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Empirical Research Methods Poster                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Check for the latest version at: http://researchmethods.itposter.net




           Define research question                                                                                                                          How facts become theories                                                                                                           Common research process                                                                                                                                   Select research method                                                                                                                                                        Analyze quantitative data
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Confidence                                                                                                                Start empirical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or
 Can be pretty sure your                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Research is a systematic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  explanation, and presentation of data.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     in theory is
 conclusions are valid ...                                                                                                                                       Relationships                         increased                                                                            Empirical research is a               research                       process for answering                                                                 Experiment                                         Case study                                                               Survey
 But are you getting at the                         Why          Explanatory
                                                                                                                                              Event                between            Laws are                                             Prediction is                              research approach in which                                                 questions to solve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called
 correct issues?                                                 research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        problems and create new
                                                      How                                                                                                         constructs           formed                                               confirmed                                empirical observations (data)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         descriptive statistics. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for
                               Level of control




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Purpose
                                                                                                                                                                 are identified                                                                                     Theory is              are collected to answer                                               knowledge.                                                                        Establishes causal                       Investigate a typical                                                       Investigate information collected                  randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and then used to draw inferences about the process
                                                        How many                                                                                                                                                                                                    rejected                    research question.                                                                                                                                 relationships, confirm                   »case« in realistic                                                         from a group of people, projects,                  or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics. Both descriptive and inferential
                                                         How much      Descriptive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research Question (RQ) is what                                                         theories.                                representative conditions.                                                  organizations or literature.                       statistics comprise applied statistics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The goal of the theory has to                                          you are trying to find out by
                                                            When       research                                                               Event                                                       Predictions                      Research is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            undertaking the research
                                                                                                                                                                                    Theory is            from theory                       performed                                be defined here. Based on the
                                                             Who                                                                                                                                            can be                                                                 research question an empirical              Define research              process.                                             Control                              Requires high control                     Requires medium control                                                         Requires low control
                                                                                                                                                                                   formed that
                                                                                                                                                                                                        drawn, which                                              Theory is            strategy has to be chosen.                 question                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Descriptive statistics
                                                               Where       Exploratory
                                                                                                                                                                                  explains laws
                                                                                                                                                                                                             form                                                NOT modified
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A clear and precise RQ guides                                                              Control on who is using                                 Change to be assessed                                         Technology change is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            theory development, research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      appropriate
                                                                 What      research                                                                                                                      hypotheses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    which technology,                                       (e.g., new technology)                                        implemented across a large
Can be pretty sure you are                                                                                                                    Event                                                                           Prediction is                                            It is used to find out what is                                       design, data collection and data                                                           when, where, and                                                                                                      number of projects.                             simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               is wide-ranging




