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Linking up your data
Img: flickr/Turricanll
Four rules of Linked Data
1. Use URIs to identify things (Resources).
2. Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and
looked up ("dereference") by people and user agents
3. Provide useful information (i.e., a structured description -
metadata) about the thing when its URI is dereferenced.
4. Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to
improve discovery of other related information on the
Web.
Reuse
By establishing links from your data to external
data, you can reuse the information in the
external dataset
In other words: you get
to focus on your data
and have others
curate their data
-> FREE LUNCH!
http://www.flickr.com/photos/40645538@N00/4006382370
Web of Documents (WWW)
Linked Documents
Linked Data
Example: Link to Geonames
IDS: document 0002 Country:”Gambia”
Geonames:Gambia
Region: Africa
population : 1593256
N 13° 30' 0'' W 15° 30' 0'
Example: Links to DBPedia
IDS: document 0001 Theme:”Food Security”
DBPedia:”Food Security”
Analysis of approaches to
understanding and addressing food
security issues; examination of the
structural causes of food insecurity
and different policy responses
Theme:” Food aid emergencies ”
Person:”David Pimentel”
Organisation:”FAO”
“Voedselzekerheid”@NL
Reusability
• Works exactly the other way around. As a
curator of information, I want to make my
data as reusable as possible
• Make reverse In-links possible
• Include out-links to add meaning/context to
my information
Example: Dutch National War Institute NIOD
niod:Deportation
niod:Transport
skos:related
Types of Links
• Relationship Links
– point at related things in other data sources,
– other people, places or genes…
• Identity Links
– point at URI aliases used by other data sources to identify the
same real-world object or abstract concept.
– Get more information
– Enable different views of the world
• Vocabulary Links
– point from data to the definitions of the vocabulary terms that
are used to represent the data
– Interoperability
Relationship Links
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
<http://biglynx.co.uk/people/dave-smith>
rdf:type foaf:Person ;
foaf:name "Dave Smith" ;
foaf:based_near <http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/> ;
foaf:based_near <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Birmingham> ;
foaf:topic_interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wildlife_photography> ;
foaf:knows <http://dbpedia.org/resource/David_Attenborough> .
http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/ has all kinds of
information about Birmingham
Vocabulary Links
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix co: <http://biglynx.co.uk/vocab/sme#> .
<http://biglynx.co.uk/vocab/sme#SmallMediumEnterprise>
rdf:type rdfs:Class ;
rdfs:label "Small or Medium-sized Enterprise" ;
rdfs:subClassOf <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Company> .
rdfs:subClassOf <http://umbel.org/umbel/sc/Business> ;
rdfs:subClassOf <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rvVjQNpwpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA> ;
rdfs:subClassOf <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0qb7t> .
Using an external metadata schema makes it interpretable in that schema
You can link your instance data to external vocabulary
You can link your vocabulary to an external vocabulary
Identity Links
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix louvre: <http://www.louvre.fr/data/> .
@prefix dct: < http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
louvre:mona_lisa
rdf:type louvre:Painting ;
rdfs:label “Mona Lisa" ;
dct:date “1503-1505”
owl:sameAs dbpedia:Mona_Lisa.
“1503-1505” “1503-1513”
Louvre Dbpedia
owl:sameAs , skos:exactMatch, …
owl:sameAs skos:exactMatch
Strong semantic commitment Vague/no commitment
(unwanted) OWL Inferences No inferences
RDF Resources (any context) SKOS concepts (thesaurus
context)
How to link
Choosing a target dataset
• What is the value of the data in the target data set?
• To what extent does this add value to my data set?
• Are there ongoing links to other data set so that applications
can tap into a network of interconnected data sources?
• Is the target data set and its namespace under stable
ownership and active maintenance?
• Are the URIs in the data set stable and unlikely to change?
Manual Links
• Just write RDF triples where the RDF Object is
an external resource
• Refrain from saying something about
resources that are not in your namespace
– ie. Don’t add triples that have an external
resource as RDF Subject
< louvre:Mona_Lisa owl:sameAs mydata:M_Lisa >
<mydata:M_Lisa owl:sameAs louvre:Mona_Lisa>
Generating Links
• Based on some key
– Country codes
– ISBN code
• Based on similarity
– Person Names
– Country names
– Libraries in every prog. language
• Complex combinations of methods and heuristics
– Person Name + Birth date
SILK
• Framework for finding
links between datasets
• Silk Specification
Language: XML language
to define linking
conditions (rules)
• Compare instances based
on metrics such as string
comparison, etc.
