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Dang Van Hung, Ph.D.
  SEAMEO RETRAC
   An overview
   Language learning principles
   Common Language Teaching
    Approaches/Methods
   Other Teaching Methods
   Methodology
   Approach
   Method
   Curriculum/Syllabus
   Technique
   Methodology
       The study of pedagogical practices in general (including
        theoretical underpinnings and related research). Whatever
        considerations are involved in "how to teach" are
        methodological.
   Approach
       Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of
        language, the nature of language learning, and the
        applicability of both to pedagogical settings
   Method
       A generalized set of classroom specifications for
        accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be
        primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and
        behaviors and secondarily with such features as linguistic and
        subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They
        are almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to a
        variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.
   Curriculum/Syllabus
       Designs for carrying out a particular language
        program. Features include a primary concern with the
        specification of linguistic and subject-matter
        objectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the needs of a
        designated group of learners in a defined context.
   Technique
       Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used
        in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives.
   Cognitive Principles
   Affective Principles
   Linguistic Principles
   Cognitive Principles
     Automaticity
     Meaningful Learning

     Anticipation of Rewards

     Intrinsic Motivation

     Strategic Investment
   Cognitive Principles
       Automaticity
           Sub-conscious processing of language with peripheral attention to
            language forms
       Meaningful Learning
           This can be contrasted to Rote Learning, and is thought to lead to better
            long term retention
       Anticipation of Rewards
           Learners are driven to act by the anticipation of rewards, tangible or
            intangible
       Intrinsic Motivation
           The most potent learning "rewards" are intrinsically motivated within the
            learner
       Strategic Investment
           The time and learning strategies learners invest into the language
            learning process.
   Affective Principles
     Language Ego
     Self-Confidence

     Risk-Taking

     Language-Culture Connection
   Affective Principles
       Language Ego
           Learning a new language involves developing a new
            mode of thinking - a new language "ego"
       Self-Confidence
           Success in learning something can be equated to the
            belief in learners that they can learn it
       Risk-Taking
           Taking risks and experimenting "beyond" what is certain
            creates better long-term retention
       Language-Culture Connection
   Linguistic Principles
     Native Language Effect
     Interlanguage

     Communicative Competence
   Linguistic Principles
       Native Language Effect
           A learner's native language creates both facilitating and
            interfering effects on learning;
       Interlanguage
           At least some of the learner's development in a new language
            can be seen as systematic;
       Communicative Competence
           Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage
            - instruction needs to be aimed at organizational, pragmatic
            and strategic competence as well as psychomotor skills.
   Grammar Translation Method
   Direct Method
   The Audio-lingual Method
   The Communicative Language Teaching
    Approach
   Objectives
       to give learners access to English literature,
       To develop their minds "mentally" through foreign
        language learning
   Key Features
     (1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with
      little active use of the target language.
     (2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists
      of isolated words.
     (3) Grammar provides the rules for putting words
      together, and instruction often focuses on the
      form and inflection of words.
   Key Features
     (4) Reading of difficult classical texts is begun
      early.
     (5) Little attention is paid to the content of
      texts, which are treated as exercises in in
      grammatical analysis.
     (6) Often the only drills are exercises in
      translating disconnected sentences from the
      target language into the mother tongue
   Typical Techniques
     (1) Translation of a Literary Passage
     (2) Reading Comprehension Questions
     (3) Antonyms/Synonyms
     (4) Cognates
     (5) Deductive Application of Rule
     (6) Fill-in-the-blanks

