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ELL Presentation Learning Theories 5101 Kevin Neuenswander Learning Structures
ELL Population Number
ELL Population Density
ELL Population Growth States growing the fastest are the Midwest
English Pronunciation  From  The Mother Tongue  by Bill Bryson English possesses more sounds than almost any other language.  The International Phonetic Alphabet differentiates between 52 sounds used in English, divided equally between consonants and vowels.  In contrast, Spanish uses 27, while Hawaiian gets by with just 13.  However, if you listen carefully, there are many more than this. The “ng,” combination for example, can be a discrete sound ( bring, sing ), but in fact we make two sounds with it – a soft “g” with  singer  and a hard “g” with  finger .
English Pronunciation  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
English Pronunciation  In some languages, such as Finish, there is a tidy one-to-one correspondence between the sound & spelling.  A  k  to the Finns is always  “ k ,”  and an  l   always and  “ l .”   But in English, pronunciation is so various – that not one of our 26 letters can be relied on for constancy.  Either they have a variety of pronunciations, like the  c   in  race, rack,  &  rich , or they hide in silence, like the  b  in  debt , the  a   in  bread , the second  t  in  thistle .
English Pronunciation  In combinations they can become even more unpredictable.  One of the most obvious is the letter cluster  ough , which can be pronounce in any of 8 ways –  through, though, thought, tough, plough, thorough, hic-cough,  &   lough (lock). We are also prone to slur phrases. Americans will say  jeetjet “did you eat yet”   and   lesskweet  for  “let’s go eat.”
English Pronunciation  We make another unconscious distinction between the hard “th” of  those  & the soft one of  thought .  Also, even more subtle is when we use a “k” sound at the start of a word, we put a tiny puff of breath behind it ( kitchen, conquer ) but when the “k” follows and s ( skill, skid ) we withhold the puff. There are many words that we pronounce considerably different then they are spelled: later –  lader butter –  budder/buddah wash –  worsh granted –  grannid looked –  lookt warmth –  warmpth
English Pronunciation  As native English speakers we can distinguish between the most subtle graduations of emphasis.  Most of us, if we are paying attention, can detect the difference between  that’s tough  &  that stuff , between  I love you  &  isle of view , & between  gray day   &   Grade A ,  between  African Elephant   &   a frick’n elephant  even though the phonics are incredibly similar.
BICS & CALP ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
BICS & CALP ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompts Preproduction The student     Has minimal comprehension    Does not verbalize    Nods “yes” and “no”    Draws and points 0-6 months    Show me…    Circle the …    Where is …?    Who has …? Early Production The student     Has limited comprehension    Produces one-or two-word responses    Participates using key words and familiar phrases    Uses present-tense verbs 6 months – 1 Year    Yes/no questions    Either/or questions    One – or two-word answers    Lists    Labels Speech Emergence The student    Has good comprehension    Can produce simple sentences    Makes grammar and pronunciation errors    Frequently misunderstands jokes 1-3 years    Why…?    How…?    Explain…?    Phrase or short-sentence answers
Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompts Intermediate Fluency The student    Has excellent comprehension    Makes few grammatical errors 3 – 5 years    What would happen if ..?    What do you think…? Advanced Fluency The student has a near-native level of speech. 5 – 7 years    Decide if …    Retell …
Primary Language Development L 1  = Language 1
Additive Bilingualism L 2  = Language 2 *CUP = Common Underlying Proficiency *
Language Loss (sometimes referred to as ‘subtractive bilingualism’)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Programs: Programs: 1 – Two-way Developmental  BE 2 – One-way Developmental BE + Content ESL 3 – Transitional BE + Content ESL  4 – Transitional BE+ESL both taught traditionally 5 – ESL taught through academic content 6 – ESL Pullout –  taught  traditionally average performance of native-English  speakers making one year’s progress  in each consecutive grade
Four Types of ELL Instruction English Only English as a Second Language Traditional Bilingual Education Two-Way Bilingual Education Instruction is all in English. Teachers work to deliver lessons in simplified English so that students develop English language skills and learn academic subjects.  The language of instruction is mostly English but may include some support to students in their native language. Classes may be composed of students who speak many different languages but are not fluent in English. They may attend classes for only one period each day, to work strictly on English skills, or attend for a full day and focus both on academics and English.  Instruction for some subjects is in the students’ native language but a certain amount of each day is spent on developing English skills. Classes are usually made up of students who share the same native language.  Instruction is given in two languages to students, usually in the same classroom, who may be dominant in one language or the other, with the goal of the students becoming proficient in both languages. Teachers may team teach, with each one responsible for teaching in only one of the languages. This approach is also sometimes called dual immersion or dual language.