• Define rules manually or
visually in SILK
workbench
• Execute rules in SILK
server
ttp://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/silk/
<Interlink>
<LinkType>owl:sameAs</LinkType>
<SourceDataset dataSource="sider" var="a">
<RestrictTo>?a rdf:type
sider:drugs</RestrictTo>
</SourceDataset>
<TargetDataset dataSource="drugbank" var="b">
<RestrictTo>?b rdf:type
drugbank:drugs</RestrictTo>
</TargetDataset>
<LinkCondition>
<Aggregate type="max">
<Compare metric="levenshteinDistance"
threshold="1">
<TransformInput function="lowerCase">
<Input path="?a/rdfs:label"/>
</TransformInput>
<TransformInput function="lowerCase">
<Input path="?b/rdfs:label"/>
</TransformInput>
</Compare>
</Aggregate>
</LinkCondition>
<Filter limit="1"/>
</Interlink>
SILK
Amalgame alignment platform
Semi-automatic matching
ClioPatria CPACK
Simple automatic techniques
String match (exact/sim)
Selection, set splitting
chained together by hand
http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/amalgame/Isub metric
The result
• EDOAL Expressive and Declarative Ontology Alignment
Language: http://alignapi.gforge.inria.fr/edoal.html
• ‘Flat’ triples in separate named graph
– Provenance and certainty about that graph
vocopv:myDBPLinks {
vocopv:rank-Steenhouwer skos:exactMatch dbp:Steenhouwer .
vocopv:rank-Stuurman skos:exactMatch dbp:Stuurman .
vocopv:rank-Tamboer skos:exactMatch dbp:Tamboer .
vocopv:rank-Timmerman skos:exactMatch dbp:Timmerman }
vocopv:myDBPLinks a prov:Entity,
prov:wasAssociatedWith dss:Victor,
up:contentConfidence “0.9”.
In TRIG

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Linking up your data

  • 1. Linking up your data Img: flickr/Turricanll
  • 2. Four rules of Linked Data 1. Use URIs to identify things (Resources). 2. Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up ("dereference") by people and user agents 3. Provide useful information (i.e., a structured description - metadata) about the thing when its URI is dereferenced. 4. Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to improve discovery of other related information on the Web.
  • 3. Reuse By establishing links from your data to external data, you can reuse the information in the external dataset In other words: you get to focus on your data and have others curate their data -> FREE LUNCH! http://www.flickr.com/photos/40645538@N00/4006382370
  • 4. Web of Documents (WWW) Linked Documents
  • 6. Example: Link to Geonames IDS: document 0002 Country:”Gambia” Geonames:Gambia Region: Africa population : 1593256 N 13° 30' 0'' W 15° 30' 0'
  • 7. Example: Links to DBPedia IDS: document 0001 Theme:”Food Security” DBPedia:”Food Security” Analysis of approaches to understanding and addressing food security issues; examination of the structural causes of food insecurity and different policy responses Theme:” Food aid emergencies ” Person:”David Pimentel” Organisation:”FAO” “Voedselzekerheid”@NL
  • 8. Reusability • Works exactly the other way around. As a curator of information, I want to make my data as reusable as possible • Make reverse In-links possible • Include out-links to add meaning/context to my information
  • 9. Example: Dutch National War Institute NIOD niod:Deportation niod:Transport skos:related
  • 10. Types of Links • Relationship Links – point at related things in other data sources, – other people, places or genes… • Identity Links – point at URI aliases used by other data sources to identify the same real-world object or abstract concept. – Get more information – Enable different views of the world • Vocabulary Links – point from data to the definitions of the vocabulary terms that are used to represent the data – Interoperability
  • 11. Relationship Links @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . <http://biglynx.co.uk/people/dave-smith> rdf:type foaf:Person ; foaf:name "Dave Smith" ; foaf:based_near <http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/> ; foaf:based_near <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Birmingham> ; foaf:topic_interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wildlife_photography> ; foaf:knows <http://dbpedia.org/resource/David_Attenborough> . http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/ has all kinds of information about Birmingham