     (7) Memorization
     (8) Use Words in Sentences

     (9)   Composition
   Objectives
     The basic premise of the Direct Method is that
      students will learn to communicate in the target
      language, partly by learning how to think in that
      language and by not involving L1 in the language
      learning process whatsoever.
     Objectives include teaching the students how to
      use the language spontaneously and
      orally, linking meaning with the target language
      through the use of realia, pictures or pantomime
      (Larsen-Freeman 1986:24).
     There is to be a direct connection between
      concepts and the language to be learned.
   Key Features
       (1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target
        language.
       (2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
       (3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded
        progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges
        between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
       (4) Grammar is taught inductively.
       (5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.
       (6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through
        demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is
        taught by association of ideas.
       (7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
       (8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
   Typical Techniques
     (1)   Reading Aloud
     (2)   Question and Answer Exercise
     (3)   Student Self-Correction
     (4)   Conversation Practice
     (5)   Fill-in-the-blank Exercise
     (6)   Dictation
     (7)   Paragraph Writing
   Objectives
        To create communicative competence in learners.
       The most effective way to do this was for students to
        "over-learn" the language being studied through
        extensive repetition and a variety of elaborate drills.
       The idea was to project the linguistic patterns of the
        language into the minds of the learners in a way that
        made responses automatic and "habitual".
       To this end it was held that the language "habits" of
        the first language would constantly interfere, and the
        only way to overcome this problem was to facilitate
        the learning of a new set of "habits" appropriate
        linguistically to the language being studied.
   Key Features
       (1) New material is presented in dialog form.
       (2) There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of
        set phrases, and over-learning.
       (3) Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive
        analysis and taught one at a time.
       (4) Structural patterns are taught using repetitive
        drills.
       (5) There is little or no grammatical
        explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy
        rather than deductive explanation.
       (6) Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in
        context.
   Key Features (Cont’d)
       (7) There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual
        aids.
     (8) Great importance is attached to
      pronunciation.
     (9) Very little use of the mother tongue by
      teachers is permitted.
     (10) Successful responses are immediately
      reinforced.
     (11) There is great effort to get students to
      produce error-free utterances.
     (12) There is a tendency to manipulate language
      and disregard content.
   Typical Techniques
        (1) Dialog Memorization
        (2) Backward Build-up (Expansion Drill)
        (3) Repetition Drill
        (4) Chain Drill
       (5) Single Slot Substitution Drill
       (6) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill
        (7) Transformation Drill
       (8) Question-and-answer Drill
        (9) Use of Minimal Pairs
        (10) Complete the Dialog
        (11) Grammar Games
   Basic Features of CLT
        (1) An emphasis on learning to communicate through
        interaction in the target language.
       (2) The introduction of authentic texts into the
        learning situation.
       (3) The provision of opportunities for learners to
        focus, not only on the language but also on the
        learning process itself.
       (4) An enhancement of the learner's own personal
        experiences as important contributing elements to
        classroom learning.
       (5) An attempt to link classroom language learning
        with language activation outside the classroom.
CLT                              ALM
Meaning is paramount.             Attends to structure and form
                                  more than meaning
Dialogs, if used, center around   Demands more memorization of
communicative functions and       structure-based dialogs
are not normally memorized.
Contextualization is a basic      Language items are not
premise                           necessarily contextualized.
 Language learning is learning    Language Learning is learning
to communicate.                   structures, sounds or words.
CLT                          ALM
Effective communication      Mastery or "over-learning"
is sought.                   is sought.
Drilling may occur, but      Drilling is a central
peripherically.              technique
Comprehensible               Native-speaker-like
pronunciation is sought      pronunciation is sought.
 Any device which helps      Grammatical explanation
the learners is accepted -   is avoided.
varying according to their
age, interest, etc.
CLT                                    ALM
The target linguistic system will be   The target linguistic system will be
