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By: Ahmad Waleed Nawab
Economic of Afghanistan
Rank 91st
Currency Afghani (AFN)
Fiscal Year 21 March - 20 March
Trade organizations
SAARC, ECO, negotiating SCO and WTO
accession
Statistics
GDP $33.55 billion (2012 est.)
GDP growth 11% (2012 est.)
GDP per capita $1,000 (2011)[1]
GDP by sector
agriculture: 20% industry: 25.6% services:
54.4% (2011 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 13.8% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (2009)
Labor force 15 million (2004)
Labor force by occupation
agriculture 78.6%, industry 5.7%, services
15.7% (2009)
Unemployment 38% (2008)
Main industries
small-scale production of textiles, soap,
furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food-
products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral
water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural
gas, coal, copper
Ease-of-doing-business rank 160th[2]
External
Exports $376 million (2012 est.)
Export goods
opium, fruits and nuts, Afghan rugs, wool,
cotton, hides and pelts, and gemstone
Main export partners
Pakistan 33.1%
India 24.9%
Tajikistan 8.7%
United States 5.8% (2012 est.) [3]
Imports $6.39 billion (2012 est.)
Import goods
machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles
and petroleum products
Main import partners
Pakistan 25.8%
United States 17.4%
Russia 8.4%
India 5.5%
China 5.4%
Kazakhstan 4.5%
Germany 4.3% (2012 est.)[4]
Public finances
Public debt $1.28 billion (FY10/11)
Revenues $1.58 billion
Expenses $50.000 billion
The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly
since 2002 due to the infusion of billions of dollars in
international assistance and investments, as well as
remittances from Afghan expats. The recent
improvement is also due to dramatic improvements in
agricultural production and the end of a four-year
drought in most of the country.
The government of Afghanistan claims that the country holds
up to $3 trillion in proven untapped mineral deposits, which
could make it one of the richest mining regions on earth.
However, due to the conflicts, it remains one of the least
developed countries in the world, ranking 175th on the United
Nations' Human Development Index. The nation's GDP stands
at about $34 billion with an exchange rate of $19.85 billion, and
the GDP per capita is about $1,150.
About 35% of its population is unemployed and 36% live below
the national poverty line, suffering from shortages of housing,
clean drinking water, and electricity. The Karzai administration
along with international donors have remained committed to
improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing
infrastructure development, education, housing development,
jobs programs, medical care, and economic reform.
Contents
 Economic History
 Agriculture & Livestock
 Fishing
 Forestry
 Trade & Industry
 Economic Development & Recovery
 Tourism
 National Accounts
Economic History
 Historically, there has been a lack of information and reliable statistics about
Afghanistan's economy. In the early modern period under the rule of kings Abdur
Rahman Khan (1880–1901) and Habibullah Khan (1901–1919), a great deal of Afghan
commerce was centrally controlled by the Afghan government. The Afghan monarchs
were eager to develop the stature of government and the country's military capability,
and so attempted to raise money by the imposition of state monopolies on the sale of
commodoties and high taxes. This slowed the long-term development of Afghanistan
during that period. Western techonogies and manufacturing methods were slowly
introduced during these eras at the command of the Afghan ruler, but in general only
according to the logistical requirements of the growing army.
An emphasis was placed on the manufacture of weapons and other
military materiel. This process was in the hands of a small number of
western experts invited to Kabul by the Afghan kings. Otherwise, it was
not possible for outsiders, particularly westerners, to set up large-scale
enterprises in Afghanistan during that period.
The first prominent plan to develop Afghanistan's economy in modern
times was the Helmand Valley Authority project, modelled on the
Tennessee Valley Authority in the United States, which was expected to be
of primary economic importance.[14] The country began facing severe
economic hardships during the 1970s when neighboring Pakistan, under
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, began closing the Pakistan-Afghanistan border
crossings. This move resulted in Afghanistan increasing political and
economic ties with its northern neighbor, the powerful Soviet Union of
that time.
The 1979 Soviet invasion and ensuing civil war destroyed much of the
country's limited infrastructure, and disrupted normal patterns of
economic activity (See Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Economy).
Eventually, Afghanistan went from a traditional economy to a centrally
planned economy up until 2002 when it was replaced by a free market
economy. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially since the 1980s
due to disruption of trade and transport as well as loss of labor and
capital. Continuing internal strife severely hampered domestic efforts to
rebuild the nation or provide ways for the international community to
help.
According to the International Monetary Fund, the Afghan
economy grew 20% in the fiscal year ending in March 2004,
after expanding 30% in the previous 12 months. The growth is
attributed to international aid and to the end of droughts. An
estimated $4.4 billion of aid entered the nation from 2002 to
2004. A GDP of $4 billion in fiscal year 2003 was recalculated by
the IMF to $6.1
Agriculture and livestock
The Afghan economy has always been agricultural, despite the fact that
only 12% of its total land is arable and about 6% is currently cultivated.
Agriculture production is constrained by an almost total dependence on
erratic winter snows and spring rains for water. As of 2007, the country's
fruit and nut exports were at $113 million per year, but according to an
estimate could grow to more than $800 million per year in 10 years given
sufficient investment. Afghanistan is known for producing some of the
finest fruits, veggies, turtles, and especially pomegranates, apricots,
grapes, melons, and mulberries.
Several provinces in the north of the country (i.e. Badghis and Samangan)
are famous for pistachio cultivation but the area currently lacks proper
marketing and processing plants. It is claimed that some Indian
companies buy Afghan pistachios for a very low price, process them in
India and sell to western countries as Indian products. However, the
Afghan government is planning to build storage facilities for pistachios
since receiving bumper crops in 2010. The Bamyan Province in central
Afghanistan is known for growing superior potatoes, which on an average
produces 140,000 to 170,000 tones.