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        When
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NOT confirmed                                         already known about a question                                           analysis.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.
     getting at the correct                               Level of access                                                                                        Relationships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Confidence in             before trying to answer it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       under which conditions                                  throughout the                                                Description of results,
                  issues …                                                                                                                                         between           Laws are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          is possible.                                            development process.                                          influence factors,
   But can you draw valid                                                                                                                                         constructs          formed                                                                  theory is reduced                                                     Review                  Types of research questions are:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Measures of central tendency
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Theory is modified                                                                                                                                                                                                                               To investigate self                                     Assessment in a typical                                       differences and
              conclusions?                                                                                                                                       are identified                                                                                                      A good literature review is an                                         What?, Where?, Who?, When?,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A measure of central tendency is a single number that is used to represent the average score in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   important part of any research.                 Literature               How Much?, How many?, Why?,                                                                standing tasks from                                     situation required.                                           commonalities is needed.
                                                                                                                                              Event                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    which results can be                                                                                                                                                  the distribution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            How?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mode – the most common score in a frequency distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       obtained immediately.
 Research question examples:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The goal of literature review is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Median – the middlemost score in a distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to demonstrate a familiarity                                                                                                                                      Can establish causal                                   Can be incorporated in                                        Can use existing experience.                               Mean – the common average
      What are the key success factors of object-oriented frameworks?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    with a body of knowledge and
      Does the proposed software improvement increases the efficiency of its users?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     relationships.                                         normal development                                            Can confirm an effect
      How does software development methodology and team size influence developers
      productivity?
                                                                                                                                                                 Create theoretical model                                                                                          establish credibility. Additional,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to show the path to prior
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       research and how a current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Create
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   theoretical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Theoretical model is used to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             conceptualize the problem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Can confirm theories.                                  activities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Already scaled up to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             generalizes to many
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             projects/organizations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Measures of variability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A single number which describes how much the data vary in the distribution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           research is related to it.                model                   stated in research question. It                                                                                                                   life size if performed on                                     Allow to use standard                                      Range – The difference between the highest and lower score in a distribution.
                                                                                                                                         Research question: »How does software development methodology and team size                                                                                                                                         is commonly represented with                                                                                                                      real projects.                                                statistical techniques.                                    Variance – The average of the squared deviations from the mean.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             causal model.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Standard deviation – the square root of the variance, a measure of variability in the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pro's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Can determine whether                                         Enable research in the
                                                                                                                                         influences developers productivity?«                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           same units as the scores being described.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               expected effects apply                                        large.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               in studied context.
Consider threats to the research                                                                                                         Theoretical model is based on research question and represents set of concepts and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Design research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Other research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Easy to plan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Help answer why and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Applicable to real world
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             projects in practice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Generalization usually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Correlation and regression
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Determine associations between two variables.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Correlation – The strength of the relationship between two variables.
                                                                                                                                         relationships between them!                                                                                                                                                             Select                    Practitioner oriented methods                                                                                                                       how questions.                                                easier.
   Threats to the research are related to operationalization and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Regression – Predicting the value of one variable from another based on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                research                        Delphi method                                                                                                                                  Can provide qualitative                                       Good for early exploratory                                correlation.
   measurement issues:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Action research                                                                                                                                Insights.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 method                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      analysis.
      Operationalization issues – The validity of the operationalization                                                                          Levels                  Independent                        Dependent                                   Measures                                                                                          Laboratory oriented methods
      Measurement issues – Reliability, validity, sensitivity (see below)                                                                (observed variables)                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mathematical modeling                                                                   Application in                                     With little or no                                                 May rely on different
                                                                                                                                                                            variables                         variables                              (observed variables)                                                                                       Computer simulation                                                                     industrial context                                 replication they may                                              projects/organizations                        Inferential statistics
                                                                                                                                                                           (latent variables)               (latent variables)                                                                                                                                  Laboratory experiment                                                                   requires                                           give inaccurate results.                                          keeping comparable data.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Technology oriented methods                                                                  Compromises.
                                                                                                                                                       OSSD                                                                                                                                                                                                     Proof of technical concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Difficult to interpret and                                        No control over variables
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Inferential statistics or statistical induction comprises the use of statistics to make inferences
                                                                                                                                                                             Software                                                                                                      Design              Design case            Design                                                                                                                                                               generalize (e.g., due to                                          methods.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Literature based methods                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          concerning some unknown aspect of a population.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lines of code (LOC)                  experiment              study                survey                                                                                                                                                               confounding factors).                                             Can at most confirm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Con's
                                                                                                                                                       RUP                 development                                                                                                                                                                          Literature review
                                                                                                                                                                                                   H1                 Developer                     per developer per day                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Statistical analysis                                              association but not causality.
                                                                                                                                                                           methodology                                                                                                                                                                          Conceptual study
                                                                                                                                                            XP                                                       productivity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          usually not possible.                                             Can be biased due to                            Sampling distribution – the distribution of means of samples from a population.
                      Valid but                                     Valid and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few agreed standards                                              differences between                             Sampling distribution has three important properties:
                                                                                                Reliable but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           on procedures for                                                 respondents and                                    It has the same mean as the population distribution.
                     not reliable                                    reliable                    not valid                                                                                          H2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     undertaking case                                                  nonrespondents.
                                                                                                                                                                         Development                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It has smaller standard deviation as the population distribution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Measurement relationship                Perform research on defined                                         The objective of this activity                                                                                                                 studies.                                                          Questionnaire design may be                        As the sample size becomes larger, the shape of the distribution approaches a normal
                                                                                                                                             Number of                    team size                                                             – associate latent variables
  Reliability threats – refers to the question whether the research can be repeated                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sample                    Perform               is to run the study according                                                                                                                                                                                    tricky (validity, reliability).                    distribution, regardless of the shape of the population from which the samples are drawn.
                                                                                                                                             developers                                                                                         with their measures                                                                                         to the study plan.
  with the same results.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              research