learned best through the process       learned through the overt teaching
of struggling to communicate.          of the patterns of the system.
Communicative competence is the Linguistic competence is the
desired goal.                   desired goal.
Linguistic variation is a central Varieties of language are
concept in materials and methods. recognized but not emphasized.
Sequencing is determined by any        The sequence of units is
consideration of content function,     determined solely on principles of
or meaning which maintains             linguistic complexity.
interest.
CLT                                      ALM
Teachers help learners in any way       The teacher controls the learners
that motivates them to work with the    and prevents them from doing
language                                anything that conflicts wit the theory.
Language is created by the individual   "Language is habit" so error must be
often through trial and error.          prevented at all costs.
Fluency and acceptable language is      Accuracy, in terms of formal
the primary goal: accuracy is judged    correctness, is a primary goal.
not in the
abstract but in context.
CLT                                     ALM
Students are expected to interact       Students are expected to interact
with other people, either in the        with the language system,
flesh, through pair and group work,     embodied in machines or
or in their writings.                   controlled materials
The teacher cannot know exactly         The teacher is expected to specify
what language the students will         the language that students are to
use.                                    use
Intrinsic motivation will spring from   Intrinsic motivation will spring from
an interest in what is being            an interest in the structure of the
communicated by thelanguage             language
   Interactive Learning
   Learner-centered Learning
   Learner-centered Learning
   Learner-centered Learning
   Content-based Learning
   Interactive Learning:
       This concept goes right to the heart of communication
        itself, stressing the dual roles of "receiver" and "sender" in any
        communicative situation.
       Interaction creates the "negotiation between interlocutors"
        which in turn produces meaning (semantics).
       The concept of interactive learning necessarily entails that
        there will be a lot of pair and group work in the classroom, as
        well as genuine language input from the "real world" for
        meaningful communication.
   Learner-centered Learning:
       This kind of instruction involves the giving over of some
        "power" in the language learning process to the learners
        themselves.
       It also strives to allow for personal creativity and input from
        the students, as well as taking into account their learning
        needs and objectives.
   Cooperative Learning:
       This concept stresses the "team" like nature of the classroom
        and emphasizes cooperation as opposed to
        competition. Students share information and help, and
        achieve their learning goals as a group.
   Task-based Learning:
       This concept equates the idea of a "learning task" to a
        language learning technique in itself.
       This could be a problem solving activity or a project, but the
        task has a clear objective, appropriate content, a
        working/application procedure, and a set range of outcomes.
   Content-based Learning:
       This kind of learning joins language learning to content/subject
        matter and engages them both concurrently.
       Language is seen as a tool or medium for acquiring knowledge
        about other things, instantly proving its usefulness.
       An important factor in this kind of learning is that the content itself
        determines what language items need to be mastered, not the
        other way around.
       When students study math or science using English as the
        medium, they are more intrinsically motivated to learn more of
        the language.
   Community Language Learning
   The Silent Way
   Suggestopedia
   Total Physical Response
   The Natural Approach
   Key Features
       (1) Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" and
        the teacher as a "teacher-councelor".
        (2) A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential
        to the learning process.
       (3) Students are permitted to use their native language, and
        are provided with translations from the teacher which
        they then attempt to apply.
       (4) Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively.
       (5) "Chunks" of target language produced by the students
        are recorded and later listened to - they are also
        transcribed with native language equivalents to
        become texts the students work with.
   Key Features (Cont’d)
     (6) Students apply the target language independently
      and without translation when they feel
      inclined/confident enough to do so.
     (7) Students are encouraged to express not only how
      they feel about the language, but how they feel about
        the learning process, to which the teacher
        expresses empathy and understanding.
       (8) A variety of activities can be included (for
        example, focusing on a particular grammar or
        pronunciation point, or creating new sentences
        based on the recordings/transcripts).
   Typical Techniques
      (1) Tape Recording Student Conversation
     (2) Transcription