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Sort Card (Affinity)
SHELTERED ENGLISH Techniques for Ensuring Comprehension   ,[object Object],By L. David van Broekhuizen
SHELTERED ENGLISH Techniques for Ensuring Comprehension   ,[object Object],[object Object]
SHELTERED ENGLISH Techniques for Ensuring Comprehension ,[object Object],[object Object]
SHELTERED ENGLISH Techniques for Ensuring Comprehension ,[object Object]
Steps for Developing a Sheltered English Lesson ,[object Object]
Steps for Developing a Sheltered English Lesson ,[object Object]
Steps for Developing a Sheltered English Lesson ,[object Object]
Steps for Developing a Sheltered English Lesson ,[object Object]
Referral Issues/Questions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Assess the Educational Setting: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Do the findings ‘make sense’? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Given what we know about this child’s academic and language learning history, language learning processes, the affective filter, need for first language support and second language accommodations…is this student learning in a manner consistent with the type and quality of their instruction? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Communicative Behavior First Language  Second Language 1,  Comments on own actions 1. _______________  1. __________________ 2.  Comments on other’s actions  2. _______________  2. __________________ 3.  Describes experiences accurately 3. _______________  3. __________________ 4.  Describes events sequentially 4. _______________  4.  __________________ 5.  Attends to the speaker 5. _______________  5.  __________________ 6. Follows directions 6.  _______________  6.  __________________ 7. Initiates interactions 7.  _______________  7.  __________________ 8.  Takes turns during conversations 8. ________________  8.  __________________ 9.  Maintains topic 9. ________________   9. __________________ 10. Answers questions 10. _______________  10.  _________________ 11. Requests attention 11. _______________  11. _________________ 12. Requests information 12. _______________  12. _________________ 13. Requests action 13. _______________  13. _________________ 14. Requests clarification 14. _______________  14. _________________ 15. Expresses needs 15. _______________  15. _________________ 16. Expresses feelings 16. _______________  16. _________________ 17. Describes plans 17. _______________  17. _________________ 18. Supports viewpoints 18. _______________  18. _________________ 19. Describes solutions 19. _______________  19. _________________ 20. Expresses imagination 20. _______________  20. _________________ From Mattes, L. J. & Omark, D. R. (1984) Speech & Language Assessment for the Bilingual Handicapped, San Diego, College-Hill Press.

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Ell Presentation

  • 1. ELL Presentation Learning Theories 5101 Kevin Neuenswander Learning Structures
  • 4. ELL Population Growth States growing the fastest are the Midwest
  • 5. English Pronunciation From The Mother Tongue by Bill Bryson English possesses more sounds than almost any other language. The International Phonetic Alphabet differentiates between 52 sounds used in English, divided equally between consonants and vowels. In contrast, Spanish uses 27, while Hawaiian gets by with just 13. However, if you listen carefully, there are many more than this. The “ng,” combination for example, can be a discrete sound ( bring, sing ), but in fact we make two sounds with it – a soft “g” with singer and a hard “g” with finger .
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  • 7. English Pronunciation In some languages, such as Finish, there is a tidy one-to-one correspondence between the sound & spelling. A k to the Finns is always “ k ,” and an l always and “ l .” But in English, pronunciation is so various – that not one of our 26 letters can be relied on for constancy. Either they have a variety of pronunciations, like the c in race, rack, & rich , or they hide in silence, like the b in debt , the a in bread , the second t in thistle .
  • 8. English Pronunciation In combinations they can become even more unpredictable. One of the most obvious is the letter cluster ough , which can be pronounce in any of 8 ways – through, though, thought, tough, plough, thorough, hic-cough, & lough (lock). We are also prone to slur phrases. Americans will say jeetjet “did you eat yet” and lesskweet for “let’s go eat.”