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          General sable population –                                                                                                                                    Process and product                                    Process and product                                           Questionnaires.
      Stability reliability – Does the measurement vary over time?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Hypothesis testing - is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Data
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Causal relationships (H1,H2) – define                                   population to which you want to                                                                                                                                     measurement.                                           measurement.                                                  Interviews.
      Representative reliability – Does the measurement give the same answer when                                                                                                                           cause-effect relationship between                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Questionnaires.                                                                                               is true. The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of four steps.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ultimately generalize results.                                                                                                                                   Questionnaires.                                                                                                      Project measurement.
      applied to all groups?                                                                                                                                                                                latent variables (theoretical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Formulate the null hypothesis H0 (the hypothesis that is of no scientific interest) and the
      Equivalence reliability – When there are many measures of the same construct, do                                                   All other variables which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Interviews                                                    Literature survey.                                   alternative hypothesis Ha (statistical term for the research hypothesis).
                                                                                                                                                                                                            propositions). Can be tested only by                                             Accessible population –
      they all give the same answer?                                                                                                           are not the focus of                                                                                                                                                                                              Data is collected with a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Identify a test statistic that can be used to assess the truth of the null hypothesis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            evaluating relationships between                                        population that you can actually
                                                                                                                                         research are irrelevant                                                                                                                                                                                                 research instrument, for                                                          Parametric and                             Compare case study results                                                Comparing different populations                           Compute the P-value, which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as
                                                                                                                                                                                                            observed variables (hypotheses)!                                                            gain access.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Analysis
                                                                                                                                                        variables.                                                                                                                                                                                               example questionnaire.                                                            nonparametric                              to a representative                                                       among respondents, association                            the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true. The




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         types
  Validity threats                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collect data                                                                                                     statistics, compare central                comparison baseline: sister                                               and trend analysis, consistency of
       Face validity – Research community »good feel«.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Actual sample – the sample                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               smaller the P-value, the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis.
       Content validity – Are all aspect of the conceptual variable included in the                                                                                                                                                             Variables types                            actually used in research.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tendencies of treatments,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   groups.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              project, company baseline,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              project subset with no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scores.                                                   Compare the p-value to an acceptable significance value alpha (sometimes called an alpha
       measurement?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               value). If p<=alpha, that the observed effect is statistically significant, the null hypothesis is
                                                                                                                                         Hypothesis testing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   change.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ruled out, and the alternative hypothesis is valid.
       Criterion validity – validity is measured against some other standard or measure for                                                                                                                                 Dependent          Developer
                                                                                                                                              Hypotheses are tested by comparing                                                                                        LOC
       the conceptual variable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                efficiency                                                                                                                                                                                               Conclusion validity                                    Internal validity                                             Internal validity
                                                                                                                                              predictions with observed data                        Represent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Statistical errors




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      threats
       Predictive validity – The measure is known to predict future behavior that is related                                                                                                      the »effect«                                                     Mean time                                                      Analyze data




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Major
                                                                                                                                              Observations that confirm a prediction do                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Internal validity                                      Construct validity                                            Experimental validity or                                                                              H0 is TRUE                  H0 is FALSE
       to the conceptual variable.                                                                                                                                                                                                              Software
                                                                                                                                              not establish the truth of a hypothesis                                                                            between failure                                                                                                                                                                        Construct validity                                     External validity                                             reliability
       Construct validity – A measure is found to give correct predictions in multiple                                                                                                                                                          reliability                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wrong decision –
                                                                                                                                              Deductive testing of hypotheses look for                                                                                                                Qualitative                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Construct validity                                                      Accept H0                  Correct decision
       unrelated research processes. This confirm both the theories and the construct validity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Quantitative                                                                           External validity                                      Experimental validity or                                                                                          The null                                                                     Type II error
                                                                                                                                              disconfirming evidence to falsify                                                                                                                                                    Chose data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Independent