     (3) Reflection on Experience
     (4) Reflective Listening

     (5) Human Computer

     (6) Small Group Tasks
   Objectives
       Teachers using the Silent Way want their students to become highly
        independent and experimental learners.
        Making errors is a natural part of the process and a key learning device, as
        it is a sign that students are testing out their hypostheses and arriving at
        various conclusions about the language through a trial and error style
        approach.
       The teacher tries to facilitate activities whereby the students discover for
        themselves the conceptual rules governing the language, rather than
        imitating or memorizing
       In addition to the idea that students become more autonomous learners
        and "develop their own inner criteria for correctness" (Larsen
        Freeman, 1986:62), another key objective was to encourage students to
        work as a group - to try and solve problems in the target language together.
       It was hoped that students would eventually be able to actively use the
        language for self-expression, relating their thoughts, feelings and
        perceptions.
   Key Features
     (1) Learning is facilitated if the learner
      discovers or creates rather than remembers
      and repeats what is to be learned.
     (2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying
      (mediating) physical objects.
     (3) Learning is facilitated by problem-solving
      involving the material to be learned.
   Typical Techniques
     (1) Sound-Color Chart - click here to see an
      example
     (2) Teacher's Silence
     (3) Peer Correction
     (4) Rods
     (5) Self-correction Gestures
     (6) Word Chart
     (7) Fidel Chart - click here to see an example
     (8) Structured Feedback
   Objectives
       To tap into more of students' mental potential to learn, in
        order to accelerate the process by which they learn to
        understand and use the target language for
        communication.
       Four factors considered essential in this process were
         the provision of a relaxed and comfortable learning
          enviroment,
         the use of soft Baroque music to help increase alpha
          brain waves and decrease blood pressure and heart rate,
         "de-suggestion" in terms of the psychological barriers
          learners place on their own learning potential, and
         "suggestibility" through the encouragement of learners
          assuming "child-like" and/or new roles and names in the
          target language.
   Key Features
       (1) Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as
        comfortable as possible, featuring soft cushioned seating
        and dim lighting.
       (2) "Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the
        presence in the learning environment of posters and
        decorations featuring the target language and various
        grammatical information.
       (3) The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and
        control in the classroom.
       (4) Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners'
        potential to learn are "desuggested".
       (5) Students are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental
        trips with the teacher" and assume new roles and names in
        the target language in order to become more "suggestible".
   Key features (Cont’d)
       (6) Baroque music is played softly in the background to
        increase mental relaxation and potential to take in and
        retain new material during the lesson.
       (7) Students work from lengthy dialogs in the target
        language, with an accompanying translation into the
        students' native language.
       (8) Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and
        not structure. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and
        given treatment from the teacher, but not dwelt on.
       (9) Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog
        they are studying - once before they go to sleep at night
        and once in the morning before they get up.
       (10) Music, drama and "the Arts" are integrated into the
        learning process as often as possible.
   Typical Techniques
     (1) Classroom Set-up
     (2) Peripheral Learning
     (3) Positive Suggestion
     (4) Visualization
     (5) Choose a New Identity
     (6) Role-play
     (7) First Concert
     (8) Second Concert
     (9) Primary Activation
     (10) Secondary Activation
   Objectives
      Learning needed to become more enjoyable
      and less stressful.
     A natural way to accomplish this was to
      recreate the natural way children learn their
      native language, most notably through
      facilitating an appropriate "listening" and
      "comprehension" period, and encourage
      learners to respond using right-brain motor
      skills rather than left-brain language
      "processing".
   Key Features
        (1) The teacher directs and students "act" in response - "The
        instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are
        the actors" (Asher, 1977:43).
       (2) Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over
        oral production.
       (3) The imperative mood is the most common language function
        employed, even well into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also
        heavily used.
       (4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make
        them more enjoyable for learners.
       (5) Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally
        ready or confident enough to do so.
       (6) Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language
        areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language.
   Typical Techniques
     (1) Using Commands to Direct Behavior
     (2) Role Reversal