Wheat and cereal production is Afghanistan's traditional
agricultural mainstay. National wheat production in 2010 was
4,532 MT. The overall agricultural production dramatically
declined following four years of drought as well as the
sustained fighting and instability in rural areas. Soviet efforts to
disrupt production in resistance-dominated areas also
contributed to this decline. Furthermore, since 2002 more than
4 million refugees returned to Afghanistan.
Many of these former refugees are now involved in the farming
industry. Some studies indicate that agricultural production and
livestock numbers may only be sufficient to feed about half of
the country's population. Shortages are exacerbated by the
country's limited transportation network, which is currently
being rebuilt. A report by the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) states that Afghanistan was nearing self-
sufficiency in grain production.
Shrikant Jagtap (center), the senior agriculture adviser for the Bamyan
Provincial Reconstruction Team, and his interpreter, Hamidullah, discuss
agricultural programs with Sayed Khadin, a potato farmer, in front of one
of his fields. Potatoes have become the main cash crop for the province,
contributing millions of dollars to its economy every year.
The availability of land suitable for grazing has traditionally made animal
husbandry an important part of the economy. There are two main types of
animal husbandry: sedentary, practiced by farmers who raise both animals
and crops; and nomadic, practiced by animal herders known as Kuchis.
Natural pastures cover some 7,500,000 acres (30,000 km2) but are being
overgrazed. The northern regions around Mazar-i-Sharif and Maymanah
were the home range for about six million karakul sheep in the late 1990s.
Most flocks move to the highlands in the summer to pastures in the north.
Oxen are the primary draft power and farmers often share animals for
plowing. Poultry are traditionally kept in many houses, mostly in rural
households.
 Much of Afghanistan's livestock was removed from the country by early waves of refugees who fled
to neighboring Pakistan and Iran. In 2001, the livestock population in Afghanistan had declined by
about 40% since 1998. In 2002, this figure was estimated to have declined further to 60%. An FAO
survey done in the northern regions in spring 2002 showed that in four provinces (Balkh, Jowzjan,
Sar-e Pol, and Faryab), there was a loss of about 84% of cattle from 1997 to 2002 and around 80%
of sheep and goat. The majority of Afghans traditionally raise sheep instead of goats because goat
meat is not popular in Afghanistan. After 2002, the Afghan ministry of agriculture and livestock with
assistance from USAID have been helping to regrow livestock numbers throughout the country.
This was done by providing Afghan villagers training and animals to start with.[20] The Agriculture
Minister Mohammad Asef Rahimi stated that over the past decade arable land had increased from
2.1 million hectares to 8.1 million hectares, wheat production from 5.1 million tonnes to 2.3 million
tonnes, nurseries from 75,000 hectares to 119,000 hectares and grape production from 364,000
tonnes to 615,000 tonnes. Almond production jumped from 19,000 to 56,000 tonnes and cotton
from 20,000 to 45,000 tonnes, with the saffron yield reaching 2,000 kilograms.[21]
Fishing
 The country has plenty of water reserves and suitable climate for fish farming. Fishing
takes place in the lakes and rivers, particularly in the Kabul River around the Jalalabad
area. Fish constitute a smaller part of the Afghan diet today because fish farmers are
unable to produce enough fish to keep up with the demands of customers. Using
explosives for fishing, called dynamite fishing, became popular in the 1980s and is still
practiced by some even though it is illegal today. The annual catch was about 900 tons in
2003. Most fish and seafood is imported from neighboring Pakistan, Iran, the United Arab
Emirates and other countries. In recent years, USAID has helped many Afghans in
establishing fish farms across the country. There are about 300 fish farms throughout the
country and the largest one is at the Qargha, which supplies fish eggs to the other fish
farms.
Forestry
 Afghanistan's timber has been greatly depleted, and since the mid-1980s, only about 3% of the land area has
been forested, mainly in the east. Significant stands of trees have been destroyed by the ravages of the war.
Exploitation has been hampered by lack of power and access roads. Moreover, the distribution of the forest is
uneven, and most of the remaining woodland is only found in the Kunar, Nuristan and the Paktia regions in the
east of the country.
 The natural forests in Afghanistan are mainly of two types: dense forests of oak trees, walnuttrees, and many
other species of nuts that grow in the southeast, and on the northern and northeastern slopes of the Sulaiman
ranges; and sparsely distributed short trees and shrubs on all other slopes of the Hindu Kush. The dense forests
of the southeast cover only 2.7% of the country. Roundwood production in 2003 was 3,148,000 cubic metres,
with 44% used for fuel.
 The destruction of the forests to create agricultural land, logging, forest fires, plant diseases, and insect pests
are all causes of the reduction in forest coverage. Illegal logging and clear-cutting by timber smugglers have
exacerbated this destructive process. There is currently a ban on cutting new timber in Afghanistan. Prior to
2001 and under Taliban rule, massive deforestation of the country side was permitted and Afghans moved large
quantities of logs into storage centers for profit, where the trees wait for processing on an individual tree by
tree request.
Trade and Industry
 Marble factory in Herat. Current marble exports are estimated at $15 million per year.
With improved extraction, processing, infrastructure, and investment, the industry has the
potential to grow into a $450 million per year business.
 The current trade between Afghanistan and other countries is at US$5 billion a year. In
1996, legal exports (excluding opium) were estimated at $80 million and imports
estimated at $150 million per year. Since the collapse of the Taliban government in 2001,
new trade relations are emerging with the United States, Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, the
EU, Japan, Uzbekistan, India and other countries. Trade between Afghanistan and the U.S.
is beginning to grow at a fast pace, reaching up to approximately $500 million per year.
Afghan handwooven rugs are one of the most popular products exported from the
country. Other products include hand crafted antique replicas as well as leather and furs.
Afghanistan is endowed with a wealth of natural resources, including
extensive deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, marble, gold, copper,
chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semi-
precious stones, and many rare earth elements. In 2006, a U.S. Geological
Survey estimated that Afghanistan has as much as 36 trillion cubic feet
(1.0×1012 m3) of natural gas, 3.6 billion barrels (570×106 m3) of oil and
condensate reserves. According to a 2007 assessment, Afghanistan has
significant amounts of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources.
