most?




   1. Personal data (name, email . . . ) : FOAF
   2. Account data (state, type, expiration, fees. . . ) : ?
   3. Loans and reservations : ?
2. Account data




   Instances of foaf:OnlineAccount or sioc:UserAccount with:

       date of expiration (no ontology found yet)
       fees (not ontology found yet)
       account states and types
Account states and types


   The general state of a patron’s account in a library.

   0. active (may use most services)
   1. inactive (may not use most services)
   2. inactive because account expired
   3. inactive because of outstanding fees

   n. inactive because of . . .

   This does not involve types of accounts (e.g. student, professor,
   external user etc. each as sioc:Role) because it’s difficult to find
   a consensus about account types among all libraries.
Account states in RDF

   Many possible ontologies exist:

   a) One class for each account state
      _:pa lib:hasPatronState [ a lib:PatronState ] .
   b) Open world assumption with inactive as default
      lib:ActivePatron rdfs:subClassOf lib:Patron .

      _:pa a lib:Patron .                # could be active
      _:pa a lib:ActivePatron .          # active for sure
   c) Open world assumption with active as default
      _:pa lib:isInactiveBecause ?reason .
3. Loans and reservations: What information?


   Each loan or reservation combines information about

     I) a library patron
    II) a document held by a library
   III) a current state of the loan or reservation
   IV) additional properties such as:
            date issued
            number or renewals
            where to pick up the document
            ...
II) A document held by a library




       Patron might be interested in a specific work or edition
       Most loans are about a specific copy
II) A document held by a library



       Patron might be interested in a specific work or edition
       Most loans are about a specific copy
       Problem already addressed in DAIA ontology
        [ a bibo:Document ] daia:exemplar [ a frbr:Item ] .
       At least two URIs for each request:
           URI of the patron originally requested
           URI of the document the patron finally gets
III) Current document status for loan or reservation


   Relation between a particular document and a particular patron:

   0. no relation
   1. reserved (the document is not accesible for the patron yet, but
      it will be)
   2. ordered (the document is beeing made accesible for the patron)
   3. held (the document is on loan by the patron)
   4. provided (the document is ready to be used by the patron)
   5. rejected (the document is not accesible at all)
Section 4

Summary
First result: we got an acronym!

   Patron Account Information API (PAIA)




                       Figure: Paia, Hawaii
Second result: conceptual model with basic definitions




      Patron account states: active, inactive, inactive++
      At least two URIs for each document that is requested/loaned
      Document status:
      none, reserved, ordered, held, provided, rejected
What’s next




      Implement PAIA as API to get real world data instead of toy
      examples.
      Express this conceptual model in terms of RDF with existing
      ontologies and a new PAIA ontology, yet to be created.
Section 5

Sources
Current specification of Patron Account Information API:
https://gbv.github.com/paia/
Source code of this presentation (CC-BY-SA):
https://github.com/jakobib/swib2012
Images:

    Paia beach looking east.jpg CC-BY-SA by Wikimedia
    Commons user Skier Dude.
    Nick Cardy: Secret of the man-ape. From Beyond The
    Unknown, Issue 23, 1973. CC-BY flickr user lincoln-log.

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Encoding Patron Information in RDF