     (3) Action Sequence
• As part of the Natural Approach, students listen to the teacher
  using the target language communicatively from the very
  beginning.
• It has certain similarities with the much earlier Direct Method,
  with the important exception that students are allowed to use
  their native language alongside the target language as part of
  the language learning process.
• In early stages, students are not corrected during oral
  production, as the teacher is focusing on meaning rather than
  form (unless the error is so drastic that it actually hinders
  meaning).
• Communicative activities prevail throughout a language
  course employing the Natural Approach, focusing on a wide
  range of activities including games, roleplays, dialogs, group
  work and discussions.
• There are three generic stages identified in
  the approach:
  • (1) Preproduction - developing listening skills;
  • (2) Early Production - students struggle with the
    language and make many errors which are
    corrected based on content and not structure;
  • (3) Extending Production - promoting fluency
    through a variety of more challenging activities.
   Asher, James. 1977. Learning Another Language Through
    Actions: The Complete Teacher's Guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sly
    Oaks Productions. See also http://www.tpr-world.com/.
   Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive
    Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Hall.
   Finocchiaro, Mary & Brumfit, Christopher. 1983. The Functional-
    Notional Approach: From Theory to Practice. Oxford University
    Press.
   Krashen, Stephen D., & Terrell, Tracy D. 1983. The Natural
    Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Pergamon
    Press. See also Bilingual Education: Arguments For and (Bogus)
    Arguments Against , Theory of Second Language Acquisition, A
    Summary of Stephen Krashen's "Principles and Practice in Second
    Language Acquisition", Why Bilingual Education?.
   Larsen-Freeman, Dianne. 1986. Techniques and Principles in Language
    Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nunan, David. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for
    Teachers. Prentice Hall. See also http://ec.hku.hk/dcnunan/
    Prator, Clifford H. & Celce-Murcia, Marianne. 1979. "An outline of
    language teaching approaches." In Celce-Murcia, Marianne & McIntosh,
    Lois (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Newbury
    House.
    Richards, Jack & Rodgers, Theodore. 1986. Approaches and Methods in
    Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Online Resources:
      Second Language Teaching Methodologies - Eric Clearinghouse on
       Languages and Linguistics
      Teaching Techniques - From www.eslabout.com
      Whole Language, Whole Person - A Handbook of Language Teaching
       Methodology
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Elt different methods & approaches