Geologists also found indications of abundant deposits of colored stones
and gemstones, including emerald, ruby, sapphire, garnet, lapis, kunzite,
spinel, tourmaline and peridot.
 In 2010, U.S. Pentagon officials along with American geologists have revealed the
discovery of nearly $1 trillion in untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan. A memo from
the Pentagon stated that Afghanistan could become the "Saudi Arabia of lithium". Some
believe, including Afghan President Hamid Karzai, that the untapped minerals are worth
at least $3 trillion. Another US Geological Survey estimate from September 2011 showed
that the Khanashin carbonatites in the Helmand Province of the country have an
estimated 1 million metric tonnes of rare earth elements. Regina Dubey, Acting Director
for the Department of Defence Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO)
stated that "this is just one more piece of evidence that Afghanistan's mineral sector has
a bright future.
 Afghanistan signed a copper deal with China (Metallurgical Corp. of China Ltd.) in 2008, which is to
a large scale project that involves the investment of $2.8 billion by China and an annual income of
about $400 million to the Afghan government. The country's Ainak copper mine, located in Logar
province, is one of the biggest in the world and is expected to provide jobs to 20,000 Afghans. It is
estimated to hold at least 11 million tonnes or US$33 billion worth of copper. Experts believe that
the production of copper could begin within two to three years and the iron ore in five to seven
years as of 2010. The country's other recently announced treasure is the Hajigak iron ore mine,
located 130 miles west of Kabul and is believed to hold an estimated 1.8 billion to 2 billion metric
tons of the mineral used to make steel. AFISCO, an Indian consortium of seven companies, led by
the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), and Canada's Kilo Goldmines Ltd are expected to jointly
invest $14.6 billion in developing the Hajigak iron mine. The country has several coal mines but
need to be modernized.
 Afghanistan's important resource in the past has been natural gas, which was first tapped in 1967.
During the 1980s, gas sales accounted for $300 million a year in export revenues (56% of the total).
90% of these exports went to the Soviet Union to pay for imports and debts. However, during the
withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent
sabotage by the Mujahideen. Gas production has dropped from a high of 8.2 million cubic metres
(2.9 × 108 cu ft) per day in the 1980s to a low of about 600,000 cubic meters (2.2 × 107 cu ft) in
2001. After the formation of the new Karzai administration, production of natural gas has been
restored again. A locally owned company, Azizi Hotak General Trading Group, is currently the main
supplier of diesel fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and LPG in Afghanistan.[39] In December 2011, Afghanistan
signed an oil exploration contract with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the
development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river.[40] The state will have its first oil refineries
within the next three years, after which it will receive very little of the profits from the sale of the oil
and natural gas. CNPC began Afghan oil production in late October 2012, with extracting 1.5
million barrels of oil annually.
 Trade in goods smuggled into Pakistan once constituted a major source of revenue for
Afghanistan. Many of the goods that were smuggled into Pakistan have originally
entered Afghanistan from Pakistan, where they fell under the Afghan Trade and Transit
Agreement (ATTA). This permitted goods bound for Afghanistan to transit through
Pakistan free of duty. This resulted in considerable problems for the Pakistani
government, particularly its customs bureau who realized that many of the items being
resold on the black market in Pakistan were the very same items being allowed duty-free
exemption from Pakistani ports (mainly Karachi) on their way to Afghanistan. When
Pakistan clamped down in 2003 on the types of goods permitted duty-free transit, and
introducing stringent measures and labels to prevent such practices, re-routing of goods
through Iran from the Persian Gulf increased significantly.
 The pre-2003 smuggling trade provided undocumented jobs to tens of thousands of
Afghans and Pakistanis, but also helped fuel the black economy, often intertwined with
the drug cartels, of both countries. Afghanistan and Pakistan recently signed into law a
new Afghan-Pak Trade and Transit Agreement (APTTA), which allows their shipping
trucks to transit goods within both nations. This revised US-sponsored APTTA agreement
also allows Afghan trucks to transport exports to India via Pakistan through the Wagah
crossing point. According to Afghanistan's Chamber of Commerce and Industries deputy
head, Khan Jan Alokozai, about 500 shipping containers of trade goods enter
Afghanistan via the Torkham and Wesh-Chaman border crossings on a daily basis. Other
major trade routes in Afghanistan are via the crossing borders in Zaranj, Islam Qala,
Hairatan, Shir Khan Bandar, and Towraghondi.
Economic Development & Recovery
Afghanistan embarked on a modest economic development program in
the 1930s. The government founded banks; introduced paper money;
established a university; expanded primary, secondary, and technical
schools; and sent students abroad for education. In 1952 it created the
Helmand Valley Authority to manage the economic development of the
Helmand and Arghandab valleys through irrigation and land
development, a scheme which remains one of the country's most
important capital resources.
In 1956, the government promulgated the first in a
long series of ambitious development plans. By the late
1970s, these had achieved only mixed results due to
flaws in the planning process as well as inadequate
funding and a shortage of the skilled managers and
technicians needed for implementation.
 Da Afghanistan Bank serves as the central bank of the nation and the "Afghani" (AFN) is
the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 53 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. There
are over 16 different banks operating in the country, including Afghanistan International
Bank, Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, First Micro
Finance Bank, and others. A new law on private investment provides three to seven-year
tax holidays to eligible companies and a four-year exemption from exports tariffs and
duties. According to a UN report in 2007, Afghanistan has received over $3.3 billion from
its expatriate community in 2006. UN officials familiar with the issue said remittances to
Afghanistan could have been more if the banking regulations are more convenient.
Additionally, improvements to the business-enabling environment have resulted in more
than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003.
 The $35 billion New Kabul master plan, in which the city is expected to expand north
towards Bagram Air Base.
 Afghanistan is a member of SAARC, ECO, OIC, and has an observer status in the Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation (SCO). It seeks to complete the so-called New Silk Road trade
project, which is aimed to connecting South Asia with Central Asia and the Middle East.