       of the measure.                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Requirements         {OSSD, RUP,                           data                                                                                                                                                                                                   reliability                                                   External validity                                  hypothesis
                                                                                                                                              hypotheses                                                                                        change               XP}                                                            analysis                        data                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wrong decision –
       Conclusion validity – is concerned with the relationship between the treatment and                                                                                                             Represent                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (H0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Reject H0                    Type I error               Correct decision
       the outcome of the research 8choice of sample size, choice of statistical tests).                                                                                                            the »cause«
       Experimental validity – (see reliability)                                                                                                                                                                                              Development          Number of
                                                                                                                                         Measurement issues                                                                                    team size           developers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Depends on data              Use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Statistical significance – the probability that an experimental result happened by chance.
  Sources of invalidity
       Internal – Is concerned with the validity within the given environment and the
                                                                                                                                              Reliability - does the measurement give
                                                                                                                                              the same results under the same
                                                                                                                                              conditions (consistency)?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Latent             Observed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Use qualitative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        data analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and the goal of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the study.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           quantitative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           data analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Select statistical test                                                                                                                   Repeated                            Here is the                                 Alpha is the probability
       reliability of results. It relates to validity of research process design, controls and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ANOVA                              distribution of
                                                                                                                                              Validity - does the measurement method                 Describe abstract                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of rejecting the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Logistic Regression
       measures.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ANOVA                                                                                                   values of Z when




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Discriminant of
                                                                                                                                              actually provide information about the              theoretical concepts.                   Define ways of measuring                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Nom                                                                                                   Int                                                                                       hypothesis tested when
       External – Is the question of how general the findings are. Can you carry over the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LoM                                                    the hypothesis
                                                                                                                                              conceptual variable?                                      They cannot be                              latent variables.                                                                                                                                                                                                            Level of                                                                                                                                                                                                that hypothesis is true.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Nominal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Inte
       research results into actual environment?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level of                                                                                                                          for                                                   tested is true.
                                                                                                                                              Sensitivity - how much does the                       directly measured.                     Each latent variable may                   The objective of this                                                                                                                                                                    measurement
                                                                                                                                              measurement change with the changes on                                                        have multiple empirical                                                                                                                                                                                measurement                    for IV                                                                                    3+        DV?          Ord                                       (mean Z = 0)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       rval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      activity is to analyze                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       How                                                                                                                                   Here we have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Linear




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        t
  Sensitivity




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In
                                                                                                                                              the conceptual variable?                                                                                    indicators.                 the collected data in                                                                                                                                          of DV?                                                                                                     many levels                              Friedman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    regression                                                                                                                                                                        set alpha = 0.05
       How much does the measurement change with the change of the conceptual variable?                                                                                                                                                                                                order to answer the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      does the IV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     operationalized study                 Draw                  Consider             Consider reliability,                                                                                                                                                                        have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Paired
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             goal (research                                                           validity and sensitivity!                                                                                                                   The IV is the                                     ?                        Int                                               -3       -2       -1        0         1        2        3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  question).            conclusions               threats                                                                                             3+                                                                                                                     2                           (related) t-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Values of Zx

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Empirical research methods poster