  • 12. Vocabulary Links @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . @prefix co: <http://biglynx.co.uk/vocab/sme#> . <http://biglynx.co.uk/vocab/sme#SmallMediumEnterprise> rdf:type rdfs:Class ; rdfs:label "Small or Medium-sized Enterprise" ; rdfs:subClassOf <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Company> . rdfs:subClassOf <http://umbel.org/umbel/sc/Business> ; rdfs:subClassOf <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rvVjQNpwpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA> ; rdfs:subClassOf <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0qb7t> . Using an external metadata schema makes it interpretable in that schema You can link your instance data to external vocabulary You can link your vocabulary to an external vocabulary
  • 13. Identity Links @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix louvre: <http://www.louvre.fr/data/> . @prefix dct: < http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . louvre:mona_lisa rdf:type louvre:Painting ; rdfs:label “Mona Lisa" ; dct:date “1503-1505” owl:sameAs dbpedia:Mona_Lisa. “1503-1505” “1503-1513” Louvre Dbpedia owl:sameAs , skos:exactMatch, …
  • 14. owl:sameAs skos:exactMatch Strong semantic commitment Vague/no commitment (unwanted) OWL Inferences No inferences RDF Resources (any context) SKOS concepts (thesaurus context)
  • 16. Choosing a target dataset • What is the value of the data in the target data set? • To what extent does this add value to my data set? • Are there ongoing links to other data set so that applications can tap into a network of interconnected data sources? • Is the target data set and its namespace under stable ownership and active maintenance? • Are the URIs in the data set stable and unlikely to change?
  • 17. Manual Links • Just write RDF triples where the RDF Object is an external resource • Refrain from saying something about resources that are not in your namespace – ie. Don’t add triples that have an external resource as RDF Subject < louvre:Mona_Lisa owl:sameAs mydata:M_Lisa > <mydata:M_Lisa owl:sameAs louvre:Mona_Lisa>
  • 18. Generating Links • Based on some key – Country codes – ISBN code • Based on similarity – Person Names – Country names – Libraries in every prog. language • Complex combinations of methods and heuristics – Person Name + Birth date
  • 19. SILK • Framework for finding links between datasets • Silk Specification Language: XML language to define linking conditions (rules) • Compare instances based on metrics such as string comparison, etc. • Define rules manually or visually in SILK workbench • Execute rules in SILK server ttp://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/silk/ <Interlink> <LinkType>owl:sameAs</LinkType> <SourceDataset dataSource="sider" var="a"> <RestrictTo>?a rdf:type sider:drugs</RestrictTo> </SourceDataset> <TargetDataset dataSource="drugbank" var="b"> <RestrictTo>?b rdf:type drugbank:drugs</RestrictTo> </TargetDataset> <LinkCondition> <Aggregate type="max"> <Compare metric="levenshteinDistance" threshold="1"> <TransformInput function="lowerCase"> <Input path="?a/rdfs:label"/> </TransformInput> <TransformInput function="lowerCase"> <Input path="?b/rdfs:label"/> </TransformInput> </Compare> </Aggregate> </LinkCondition> <Filter limit="1"/> </Interlink> SILK
  • 20. Amalgame alignment platform Semi-automatic matching ClioPatria CPACK Simple automatic techniques String match (exact/sim) Selection, set splitting chained together by hand http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/amalgame/Isub metric
  • 21. The result • EDOAL Expressive and Declarative Ontology Alignment Language: http://alignapi.gforge.inria.fr/edoal.html • ‘Flat’ triples in separate named graph – Provenance and certainty about that graph vocopv:myDBPLinks { vocopv:rank-Steenhouwer skos:exactMatch dbp:Steenhouwer . vocopv:rank-Stuurman skos:exactMatch dbp:Stuurman . vocopv:rank-Tamboer skos:exactMatch dbp:Tamboer . vocopv:rank-Timmerman skos:exactMatch dbp:Timmerman } vocopv:myDBPLinks a prov:Entity, prov:wasAssociatedWith dss:Victor, up:contentConfidence “0.9”. In TRIG