This way Afghanistan will be able to collect large fees from trade passing through the
country, including from the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline. Foreign Minister Zalmai Rassoul
stated that his nation's "goal is to achieve an Afghan economy whose growth is based on
trade, private enterprise and investment". Experts believe that this will revolutionize the
economy of the region.
The capital of Kabul symbolizes the spirits of all Afghans and international
cooperation, sets at the heart of this highly resourceful region, with great
potential to turn into a business hub. After 2002, the new geo-political
dynamics and its subsequent business opportunities, rapid urban
population growth and emergence of high unemployment, triggered the
planning of urban extension towards the immediate north of Kabul, in the
form of a new city.
In 2006, President Hamid Karzai established an independent board for the
development of Kabul New City. The board brought together key
stakeholders, including relevant government agencies, representation
from private sector, urban specialists and economists, with cooperation
from the government of Japan and French private sector, to prepare a
master plan for the city in the context of Greater Kabul. The master plan
and its implementation strategy for 2025 were endorsed by the Afghan
Cabinet in early 2009. The initiative turned into one of the biggest
commercially viable national development project of the country,
expected to be led by the private sector.
 As part of an attempt to modernize the city and boost the economy, a number of new
high rise buildings are under construction by various developers. An initial concept
design called the City of Light Development, envisioned by Hisham N. Ashkouri, for the
development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise was
proposed for a multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the
limits of the Old City of Kabul, along the southern side of the Kabul River and along Jade
Meywand Avenue. Some of the national development projects include the $35 bn New
Kabul City next to the capital, the Ghazi Amanullah Khan City east of Jalalabad, and the
Aino Mena in Kandahar. Similar development projects are also taking place in Herat in
the west, Mazar-e-Sharif in the north and in other cities.
In the last decade, companies such as Coca Cola Company and PepsiCo
launched or re-launched operations in Kabul. In addition, a number of
local mineral water and juice plants, including factories of other products,
were built. This not only promotes foreign investment but also makes the
country less dependant on imports from neighboring countries and helps
provide employment opportunity to many Afghans. Watan Group is a
company based in Afghanistan that provides telecommunications,
logistics and security services.
Tourism
Tourism in Afghanistan was at its peak in 1977. Many tourists from around
the world came to visit Afghanistan, including from India, neighboring Iran
and Pakistan, the Soviet Union, Europe, North America and other places.
All this ended with the start of the April 1978 Saur Revolution. It is
expected that once the security situation is normal, Afghanistan will
become a major tourist destination. Most westerners feel that Afghanistan
is too dangerous for them to tour but the Afghan expatriates and those
particularly from the Muslim world do not see it that dangerous.
The country has three international airports, including the Kabul
International Airport, Kandahar International Airport and Herat
International Airport. Mazar-i-Sharif Airport and Ghazni Airport are also
being upgraded to become international in the coming years. The city of
Kabul has many guest houses and hotels, including the Hotel Inter-
Continental Kabul, Safi Landmark Hotel, and at least one 5-star Serena
Hotel. A Marriott is under construction next to the U.S. Embassy.
Nature Landscapes Of Afghanistan
Tourist Sites within Country:
The Ancient City of Kabul
Gardens of Babur
National Museum of Afghanistan
Paghman Gardens
Qargha and many other places
Band-e Amir National Park in Bamyan
The ancient city of Herat
Herat Citadel
Minaret of Jam in the Shahrak District of Ghor Province
Shrine of Hazrat Ali in Mazar-i-Sharif
Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar
Mausoleums of Ghaznavid rulers in Ghazni
Mausoleum of Amanullah Khan, Bacha Khan, and other sites in Jalalabad
Sightseeing at Parwan Province, (i.e. ancient town of Bagram), Panjshir
Province (mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Massoud in Bazarak), Badakhshan
Province, and other places.
National Accounts
GDP: purchasing power parity $33.55 billion, with an exchange rate at
$19.85 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
11% (2012 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2011 est.)[1]
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 25.6%
 services: 54.4%
 note: data excludes opium production
 Population below poverty line:
 36% (2009)
 Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 lowest 10%: 3.8%
 highest 10%: 24%
 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.8% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 Labor force: 15 million (2004)
country comparison to the world: 39
 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 78.6%, industry 5.7%, services 15.7% (2009)
 Unemployment rate: 35% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 180
 Budget:
 revenues: $1.58 billion
 expenditures: $3.3 billion
 Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food-
products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal,
copper
 Electricity - production: 913.1 million kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 Electricity - production by source:
Electricity - consumption: 2.226 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.377 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production: 1,950 barrels per day (310 m3/d) (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Oil - consumption: 4,229 barrels per day (672.4 m3/d) (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Oil - proved reserves: 1,600,000,000 barrels (250,000,000 m3) (2006)[26]
 Natural gas - production: 220 million m³ (2001)
 Natural gas - consumption: 220 million m³ (2001)
 Natural gas - proved reserves: 15.7 trillion cubic feet (2006 est.)[26]
 Agriculture - products: opium poppies, wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts
 Exports: $376 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
and pelts, and gemstone
 Exports - partners: Pakistan 48%, India 19%, Russia 9%, Iran 5% (FY11/12 est.)

Imports: $6.39 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and other capital goods,
food, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partners: Pakistan 13.7%, Russia 12.6%, Uzbekistan
11.5%, Iran 9.1% (FY11/12 est.)
Debt - external: $1.28 to $2.3 billion total (2011)[57]
Russia - $987 million
Asian Development Bank - $ 596 million
World Bank - $435 million
International Monetary Fund - $114 million
Germany - $18 million
Saudi Development Fund - $47 million
Islamic Development Bank - $11 million
Bulgaria - $51 million
Kuwait Development Fund - $22 million
Iran - $10 million
Opec - $1.8 million
Current account balance: -$743.9 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Currency: Afghani (AFN)
Exchange rates: afghanis (AFA) per US dollar - 50 = $1
46.75 (2011)
46.45 (2010)
Fiscal year: 21 March - 21 March
Thanks!!!