  • 1. Empirical Research Methods Poster Check for the latest version at: http://researchmethods.itposter.net Define research question How facts become theories Common research process Select research method Analyze quantitative data Confidence Start empirical Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or Can be pretty sure your Research is a systematic explanation, and presentation of data. in theory is conclusions are valid ... Relationships increased Empirical research is a research process for answering Experiment Case study Survey But are you getting at the Why Explanatory Event between Laws are Prediction is research approach in which questions to solve Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called correct issues? research problems and create new How constructs formed confirmed empirical observations (data) descriptive statistics. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for Level of control Purpose are identified Theory is are collected to answer knowledge. Establishes causal Investigate a typical Investigate information collected randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and then used to draw inferences about the process How many rejected research question. relationships, confirm »case« in realistic from a group of people, projects, or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics. Both descriptive and inferential How much Descriptive Research Question (RQ) is what theories. representative conditions. organizations or literature. statistics comprise applied statistics. The goal of the theory has to you are trying to find out by When research Event Predictions Research is undertaking the research Theory is from theory performed be defined here. Based on the Who can be research question an empirical Define research process. Control Requires high control Requires medium control Requires low control formed that drawn, which Theory is strategy has to be chosen. question Descriptive statistics Where Exploratory explains laws form NOT modified A clear and precise RQ guides Control on who is using Change to be assessed Technology change is theory development, research Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide appropriate What research hypotheses which technology, (e.g., new technology) implemented across a large Can be pretty sure you are Event Prediction is It is used to find out what is design, data collection and data when, where, and number of projects. simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, is wide-ranging When NOT confirmed already known about a question analysis. they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. getting at the correct Level of access Relationships Confidence in before trying to answer it. under which conditions throughout the Description of results, issues … between Laws are is possible. development process. influence factors, But can you draw valid constructs formed theory is reduced Review Types of research questions are: Measures of central tendency Theory is modified To investigate self Assessment in a typical differences and conclusions? are identified A good literature review is an What?, Where?, Who?, When?, A measure of central tendency is a single number that is used to represent the average score in important part of any research. Literature How Much?, How many?, Why?, standing tasks from situation required. commonalities is needed. Event which results can be the distribution. How? Mode – the most common score in a frequency distribution obtained immediately. Research question examples: The goal of literature review is Median – the middlemost score in a distribution to demonstrate a familiarity Can establish causal Can be incorporated in Can use existing experience. Mean – the common average What are the key success factors of object-oriented frameworks? with a body of knowledge and Does the proposed software improvement increases the efficiency of its users? relationships. normal development Can confirm an effect How does software development methodology and team size influence developers productivity? Create theoretical model establish credibility. Additional, to show the path to prior research and how a current Create theoretical Theoretical model is used to conceptualize the problem Can confirm theories. activities. Already scaled up to generalizes to many projects/organizations. Measures of variability A single number which describes how much the data vary in the distribution. research is related to it. model stated in research question. It life size if performed on Allow to use standard Range – The difference between the highest and lower score in a distribution. Research question: »How does software development methodology and team size is commonly represented with real projects. statistical techniques. Variance – The average of the squared deviations from the mean. causal model. Standard deviation – the square root of the variance, a measure of variability in the Pro's Can determine whether Enable research in the influences developers productivity?« same units as the scores being described. expected effects apply large. in studied context. Consider threats to the research Theoretical model is based on research question and represents set of concepts and Design research Other research methods Easy to plan. Help answer why and Applicable to real world projects in practice. Generalization usually Correlation and regression Determine associations between two variables. Correlation – The strength of the relationship between two variables. relationships between them! Select Practitioner oriented methods how questions. easier. Threats to the research are related to operationalization and ... Regression – Predicting the value of one variable from another based on the research Delphi method Can provide qualitative Good for early exploratory correlation. measurement issues: Action research Insights. method analysis. Operationalization issues – The validity of the operationalization Levels Independent Dependent Measures Laboratory oriented methods Measurement issues – Reliability, validity, sensitivity (see below) (observed variables) Mathematical modeling Application in With little or no May rely on different variables variables (observed variables) Computer simulation industrial context replication they may projects/organizations Inferential statistics (latent variables) (latent variables) Laboratory experiment requires give inaccurate results. keeping comparable data. Technology oriented methods Compromises. OSSD Proof of technical concept Difficult to interpret and No control over variables Inferential statistics or statistical induction comprises the use of statistics to make inferences Software Design Design case Design generalize (e.g., due to methods. Literature based methods concerning some unknown aspect of a population. Lines of code (LOC) experiment study survey confounding factors). Can at most confirm Con's RUP development Literature review H1 Developer per developer per day Statistical analysis association but