  • 9. English Pronunciation We make another unconscious distinction between the hard “th” of those & the soft one of thought . Also, even more subtle is when we use a “k” sound at the start of a word, we put a tiny puff of breath behind it ( kitchen, conquer ) but when the “k” follows and s ( skill, skid ) we withhold the puff. There are many words that we pronounce considerably different then they are spelled: later – lader butter – budder/buddah wash – worsh granted – grannid looked – lookt warmth – warmpth
  • 10. English Pronunciation As native English speakers we can distinguish between the most subtle graduations of emphasis. Most of us, if we are paying attention, can detect the difference between that’s tough & that stuff , between I love you & isle of view , & between gray day & Grade A , between African Elephant & a frick’n elephant even though the phonics are incredibly similar.
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  • 13. Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompts Preproduction The student  Has minimal comprehension  Does not verbalize  Nods “yes” and “no”  Draws and points 0-6 months  Show me…  Circle the …  Where is …?  Who has …? Early Production The student  Has limited comprehension  Produces one-or two-word responses  Participates using key words and familiar phrases  Uses present-tense verbs 6 months – 1 Year  Yes/no questions  Either/or questions  One – or two-word answers  Lists  Labels Speech Emergence The student  Has good comprehension  Can produce simple sentences  Makes grammar and pronunciation errors  Frequently misunderstands jokes 1-3 years  Why…?  How…?  Explain…?  Phrase or short-sentence answers
  • 14. Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompts Intermediate Fluency The student  Has excellent comprehension  Makes few grammatical errors 3 – 5 years  What would happen if ..?  What do you think…? Advanced Fluency The student has a near-native level of speech. 5 – 7 years  Decide if …  Retell …
  • 15. Primary Language Development L 1 = Language 1
  • 16. Additive Bilingualism L 2 = Language 2 *CUP = Common Underlying Proficiency *
  • 17. Language Loss (sometimes referred to as ‘subtractive bilingualism’)
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  • 19. Four Types of ELL Instruction English Only English as a Second Language Traditional Bilingual Education Two-Way Bilingual Education Instruction is all in English. Teachers work to deliver lessons in simplified English so that students develop English language skills and learn academic subjects. The language of instruction is mostly English but may include some support to students in their native language. Classes may be composed of students who speak many different languages but are not fluent in English. They may attend classes for only one period each day, to work strictly on English skills, or attend for a full day and focus both on academics and English. Instruction for some subjects is in the students’ native language but a certain amount of each day is spent on developing English skills. Classes are usually made up of students who share the same native language. Instruction is given in two languages to students, usually in the same classroom, who may be dominant in one language or the other, with the goal of the students becoming proficient in both languages. Teachers may team teach, with each one responsible for teaching in only one of the languages. This approach is also sometimes called dual immersion or dual language.
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  • 33. Communicative Behavior First Language Second Language 1, Comments on own actions 1. _______________ 1. __________________ 2. Comments on other’s actions 2. _______________ 2. __________________ 3. Describes experiences accurately 3. _______________ 3. __________________ 4. Describes events sequentially 4. _______________ 4. __________________ 5. Attends to the speaker 5. _______________ 5. __________________ 6. Follows directions 6. _______________ 6. __________________ 7. Initiates interactions 7. _______________ 7. __________________ 8. Takes turns during conversations 8. ________________ 8. __________________ 9. Maintains topic 9. ________________ 9. __________________ 10. Answers questions 10. _______________ 10. _________________ 11. Requests attention 11. _______________ 11. _________________ 12. Requests information 12. _______________ 12. _________________ 13. Requests action 13. _______________ 13. _________________ 14. Requests clarification 14. _______________ 14. _________________ 15. Expresses needs 15. _______________ 15. _________________ 16. Expresses feelings 16. _______________ 16. _________________ 17. Describes plans 17. _______________ 17. _________________ 18. Supports viewpoints 18. _______________ 18. _________________ 19. Describes solutions 19. _______________ 19. _________________ 20. Expresses imagination 20. _______________ 20. _________________ From Mattes, L. J. & Omark, D. R. (1984) Speech & Language Assessment for the Bilingual Handicapped, San Diego, College-Hill Press.