Ahmad Waleed Nawab
Website: www.ahmadwaleednawab.webs.com

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Economic of afghanistan

  • 1. By: Ahmad Waleed Nawab Economic of Afghanistan
  • 2. Rank 91st Currency Afghani (AFN) Fiscal Year 21 March - 20 March Trade organizations SAARC, ECO, negotiating SCO and WTO accession Statistics GDP $33.55 billion (2012 est.) GDP growth 11% (2012 est.) GDP per capita $1,000 (2011)[1] GDP by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 25.6% services: 54.4% (2011 est.) Inflation (CPI) 13.8% (2011 est.)
  • 3. Population below poverty line 36% (2009) Labor force 15 million (2004) Labor force by occupation agriculture 78.6%, industry 5.7%, services 15.7% (2009) Unemployment 38% (2008) Main industries small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food- products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper Ease-of-doing-business rank 160th[2]
  • 4. External Exports $376 million (2012 est.) Export goods opium, fruits and nuts, Afghan rugs, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, and gemstone Main export partners Pakistan 33.1% India 24.9% Tajikistan 8.7% United States 5.8% (2012 est.) [3] Imports $6.39 billion (2012 est.)
  • 5. Import goods machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles and petroleum products Main import partners Pakistan 25.8% United States 17.4% Russia 8.4% India 5.5% China 5.4% Kazakhstan 4.5% Germany 4.3% (2012 est.)[4] Public finances Public debt $1.28 billion (FY10/11) Revenues $1.58 billion Expenses $50.000 billion
  • 6. The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly since 2002 due to the infusion of billions of dollars in international assistance and investments, as well as remittances from Afghan expats. The recent improvement is also due to dramatic improvements in agricultural production and the end of a four-year drought in most of the country.
  • 7. The government of Afghanistan claims that the country holds up to $3 trillion in proven untapped mineral deposits, which could make it one of the richest mining regions on earth. However, due to the conflicts, it remains one of the least developed countries in the world, ranking 175th on the United Nations' Human Development Index. The nation's GDP stands at about $34 billion with an exchange rate of $19.85 billion, and the GDP per capita is about $1,150.
  • 8. About 35% of its population is unemployed and 36% live below the national poverty line, suffering from shortages of housing, clean drinking water, and electricity. The Karzai administration along with international donors have remained committed to improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing development, jobs programs, medical care, and economic reform.
  • 9. Contents  Economic History  Agriculture & Livestock  Fishing  Forestry  Trade & Industry  Economic Development & Recovery  Tourism  National Accounts
  • 10. Economic History  Historically, there has been a lack of information and reliable statistics about Afghanistan's economy. In the early modern period under the rule of kings Abdur Rahman Khan (1880–1901) and Habibullah Khan (1901–1919), a great deal of Afghan commerce was centrally controlled by the Afghan government. The Afghan monarchs were eager to develop the stature of government and the country's military capability, and so attempted to raise money by the imposition of state monopolies on the sale of commodoties and high taxes. This slowed the long-term development of Afghanistan during that period. Western techonogies and manufacturing methods were slowly introduced during these eras at the command of the Afghan ruler, but in general only according to the logistical requirements of the growing army.
  • 11. An emphasis was placed on the manufacture of weapons and other military materiel. This process was in the hands of a small number of western experts invited to Kabul by the Afghan kings. Otherwise, it was not possible for outsiders, particularly westerners, to set up large-scale enterprises in Afghanistan during that period.
  • 12. The first prominent plan to develop Afghanistan's economy in modern times was the Helmand Valley Authority project, modelled on the Tennessee Valley Authority in the United States, which was expected to be of primary economic importance.[14] The country began facing severe economic hardships during the 1970s when neighboring Pakistan, under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, began closing the Pakistan-Afghanistan border crossings. This move resulted in Afghanistan increasing political and economic ties with its northern neighbor, the powerful Soviet Union of that time.
  • 13. The 1979 Soviet invasion and ensuing civil war destroyed much of the country's limited infrastructure, and disrupted normal patterns of economic activity (See Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Economy). Eventually, Afghanistan went from a traditional economy to a centrally planned economy up until 2002 when it was replaced by a free market economy. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially since the 1980s due to disruption of trade and transport as well as loss of labor and capital. Continuing internal strife severely hampered domestic efforts to rebuild the nation or provide ways for the international community to help.
  • 14. According to the International Monetary Fund, the Afghan economy grew 20% in the fiscal year ending in March 2004, after expanding 30% in the previous 12 months. The growth is attributed to international aid and to the end of droughts. An estimated $4.4 billion of aid entered the nation from 2002 to 2004. A GDP of $4 billion in fiscal year 2003 was recalculated by the IMF to $6.1
  • 15. Agriculture and livestock The Afghan economy has always been agricultural, despite the fact that only 12% of its total land is arable and about 6% is currently cultivated. Agriculture production is constrained by an almost total dependence on erratic winter snows and spring rains for water. As of 2007, the country's fruit and nut exports were at $113 million per year, but according to an estimate could grow to more than $800 million per year in 10 years given sufficient investment. Afghanistan is known for producing some of the finest fruits, veggies, turtles, and especially pomegranates, apricots, grapes, melons, and mulberries.
  • 16. Several provinces in the north of the country (i.e. Badghis and Samangan) are famous for pistachio cultivation but the area currently lacks proper marketing and processing plants. It is claimed that some Indian companies buy Afghan pistachios for a very low price, process them in India and sell to western countries as Indian products. However, the Afghan government is planning to build storage facilities for pistachios since receiving bumper crops in 2010. The Bamyan Province in central Afghanistan is known for growing superior potatoes, which on an average produces 140,000 to 170,000 tones.