  • 1. Encoding Patron Information in RDF Jakob Voß (VZG) Semantic Web in Libraries (SWIB12), November 28th, 2012
  • 2. Library data in the Semantic Web Patron information Essential patron information Summary Sources
  • 3. Sorry, no final ontology yet, but work in progress. Feedback and contributions are very welcome!
  • 4. Section 1 Library data in the Semantic Web
  • 5. It’s been around for some time. . . Stefan Gradman (2004): rdfs:frbr - Towards an Implementation Model for Library Catalogs Using rdfs. Cataloging Classification Quarterly v39, n3/4, pp. 63-75 http://hdl.handle.net/10760/8021. Ian Davis, Richard Newman, Bruce D’Arcus (2005): Expression of Core FRBR Concepts in RDF http://vocab.org/frbr/. Talis! Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/XGR-lld/. LoC BIBFRAME (successor of MARC21) will be LOD: http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/.
  • 6. . . . data is being published. BNB (bibliography): http://bnb.data.bl.uk/ LIBRIS (bibliography, authority): http://data.libris.kb.se/ DNB (bibliography, authority): Nature (bibliography): http://data.nature.com/ VIAF (authority): http://viaf.org/viaf/data/ LoC (authorities): http://id.loc.gov/ Lobid (organizations): http://lobid.org/ Europeana (authorities): http://data.europeana.eu/ . . . your library next (?) http://datahub.io/group/lld
  • 7. What kind of library data? bibliographic data (title, author, date. . . ) authority data (thesauri, classification, subjects. . . ) organizations (to a limited degree. . . ) Is this really the core stuff that libraries deal with day by day?
  • 8. Questions you should be nervous about How does LOD actually increase efficency (to safe money)? Does LOD model how data actually is (instead of how it should be)? In fact practical library data is quite dirty. What about the data that makes libraries unique: Not bibliographic data Data about holdings, access, buildings, opening hours. . . What about the patrons?
  • 10.
  • 11. Library patron information Eventually it is not that much user profiles loans and reservations
  • 12. Why is patron information so neglected? Privacy: it is not Open Data Difficulties to get data out of legacy systems Lack of motivation (is it just boring?)
  • 13. Motivation at GBV Access to library patron information for mobile apps and discovery interfaces Primarily required as API Alignment with RDF only as by-product to facilitate reuse and to enforce quality Same procedure as DAIA (API, data model & ontology)
  • 14. Potential ontologies to build on BIBO, FRBR, RDA. . . (bibliographic data) FOAF (people) SIOC (online communities, access, services) DAIA (availability and library services) Organization ontology (organizations and places) OWL-S (discontinued Service Ontology) ...
  • 16. Data modeling rules of thumb RDFS and OWL are not conceptual modeling languages but schema languages, such as XSD, SQL Schema etc. Better don’t begin with RDF at all. Begin with: Requirements: what information do we need? Possibilites: what information do we have? Strip down to the least common denominator
  • 17. Which patron information do we care about most? 1. Personal data (name, email . . . ) : FOAF 2. Account data (state, type, expiration, fees. . . ) : ? 3. Loans and reservations : ?
  • 18. 2. Account data Instances of foaf:OnlineAccount or sioc:UserAccount with: date of expiration (no ontology found yet) fees (not ontology found yet) account states and types
  • 19. Account states and types The general state of a patron’s account in a library. 0. active (may use most services) 1. inactive (may not use most services) 2. inactive because account expired 3. inactive because of outstanding fees n. inactive because of . . . This does not involve types of accounts (e.g. student, professor, external user etc. each as sioc:Role) because it’s difficult to find a consensus about account types among all libraries.
  • 20. Account states in RDF Many possible ontologies exist: a) One class for each account state _:pa lib:hasPatronState [ a lib:PatronState ] . b) Open world assumption with inactive as default lib:ActivePatron rdfs:subClassOf lib:Patron . _:pa a lib:Patron . # could be active _:pa a lib:ActivePatron . # active for sure c) Open world assumption with active as default _:pa lib:isInactiveBecause ?reason .
  • 21. 3. Loans and reservations: What information? Each loan or reservation combines information about I) a library patron II) a document held by a library III) a current state of the loan or reservation IV) additional properties such as: date issued number or renewals where to pick up the document ...
  • 22. II) A document held by a library Patron might be interested in a specific work or edition Most loans are about a specific copy
  • 23. II) A document held by a library Patron might be interested in a specific work or edition Most loans are about a specific copy Problem already addressed in DAIA ontology [ a bibo:Document ] daia:exemplar [ a frbr:Item ] . At least two URIs for each request: URI of the patron originally requested URI of the document the patron finally gets
  • 24. III) Current document status for loan or reservation Relation between a particular document and a particular patron: 0. no relation 1. reserved (the document is not accesible for the patron yet, but it will be) 2. ordered (the document is beeing made accesible for the patron) 3. held (the document is on loan by the patron) 4. provided (the document is ready to be used by the patron) 5. rejected (the document is not accesible at all)
  • 26. First result: we got an acronym! Patron Account Information API (PAIA) Figure: Paia, Hawaii
  • 27. Second result: conceptual model with basic definitions Patron account states: active, inactive, inactive++ At least two URIs for each document that is requested/loaned Document status: none, reserved, ordered, held, provided, rejected
  • 28. What’s next Implement PAIA as API to get real world data instead of toy examples. Express this conceptual model in terms of RDF with existing ontologies and a new PAIA ontology, yet to be created.
  • 30. Current specification of Patron Account Information API: https://gbv.github.com/paia/ Source code of this presentation (CC-BY-SA): https://github.com/jakobib/swib2012 Images: Paia beach looking east.jpg CC-BY-SA by Wikimedia Commons user Skier Dude. Nick Cardy: Secret of the man-ape. From Beyond The Unknown, Issue 23, 1973. CC-BY flickr user lincoln-log.