  • 1. Dang Van Hung, Ph.D. SEAMEO RETRAC
  • 2. An overview  Language learning principles  Common Language Teaching Approaches/Methods  Other Teaching Methods
  • 3. Methodology  Approach  Method  Curriculum/Syllabus  Technique
  • 4. Methodology  The study of pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Whatever considerations are involved in "how to teach" are methodological.  Approach  Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings
  • 5. Method  A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.
  • 6. Curriculum/Syllabus  Designs for carrying out a particular language program. Features include a primary concern with the specification of linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the needs of a designated group of learners in a defined context.  Technique  Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives.
  • 7. Cognitive Principles  Affective Principles  Linguistic Principles
  • 8. Cognitive Principles  Automaticity  Meaningful Learning  Anticipation of Rewards  Intrinsic Motivation  Strategic Investment
  • 9. Cognitive Principles  Automaticity  Sub-conscious processing of language with peripheral attention to language forms  Meaningful Learning  This can be contrasted to Rote Learning, and is thought to lead to better long term retention  Anticipation of Rewards  Learners are driven to act by the anticipation of rewards, tangible or intangible  Intrinsic Motivation  The most potent learning "rewards" are intrinsically motivated within the learner  Strategic Investment  The time and learning strategies learners invest into the language learning process.
  • 10. Affective Principles  Language Ego  Self-Confidence  Risk-Taking  Language-Culture Connection
  • 11. Affective Principles  Language Ego  Learning a new language involves developing a new mode of thinking - a new language "ego"  Self-Confidence  Success in learning something can be equated to the belief in learners that they can learn it  Risk-Taking  Taking risks and experimenting "beyond" what is certain creates better long-term retention  Language-Culture Connection
  • 12. Linguistic Principles  Native Language Effect  Interlanguage  Communicative Competence
  • 13. Linguistic Principles  Native Language Effect  A learner's native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning;  Interlanguage  At least some of the learner's development in a new language can be seen as systematic;  Communicative Competence  Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage - instruction needs to be aimed at organizational, pragmatic and strategic competence as well as psychomotor skills.
  • 14. Grammar Translation Method  Direct Method  The Audio-lingual Method  The Communicative Language Teaching Approach
  • 15. Objectives  to give learners access to English literature,  To develop their minds "mentally" through foreign language learning
  • 16. Key Features  (1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.  (2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.  (3) Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
  • 17. Key Features  (4) Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.  (5) Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in in grammatical analysis.  (6) Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue
  • 18. Typical Techniques  (1) Translation of a Literary Passage  (2) Reading Comprehension Questions  (3) Antonyms/Synonyms  (4) Cognates  (5) Deductive Application of Rule  (6) Fill-in-the-blanks  (7) Memorization  (8) Use Words in Sentences  (9) Composition
  • 19. Objectives  The basic premise of the Direct Method is that students will learn to communicate in the target language, partly by learning how to think in that language and by not involving L1 in the language learning process whatsoever.  Objectives include teaching the students how to use the language spontaneously and orally, linking meaning with the target language through the use of realia, pictures or pantomime (Larsen-Freeman 1986:24).  There is to be a direct connection between concepts and the language to be learned.
  • 20. Key Features  (1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language.  (2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.  (3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.  (4) Grammar is taught inductively.  (5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.  (6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.  (7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.  (8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
  • 21. Typical Techniques  (1) Reading Aloud  (2) Question and Answer Exercise  (3) Student Self-Correction  (4) Conversation Practice  (5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise  (6) Dictation  (7) Paragraph Writing
  • 22. Objectives  To create communicative competence in learners.  The most effective way to do this was for students to "over-learn" the language being studied through extensive repetition and a variety of elaborate drills.  The idea was to project the linguistic patterns of the language into the minds of the learners in a way that made responses automatic and "habitual".  To this end it was held that the language "habits" of the first language would constantly interfere, and the only way to overcome this problem was to facilitate the learning of a new set of "habits" appropriate linguistically to the language being studied.
  • 23. Key Features  (1) New material is presented in dialog form.  (2) There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and over-learning.  (3) Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.  (4) Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.  (5) There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.  (6) Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
  • 24. Key Features (Cont’d)  (7) There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.  (8) Great importance is attached to pronunciation.  (9) Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted.  (10) Successful responses are immediately reinforced.  (11) There is great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances.  (12) There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content.
  • 25. Typical Techniques  (1) Dialog Memorization  (2) Backward Build-up (Expansion Drill)  (3) Repetition Drill  (4) Chain Drill  (5) Single Slot Substitution Drill  (6) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill  (7) Transformation Drill  (8) Question-and-answer Drill  (9) Use of Minimal Pairs  (10) Complete the Dialog  (11) Grammar Games
  • 26. Basic Features of CLT  (1) An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.  (2) The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.  (3) The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself.  (4) An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.  (5) An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.