  • 17. Wheat and cereal production is Afghanistan's traditional agricultural mainstay. National wheat production in 2010 was 4,532 MT. The overall agricultural production dramatically declined following four years of drought as well as the sustained fighting and instability in rural areas. Soviet efforts to disrupt production in resistance-dominated areas also contributed to this decline. Furthermore, since 2002 more than 4 million refugees returned to Afghanistan.
  • 18. Many of these former refugees are now involved in the farming industry. Some studies indicate that agricultural production and livestock numbers may only be sufficient to feed about half of the country's population. Shortages are exacerbated by the country's limited transportation network, which is currently being rebuilt. A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) states that Afghanistan was nearing self- sufficiency in grain production.
  • 19. Shrikant Jagtap (center), the senior agriculture adviser for the Bamyan Provincial Reconstruction Team, and his interpreter, Hamidullah, discuss agricultural programs with Sayed Khadin, a potato farmer, in front of one of his fields. Potatoes have become the main cash crop for the province, contributing millions of dollars to its economy every year.
  • 20. The availability of land suitable for grazing has traditionally made animal husbandry an important part of the economy. There are two main types of animal husbandry: sedentary, practiced by farmers who raise both animals and crops; and nomadic, practiced by animal herders known as Kuchis. Natural pastures cover some 7,500,000 acres (30,000 km2) but are being overgrazed. The northern regions around Mazar-i-Sharif and Maymanah were the home range for about six million karakul sheep in the late 1990s. Most flocks move to the highlands in the summer to pastures in the north. Oxen are the primary draft power and farmers often share animals for plowing. Poultry are traditionally kept in many houses, mostly in rural households.
  • 21.  Much of Afghanistan's livestock was removed from the country by early waves of refugees who fled to neighboring Pakistan and Iran. In 2001, the livestock population in Afghanistan had declined by about 40% since 1998. In 2002, this figure was estimated to have declined further to 60%. An FAO survey done in the northern regions in spring 2002 showed that in four provinces (Balkh, Jowzjan, Sar-e Pol, and Faryab), there was a loss of about 84% of cattle from 1997 to 2002 and around 80% of sheep and goat. The majority of Afghans traditionally raise sheep instead of goats because goat meat is not popular in Afghanistan. After 2002, the Afghan ministry of agriculture and livestock with assistance from USAID have been helping to regrow livestock numbers throughout the country. This was done by providing Afghan villagers training and animals to start with.[20] The Agriculture Minister Mohammad Asef Rahimi stated that over the past decade arable land had increased from 2.1 million hectares to 8.1 million hectares, wheat production from 5.1 million tonnes to 2.3 million tonnes, nurseries from 75,000 hectares to 119,000 hectares and grape production from 364,000 tonnes to 615,000 tonnes. Almond production jumped from 19,000 to 56,000 tonnes and cotton from 20,000 to 45,000 tonnes, with the saffron yield reaching 2,000 kilograms.[21]
  • 22. Fishing  The country has plenty of water reserves and suitable climate for fish farming. Fishing takes place in the lakes and rivers, particularly in the Kabul River around the Jalalabad area. Fish constitute a smaller part of the Afghan diet today because fish farmers are unable to produce enough fish to keep up with the demands of customers. Using explosives for fishing, called dynamite fishing, became popular in the 1980s and is still practiced by some even though it is illegal today. The annual catch was about 900 tons in 2003. Most fish and seafood is imported from neighboring Pakistan, Iran, the United Arab Emirates and other countries. In recent years, USAID has helped many Afghans in establishing fish farms across the country. There are about 300 fish farms throughout the country and the largest one is at the Qargha, which supplies fish eggs to the other fish farms.
  • 23. Forestry  Afghanistan's timber has been greatly depleted, and since the mid-1980s, only about 3% of the land area has been forested, mainly in the east. Significant stands of trees have been destroyed by the ravages of the war. Exploitation has been hampered by lack of power and access roads. Moreover, the distribution of the forest is uneven, and most of the remaining woodland is only found in the Kunar, Nuristan and the Paktia regions in the east of the country.  The natural forests in Afghanistan are mainly of two types: dense forests of oak trees, walnuttrees, and many other species of nuts that grow in the southeast, and on the northern and northeastern slopes of the Sulaiman ranges; and sparsely distributed short trees and shrubs on all other slopes of the Hindu Kush. The dense forests of the southeast cover only 2.7% of the country. Roundwood production in 2003 was 3,148,000 cubic metres, with 44% used for fuel.  The destruction of the forests to create agricultural land, logging, forest fires, plant diseases, and insect pests are all causes of the reduction in forest coverage. Illegal logging and clear-cutting by timber smugglers have exacerbated this destructive process. There is currently a ban on cutting new timber in Afghanistan. Prior to 2001 and under Taliban rule, massive deforestation of the country side was permitted and Afghans moved large quantities of logs into storage centers for profit, where the trees wait for processing on an individual tree by tree request.
  • 24. Trade and Industry  Marble factory in Herat. Current marble exports are estimated at $15 million per year. With improved extraction, processing, infrastructure, and investment, the industry has the potential to grow into a $450 million per year business.  The current trade between Afghanistan and other countries is at US$5 billion a year. In 1996, legal exports (excluding opium) were estimated at $80 million and imports estimated at $150 million per year. Since the collapse of the Taliban government in 2001, new trade relations are emerging with the United States, Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, the EU, Japan, Uzbekistan, India and other countries. Trade between Afghanistan and the U.S. is beginning to grow at a fast pace, reaching up to approximately $500 million per year. Afghan handwooven rugs are one of the most popular products exported from the country. Other products include hand crafted antique replicas as well as leather and furs.
  • 25. Afghanistan is endowed with a wealth of natural resources, including extensive deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, marble, gold, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semi- precious stones, and many rare earth elements. In 2006, a U.S. Geological Survey estimated that Afghanistan has as much as 36 trillion cubic feet (1.0×1012 m3) of natural gas, 3.6 billion barrels (570×106 m3) of oil and condensate reserves. According to a 2007 assessment, Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Geologists also found indications of abundant deposits of colored stones and gemstones, including emerald, ruby, sapphire, garnet, lapis, kunzite, spinel, tourmaline and peridot.