not causality. methodology Conceptual study XP productivity usually not possible. Can be biased due to Sampling distribution – the distribution of means of samples from a population. Valid but Valid and Few agreed standards differences between Sampling distribution has three important properties: Reliable but on procedures for respondents and It has the same mean as the population distribution. not reliable reliable not valid H2 undertaking case nonrespondents. Development It has smaller standard deviation as the population distribution. Measurement relationship Perform research on defined The objective of this activity studies. Questionnaire design may be As the sample size becomes larger, the shape of the distribution approaches a normal Number of team size – associate latent variables Reliability threats – refers to the question whether the research can be repeated sample Perform is to run the study according tricky (validity, reliability). distribution, regardless of the shape of the population from which the samples are drawn. developers with their measures to the study plan. with the same results. research collection General sable population – Process and product Process and product Questionnaires. Stability reliability – Does the measurement vary over time? Hypothesis testing - is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis Data Causal relationships (H1,H2) – define population to which you want to measurement. measurement. Interviews. Representative reliability – Does the measurement give the same answer when cause-effect relationship between Questionnaires. is true. The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of four steps. ultimately generalize results. Questionnaires. Project measurement. applied to all groups? latent variables (theoretical Formulate the null hypothesis H0 (the hypothesis that is of no scientific interest) and the Equivalence reliability – When there are many measures of the same construct, do All other variables which Interviews Literature survey. alternative hypothesis Ha (statistical term for the research hypothesis). propositions). Can be tested only by Accessible population – they all give the same answer? are not the focus of Data is collected with a Identify a test statistic that can be used to assess the truth of the null hypothesis. evaluating relationships between population that you can actually research are irrelevant research instrument, for Parametric and Compare case study results Comparing different populations Compute the P-value, which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as observed variables (hypotheses)! gain access. Analysis variables. example questionnaire. nonparametric to a representative among respondents, association the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true. The types Validity threats Collect data statistics, compare central comparison baseline: sister and trend analysis, consistency of Face validity – Research community »good feel«. Actual sample – the sample smaller the P-value, the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis. Content validity – Are all aspect of the conceptual variable included in the Variables types actually used in research. tendencies of treatments, groups. project, company baseline, project subset with no scores. Compare the p-value to an acceptable significance value alpha (sometimes called an alpha measurement? value). If p<=alpha, that the observed effect is statistically significant, the null hypothesis is Hypothesis testing change. ruled out, and the alternative hypothesis is valid. Criterion validity – validity is measured against some other standard or measure for Dependent Developer Hypotheses are tested by comparing LOC the conceptual variable. efficiency Conclusion validity Internal validity Internal validity predictions with observed data Represent Statistical errors threats Predictive validity – The measure is known to predict future behavior that is related the »effect« Mean time Analyze data Major Observations that confirm a prediction do Internal validity Construct validity Experimental validity or H0 is TRUE H0 is FALSE to the conceptual variable. Software not establish the truth of a hypothesis between failure Construct validity External validity reliability Construct validity – A measure is found to give correct predictions in multiple reliability Wrong decision – Deductive testing of hypotheses look for Qualitative Construct validity Accept H0 Correct decision unrelated research processes. This confirm both the theories and the construct validity Quantitative External validity Experimental validity or The null Type II error disconfirming evidence to falsify Chose data Independent of the measure. Requirements {OSSD, RUP, data reliability External validity hypothesis hypotheses change XP} analysis data Wrong decision – Conclusion validity – is concerned with the relationship between the treatment and Represent (H0) Reject H0 Type I error Correct decision the outcome of the research 8choice of sample size, choice of statistical tests). the »cause« Experimental validity – (see reliability) Development Number of Measurement issues team size developers Depends on data Use Statistical significance – the probability that an experimental result happened by chance. Sources of invalidity Internal – Is concerned with the validity within the given environment and the Reliability - does the measurement give the same results under the same conditions (consistency)? Latent Observed Use qualitative data analysis and the goal of the study. quantitative data analysis Select statistical test Repeated Here is the Alpha is the probability reliability of results. It relates to validity of research process design, controls and ANOVA distribution of Validity - does the measurement method Describe abstract of rejecting the Logistic Regression measures. ANOVA values of Z when Discriminant of actually provide information about the theoretical concepts. Define ways of measuring Nom Int hypothesis tested when External – Is the question of how general the findings are. Can you carry over the LoM the hypothesis conceptual variable? They cannot be latent variables. Level of that hypothesis is true. Nominal Inte research results into actual environment? Level of for tested is true. Sensitivity - how much does the directly measured. Each latent variable may The objective of this measurement measurement change with the changes on have multiple empirical measurement for IV 3+ DV? Ord (mean Z = 0) rval activity is to analyze How Here we have Linear t Sensitivity In the conceptual variable? indicators. the collected data in of DV? many levels Friedman regression set alpha = 0.05 How much does the measurement change with the change of the conceptual variable? order to answer the does the IV operationalized study Draw Consider Consider reliability, have Paired goal (research validity and sensitivity! The IV is the ? Int -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 question). conclusions threats 3+ 2 (related) t- Values of Zx