  • 27. CLT ALM Meaning is paramount. Attends to structure and form more than meaning Dialogs, if used, center around Demands more memorization of communicative functions and structure-based dialogs are not normally memorized. Contextualization is a basic Language items are not premise necessarily contextualized. Language learning is learning Language Learning is learning to communicate. structures, sounds or words.
  • 28. CLT ALM Effective communication Mastery or "over-learning" is sought. is sought. Drilling may occur, but Drilling is a central peripherically. technique Comprehensible Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought pronunciation is sought. Any device which helps Grammatical explanation the learners is accepted - is avoided. varying according to their age, interest, etc.
  • 29. CLT ALM The target linguistic system will be The target linguistic system will be learned best through the process learned through the overt teaching of struggling to communicate. of the patterns of the system. Communicative competence is the Linguistic competence is the desired goal. desired goal. Linguistic variation is a central Varieties of language are concept in materials and methods. recognized but not emphasized. Sequencing is determined by any The sequence of units is consideration of content function, determined solely on principles of or meaning which maintains linguistic complexity. interest.
  • 30. CLT ALM Teachers help learners in any way The teacher controls the learners that motivates them to work with the and prevents them from doing language anything that conflicts wit the theory. Language is created by the individual "Language is habit" so error must be often through trial and error. prevented at all costs. Fluency and acceptable language is Accuracy, in terms of formal the primary goal: accuracy is judged correctness, is a primary goal. not in the abstract but in context.
  • 31. CLT ALM Students are expected to interact Students are expected to interact with other people, either in the with the language system, flesh, through pair and group work, embodied in machines or or in their writings. controlled materials The teacher cannot know exactly The teacher is expected to specify what language the students will the language that students are to use. use Intrinsic motivation will spring from Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in what is being an interest in the structure of the communicated by thelanguage language
  • 32. Interactive Learning  Learner-centered Learning  Learner-centered Learning  Learner-centered Learning  Content-based Learning
  • 33. Interactive Learning:  This concept goes right to the heart of communication itself, stressing the dual roles of "receiver" and "sender" in any communicative situation.  Interaction creates the "negotiation between interlocutors" which in turn produces meaning (semantics).  The concept of interactive learning necessarily entails that there will be a lot of pair and group work in the classroom, as well as genuine language input from the "real world" for meaningful communication.
  • 34. Learner-centered Learning:  This kind of instruction involves the giving over of some "power" in the language learning process to the learners themselves.  It also strives to allow for personal creativity and input from the students, as well as taking into account their learning needs and objectives.
  • 35. Cooperative Learning:  This concept stresses the "team" like nature of the classroom and emphasizes cooperation as opposed to competition. Students share information and help, and achieve their learning goals as a group.
  • 36. Task-based Learning:  This concept equates the idea of a "learning task" to a language learning technique in itself.  This could be a problem solving activity or a project, but the task has a clear objective, appropriate content, a working/application procedure, and a set range of outcomes.
  • 37. Content-based Learning:  This kind of learning joins language learning to content/subject matter and engages them both concurrently.  Language is seen as a tool or medium for acquiring knowledge about other things, instantly proving its usefulness.  An important factor in this kind of learning is that the content itself determines what language items need to be mastered, not the other way around.  When students study math or science using English as the medium, they are more intrinsically motivated to learn more of the language.
  • 38. Community Language Learning  The Silent Way  Suggestopedia  Total Physical Response  The Natural Approach
  • 39. Key Features  (1) Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" and the teacher as a "teacher-councelor".  (2) A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential to the learning process.  (3) Students are permitted to use their native language, and are provided with translations from the teacher which they then attempt to apply.  (4) Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively.  (5) "Chunks" of target language produced by the students are recorded and later listened to - they are also transcribed with native language equivalents to become texts the students work with.
  • 40. Key Features (Cont’d)  (6) Students apply the target language independently and without translation when they feel inclined/confident enough to do so.  (7) Students are encouraged to express not only how they feel about the language, but how they feel about the learning process, to which the teacher expresses empathy and understanding.  (8) A variety of activities can be included (for example, focusing on a particular grammar or pronunciation point, or creating new sentences based on the recordings/transcripts).
  • 41. Typical Techniques  (1) Tape Recording Student Conversation  (2) Transcription  (3) Reflection on Experience  (4) Reflective Listening  (5) Human Computer  (6) Small Group Tasks
  • 42. Objectives  Teachers using the Silent Way want their students to become highly independent and experimental learners.  Making errors is a natural part of the process and a key learning device, as it is a sign that students are testing out their hypostheses and arriving at various conclusions about the language through a trial and error style approach.  The teacher tries to facilitate activities whereby the students discover for themselves the conceptual rules governing the language, rather than imitating or memorizing  In addition to the idea that students become more autonomous learners and "develop their own inner criteria for correctness" (Larsen Freeman, 1986:62), another key objective was to encourage students to work as a group - to try and solve problems in the target language together.  It was hoped that students would eventually be able to actively use the language for self-expression, relating their thoughts, feelings and perceptions.