  • 26.  In 2010, U.S. Pentagon officials along with American geologists have revealed the discovery of nearly $1 trillion in untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan. A memo from the Pentagon stated that Afghanistan could become the "Saudi Arabia of lithium". Some believe, including Afghan President Hamid Karzai, that the untapped minerals are worth at least $3 trillion. Another US Geological Survey estimate from September 2011 showed that the Khanashin carbonatites in the Helmand Province of the country have an estimated 1 million metric tonnes of rare earth elements. Regina Dubey, Acting Director for the Department of Defence Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) stated that "this is just one more piece of evidence that Afghanistan's mineral sector has a bright future.
  • 27.  Afghanistan signed a copper deal with China (Metallurgical Corp. of China Ltd.) in 2008, which is to a large scale project that involves the investment of $2.8 billion by China and an annual income of about $400 million to the Afghan government. The country's Ainak copper mine, located in Logar province, is one of the biggest in the world and is expected to provide jobs to 20,000 Afghans. It is estimated to hold at least 11 million tonnes or US$33 billion worth of copper. Experts believe that the production of copper could begin within two to three years and the iron ore in five to seven years as of 2010. The country's other recently announced treasure is the Hajigak iron ore mine, located 130 miles west of Kabul and is believed to hold an estimated 1.8 billion to 2 billion metric tons of the mineral used to make steel. AFISCO, an Indian consortium of seven companies, led by the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), and Canada's Kilo Goldmines Ltd are expected to jointly invest $14.6 billion in developing the Hajigak iron mine. The country has several coal mines but need to be modernized.
  • 28.  Afghanistan's important resource in the past has been natural gas, which was first tapped in 1967. During the 1980s, gas sales accounted for $300 million a year in export revenues (56% of the total). 90% of these exports went to the Soviet Union to pay for imports and debts. However, during the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent sabotage by the Mujahideen. Gas production has dropped from a high of 8.2 million cubic metres (2.9 × 108 cu ft) per day in the 1980s to a low of about 600,000 cubic meters (2.2 × 107 cu ft) in 2001. After the formation of the new Karzai administration, production of natural gas has been restored again. A locally owned company, Azizi Hotak General Trading Group, is currently the main supplier of diesel fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and LPG in Afghanistan.[39] In December 2011, Afghanistan signed an oil exploration contract with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river.[40] The state will have its first oil refineries within the next three years, after which it will receive very little of the profits from the sale of the oil and natural gas. CNPC began Afghan oil production in late October 2012, with extracting 1.5 million barrels of oil annually.
  • 29.  Trade in goods smuggled into Pakistan once constituted a major source of revenue for Afghanistan. Many of the goods that were smuggled into Pakistan have originally entered Afghanistan from Pakistan, where they fell under the Afghan Trade and Transit Agreement (ATTA). This permitted goods bound for Afghanistan to transit through Pakistan free of duty. This resulted in considerable problems for the Pakistani government, particularly its customs bureau who realized that many of the items being resold on the black market in Pakistan were the very same items being allowed duty-free exemption from Pakistani ports (mainly Karachi) on their way to Afghanistan. When Pakistan clamped down in 2003 on the types of goods permitted duty-free transit, and introducing stringent measures and labels to prevent such practices, re-routing of goods through Iran from the Persian Gulf increased significantly.
  • 30.  The pre-2003 smuggling trade provided undocumented jobs to tens of thousands of Afghans and Pakistanis, but also helped fuel the black economy, often intertwined with the drug cartels, of both countries. Afghanistan and Pakistan recently signed into law a new Afghan-Pak Trade and Transit Agreement (APTTA), which allows their shipping trucks to transit goods within both nations. This revised US-sponsored APTTA agreement also allows Afghan trucks to transport exports to India via Pakistan through the Wagah crossing point. According to Afghanistan's Chamber of Commerce and Industries deputy head, Khan Jan Alokozai, about 500 shipping containers of trade goods enter Afghanistan via the Torkham and Wesh-Chaman border crossings on a daily basis. Other major trade routes in Afghanistan are via the crossing borders in Zaranj, Islam Qala, Hairatan, Shir Khan Bandar, and Towraghondi.
  • 31. Economic Development & Recovery Afghanistan embarked on a modest economic development program in the 1930s. The government founded banks; introduced paper money; established a university; expanded primary, secondary, and technical schools; and sent students abroad for education. In 1952 it created the Helmand Valley Authority to manage the economic development of the Helmand and Arghandab valleys through irrigation and land development, a scheme which remains one of the country's most important capital resources.
  • 32. In 1956, the government promulgated the first in a long series of ambitious development plans. By the late 1970s, these had achieved only mixed results due to flaws in the planning process as well as inadequate funding and a shortage of the skilled managers and technicians needed for implementation.
  • 33.  Da Afghanistan Bank serves as the central bank of the nation and the "Afghani" (AFN) is the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 53 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. There are over 16 different banks operating in the country, including Afghanistan International Bank, Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, First Micro Finance Bank, and others. A new law on private investment provides three to seven-year tax holidays to eligible companies and a four-year exemption from exports tariffs and duties. According to a UN report in 2007, Afghanistan has received over $3.3 billion from its expatriate community in 2006. UN officials familiar with the issue said remittances to Afghanistan could have been more if the banking regulations are more convenient. Additionally, improvements to the business-enabling environment have resulted in more than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003.
  • 34.  The $35 billion New Kabul master plan, in which the city is expected to expand north towards Bagram Air Base.  Afghanistan is a member of SAARC, ECO, OIC, and has an observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). It seeks to complete the so-called New Silk Road trade project, which is aimed to connecting South Asia with Central Asia and the Middle East. This way Afghanistan will be able to collect large fees from trade passing through the country, including from the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline. Foreign Minister Zalmai Rassoul stated that his nation's "goal is to achieve an Afghan economy whose growth is based on trade, private enterprise and investment". Experts believe that this will revolutionize the economy of the region.