  • 43. Key Features  (1) Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned.  (2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects.  (3) Learning is facilitated by problem-solving involving the material to be learned.
  • 44. Typical Techniques  (1) Sound-Color Chart - click here to see an example  (2) Teacher's Silence  (3) Peer Correction  (4) Rods  (5) Self-correction Gestures  (6) Word Chart  (7) Fidel Chart - click here to see an example  (8) Structured Feedback
  • 45. Objectives  To tap into more of students' mental potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by which they learn to understand and use the target language for communication.  Four factors considered essential in this process were  the provision of a relaxed and comfortable learning enviroment,  the use of soft Baroque music to help increase alpha brain waves and decrease blood pressure and heart rate,  "de-suggestion" in terms of the psychological barriers learners place on their own learning potential, and  "suggestibility" through the encouragement of learners assuming "child-like" and/or new roles and names in the target language.
  • 46. Key Features  (1) Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as comfortable as possible, featuring soft cushioned seating and dim lighting.  (2) "Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decorations featuring the target language and various grammatical information.  (3) The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom.  (4) Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners' potential to learn are "desuggested".  (5) Students are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental trips with the teacher" and assume new roles and names in the target language in order to become more "suggestible".
  • 47. Key features (Cont’d)  (6) Baroque music is played softly in the background to increase mental relaxation and potential to take in and retain new material during the lesson.  (7) Students work from lengthy dialogs in the target language, with an accompanying translation into the students' native language.  (8) Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and not structure. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and given treatment from the teacher, but not dwelt on.  (9) Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog they are studying - once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they get up.  (10) Music, drama and "the Arts" are integrated into the learning process as often as possible.
  • 48. Typical Techniques  (1) Classroom Set-up  (2) Peripheral Learning  (3) Positive Suggestion  (4) Visualization  (5) Choose a New Identity  (6) Role-play  (7) First Concert  (8) Second Concert  (9) Primary Activation  (10) Secondary Activation
  • 49. Objectives  Learning needed to become more enjoyable and less stressful.  A natural way to accomplish this was to recreate the natural way children learn their native language, most notably through facilitating an appropriate "listening" and "comprehension" period, and encourage learners to respond using right-brain motor skills rather than left-brain language "processing".
  • 50. Key Features  (1) The teacher directs and students "act" in response - "The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors" (Asher, 1977:43).  (2) Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over oral production.  (3) The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also heavily used.  (4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.  (5) Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so.  (6) Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language.
  • 51. Typical Techniques  (1) Using Commands to Direct Behavior  (2) Role Reversal  (3) Action Sequence
  • 52. • As part of the Natural Approach, students listen to the teacher using the target language communicatively from the very beginning. • It has certain similarities with the much earlier Direct Method, with the important exception that students are allowed to use their native language alongside the target language as part of the language learning process. • In early stages, students are not corrected during oral production, as the teacher is focusing on meaning rather than form (unless the error is so drastic that it actually hinders meaning). • Communicative activities prevail throughout a language course employing the Natural Approach, focusing on a wide range of activities including games, roleplays, dialogs, group work and discussions.
  • 53. • There are three generic stages identified in the approach: • (1) Preproduction - developing listening skills; • (2) Early Production - students struggle with the language and make many errors which are corrected based on content and not structure; • (3) Extending Production - promoting fluency through a variety of more challenging activities.
  • 54. Asher, James. 1977. Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher's Guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sly Oaks Productions. See also http://www.tpr-world.com/.  Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Hall.  Finocchiaro, Mary & Brumfit, Christopher. 1983. The Functional- Notional Approach: From Theory to Practice. Oxford University Press.  Krashen, Stephen D., & Terrell, Tracy D. 1983. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Pergamon Press. See also Bilingual Education: Arguments For and (Bogus) Arguments Against , Theory of Second Language Acquisition, A Summary of Stephen Krashen's "Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition", Why Bilingual Education?.
  • 55. Larsen-Freeman, Dianne. 1986. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.  Nunan, David. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. Prentice Hall. See also http://ec.hku.hk/dcnunan/  Prator, Clifford H. & Celce-Murcia, Marianne. 1979. "An outline of language teaching approaches." In Celce-Murcia, Marianne & McIntosh, Lois (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Newbury House.  Richards, Jack & Rodgers, Theodore. 1986. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.  Online Resources:  Second Language Teaching Methodologies - Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics  Teaching Techniques - From www.eslabout.com  Whole Language, Whole Person - A Handbook of Language Teaching Methodology

Editor's Notes

  1. Psychomotor skills are those skills that you have done so often that you don't think about how to do them while you are doing them. As well as tying shoelaces, riding a bike is another example. At first, you really have to concentrate on the steps, later your brain takes over.Psychomotor skills are those skills that you have done so often that you don't think about how to do them while you are doing them. As well as tying shoelaces, riding a bike is another example. At first, you really have to concentrate on the steps, later your brain takes over