  • 35. The capital of Kabul symbolizes the spirits of all Afghans and international cooperation, sets at the heart of this highly resourceful region, with great potential to turn into a business hub. After 2002, the new geo-political dynamics and its subsequent business opportunities, rapid urban population growth and emergence of high unemployment, triggered the planning of urban extension towards the immediate north of Kabul, in the form of a new city.
  • 36. In 2006, President Hamid Karzai established an independent board for the development of Kabul New City. The board brought together key stakeholders, including relevant government agencies, representation from private sector, urban specialists and economists, with cooperation from the government of Japan and French private sector, to prepare a master plan for the city in the context of Greater Kabul. The master plan and its implementation strategy for 2025 were endorsed by the Afghan Cabinet in early 2009. The initiative turned into one of the biggest commercially viable national development project of the country, expected to be led by the private sector.
  • 37.  As part of an attempt to modernize the city and boost the economy, a number of new high rise buildings are under construction by various developers. An initial concept design called the City of Light Development, envisioned by Hisham N. Ashkouri, for the development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise was proposed for a multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the limits of the Old City of Kabul, along the southern side of the Kabul River and along Jade Meywand Avenue. Some of the national development projects include the $35 bn New Kabul City next to the capital, the Ghazi Amanullah Khan City east of Jalalabad, and the Aino Mena in Kandahar. Similar development projects are also taking place in Herat in the west, Mazar-e-Sharif in the north and in other cities.
  • 38. In the last decade, companies such as Coca Cola Company and PepsiCo launched or re-launched operations in Kabul. In addition, a number of local mineral water and juice plants, including factories of other products, were built. This not only promotes foreign investment but also makes the country less dependant on imports from neighboring countries and helps provide employment opportunity to many Afghans. Watan Group is a company based in Afghanistan that provides telecommunications, logistics and security services.
  • 39. Tourism Tourism in Afghanistan was at its peak in 1977. Many tourists from around the world came to visit Afghanistan, including from India, neighboring Iran and Pakistan, the Soviet Union, Europe, North America and other places. All this ended with the start of the April 1978 Saur Revolution. It is expected that once the security situation is normal, Afghanistan will become a major tourist destination. Most westerners feel that Afghanistan is too dangerous for them to tour but the Afghan expatriates and those particularly from the Muslim world do not see it that dangerous.
  • 40. The country has three international airports, including the Kabul International Airport, Kandahar International Airport and Herat International Airport. Mazar-i-Sharif Airport and Ghazni Airport are also being upgraded to become international in the coming years. The city of Kabul has many guest houses and hotels, including the Hotel Inter- Continental Kabul, Safi Landmark Hotel, and at least one 5-star Serena Hotel. A Marriott is under construction next to the U.S. Embassy.
  • 41. Nature Landscapes Of Afghanistan Tourist Sites within Country: The Ancient City of Kabul Gardens of Babur National Museum of Afghanistan Paghman Gardens Qargha and many other places Band-e Amir National Park in Bamyan The ancient city of Herat Herat Citadel
  • 42. Minaret of Jam in the Shahrak District of Ghor Province Shrine of Hazrat Ali in Mazar-i-Sharif Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar Mausoleums of Ghaznavid rulers in Ghazni Mausoleum of Amanullah Khan, Bacha Khan, and other sites in Jalalabad Sightseeing at Parwan Province, (i.e. ancient town of Bagram), Panjshir Province (mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Massoud in Bazarak), Badakhshan Province, and other places.
  • 43. National Accounts GDP: purchasing power parity $33.55 billion, with an exchange rate at $19.85 billion (2011 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 11% (2012 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2011 est.)[1] GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 25.6%
  • 44.  services: 54.4%  note: data excludes opium production  Population below poverty line:  36% (2009)  Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.8%  highest 10%: 24%  Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.8% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 19  Labor force: 15 million (2004) country comparison to the world: 39
  • 45.  Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 78.6%, industry 5.7%, services 15.7% (2009)  Unemployment rate: 35% (2009) country comparison to the world: 180  Budget:  revenues: $1.58 billion  expenditures: $3.3 billion  Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food- products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper  Electricity - production: 913.1 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 150  Electricity - production by source:
  • 46. Electricity - consumption: 2.226 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 137 Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.) Electricity - imports: 1.377 billion kWh (2009 est.) Oil - production: 1,950 barrels per day (310 m3/d) (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 210 Oil - consumption: 4,229 barrels per day (672.4 m3/d) (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 165 Oil - proved reserves: 1,600,000,000 barrels (250,000,000 m3) (2006)[26]
  • 47.  Natural gas - production: 220 million m³ (2001)  Natural gas - consumption: 220 million m³ (2001)  Natural gas - proved reserves: 15.7 trillion cubic feet (2006 est.)[26]  Agriculture - products: opium poppies, wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts  Exports: $376 million (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 164  Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, and gemstone  Exports - partners: Pakistan 48%, India 19%, Russia 9%, Iran 5% (FY11/12 est.) 
  • 48. Imports: $6.39 billion (2012 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products Imports - partners: Pakistan 13.7%, Russia 12.6%, Uzbekistan 11.5%, Iran 9.1% (FY11/12 est.) Debt - external: $1.28 to $2.3 billion total (2011)[57] Russia - $987 million
  • 49. Asian Development Bank - $ 596 million World Bank - $435 million International Monetary Fund - $114 million Germany - $18 million Saudi Development Fund - $47 million Islamic Development Bank - $11 million Bulgaria - $51 million Kuwait Development Fund - $22 million
  • 50. Iran - $10 million Opec - $1.8 million Current account balance: -$743.9 million (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 132 Currency: Afghani (AFN) Exchange rates: afghanis (AFA) per US dollar - 50 = $1 46.75 (2011) 46.45 (2010) Fiscal year: 21 March - 21 March
  • 51. Thanks!!! Ahmad Waleed Nawab Website: www.ahmadwaleednawab.webs.com