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Disentangling Gold Open Access
Disciplinary and Country Effect
Objectives
➢ Learn on differences by country on Gold OA publication
patterns
➢ Discuss and reflect on impact differences derived from
Gold OA, publisher type and specialization field
➢ Reflect on the changes in the publication industry derived
from the emergence of OA megajournals and implications for
research assessment
Agenda
I. Open Access and academia
➢ Beliefs and controversies
➢OA and Open Science
II. Journals and publishers
➢The APC model
➢ Predatory journals and OA detractors
➢ The new and the old oligopolies of publishers
III. Publication patterns worldwide
➢ Differences by country and discipline
➢ Three models of Gold OA publishing
Open Access and academia
Open Access and academia
“[…] it is up to the scientific
community to change the
system in a similar fashion and
in paralell to the open Access
and open science movements”
Larivière et al., 2015
Open Access and academia
Open Access and academia
1. OA = OA journals
2. All OA journals charge publication fees
3. The authors have to pay these fees
4. Publishing in non-OA journals = no OA
5. OA journals are low quality
6. OA mandates infringe academic freedom
Open Access and academia
EU Open Science
Monitor
2018
Data: Scopus
Open Access and academia
EU Open Science
Monitor
2018
Data: Scopus
Open Access and academia
EU Open Science
Monitor
2018
Data: Scopus
GOLD 39.7% | GREEN 26.1%
Open Access and academia
Data: Google Scholar, CrossRef
Open Access and academia
Data: WoS
Period: 2007-2015
Data sources, period
frame, OA definitions and
subject classifications are
important!!
Open Access and academia
Data: WoS
Period: 2007-2015
Data sources, period
frame, OA definitions and
subject classifications are
important!!
Open Access and academia
Open Access is one of the many
pillars by which Open Science
practices are supported
Journals and publishers
FIRST WAVE − LATE 1990s
• OA publishing dominated by individual initiatives
• Journal of of Medical Internet Research main exponent
SECOND WAVE − 1990s and 2000s
• Movement led by scientific societies
• Some examples: British Medical Journal | Scielo
THIRD WAVE − 2000s
• Birth of OA publishers: BMC and PLOS ONE
• Introduction of the APC (Article Processing Charges) business model
Björk & Solomon, 2012
Journals and publishers
THE APC MODEL AND PEER REVIEW SYSTEM
• Most sustainable solution to maintain
journals as a profitable business
• It allows ‘savings up to 30%’
compared to subscription model
• Ensure wide accessibility and visibility
to sci literature
• Speed of publication
• Peer review sloppy
• Opens door to predatory journals
• Journals have a monetary interest on
accepting and publishing manuscripts
• OA journals tend to have lower
Journal Impact Factor
“The open-Access movement has been a blessing to anyone
who has unscientific ideas and wants to get these ideas into
print”
Jeffrey Beall, 2013
Journals and publishers
Journals and publishers
• 2013 –Science Magazine publishes ‘Who’s afraid of peer review?’ by John
Bohannon, a scientific journalist
• He submitted 304 versions of a bogus paper to OA journals, 157 were accepted
• This was seen as an attack by Science Magazine to OA, as it sent the subtle
message that OA and poor quality were related.
Journals and publishers
• OA journals are not of a lesser quality than traditional ones but are younger
Björk & Solomon, 2012
• In fields such as Biomedicine OA journals with APC model have similar citation
rates than subscription-based journals
Solomon, Laakso & Björk, 2013
• “[O]verall positive impact trend for Top Open Access journals”.
Gumpenberger et al., 2013
Journals and publishers
Journals and publishers
Nature Springer, Plos One,
Hindawi and Frontiers are
the new oligopoly of OA
publishers
Journals and publishers
Author pays model
JOURNAL JIF 2017 € / article Pubs 2017 Benefits 2017
NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 12.35 3,850 € 4,511 1,736,735 €
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 4.12 1,370 € 25,333 34,706,210 €
PLOS ONE 2.77 1,373 € 21,083 28,946,959 €
BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 2.58 1,679 € 2,050 3,441,950 €
BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 2.42 1,745 € 1,070 1,867,150 €
BMJ OPEN 2.41 1,514 € 2,630 3,981,820 €
Publication patterns worldwide
• Does research ouput published in OA journals have less impact?
→ OA journals of lesser quality
• Are there differences by fields?
→ Concentration of OA journals in specific areas
• Are there differences by countries?
→ Differing country profiles
• Is it really OA what is driving these differences?
→ Characterization of publishers
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Pilot analysis:
Spain as a case
study
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Pilot analysis:
Spain as a case
study
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Pilot analysis:
Spain as a case
study
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Pilot analysis:
Spain as a case
study
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2007-2016
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2007-2016
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2005-2014
Pilot analysis:
Spain as a case
study
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2017
SPAIN
SOC SCI & HUM MATHS & COMP SCI
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2017
SPAIN
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2017
AUSTRIA
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2017
BRAZIL
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2017
UNITED KINGDOM
Publication patterns worldwide
Data: WoS
Period: 2007-2016
Distribution of OA
journals by scientific
area and impact
Publication patterns worldwide
OA journals by country:
output and impact
Publication patterns worldwide
COUNTRY PROFILES
MODEL I
United
Kingdom
Publication in English language
High JIF OA journals
Focused on Biomedical Sciences and Life Sciences
Main venues are OA megajournals for profit
OA publishers from USA, United Kingdom
Top OA journals: PLOS One, Scientific Reports, Nature
Communications, BMJ Open
Publication patterns worldwide
COUNTRY PROFILES
MODEL II
Brazil
Publication in national language
Low JIF OA journals
Diversified OA disciplinary profile
Main venues are OA small publishers publicly funded
OA publishers from Brazil
Top OA journals: PLOS One, Semina-Ciencias Agrarias, Ciencia Rural,
Ciencia & Saude Coletiva
Publication patterns worldwide
COUNTRY PROFILES
MODEL III
Spain
Publication in both English and national languages
Diversified publication profile based on JIF
Focused on Biomedical Sciences and Social Sciences & Humanities
Venues by field: OA megajournals for Biomed, small publishers for SSH
OA publishers from USA, United Kingdom, Spain
Top OA journals: PLOS One, Scientific Reports, Nutrición Hospitalaria,
Sensors, Journal of High Energy Physics
Publication patterns worldwide
MODEL I
• Big OA publishers
and megajournals
• Concentration of OA
pubs in Life Sciences
• Main language of
publication is English
MODEL II
• Small national
publishers
• Diversified
disciplinary
publication profile
• Main language of
publication is
national language
MODEL III
• Diversified
publication profile
with special focus on
SSH and Life and
Biomed Sci.
• Both national and
English language
• SSH small publishers,
Life Sci, large
publishers.
FORTHCOMING
D. Torres-Salinas, N. Robinson-Garcia & H.F. Moed.
Disentangling Gold Open Access.
Glanzel, W., Moed, H.F., Schmoch U., Thelwall, M. (2018). Handbook of
Science and Technology Indicators. Springer
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1311536
Disentangling Gold Open Access
Disciplinary and Country Effect
Nicolas Robinson-Garcia Daniel Torres-Salinas
References
Beall, J. (2013). The open-access movement is not really about open access. TripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique.
Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 11(2), 589–597.008
Björk, B.-C., & Solomon, D. (2012). Open access versus subscription journals: a comparison of scientific impact. BMC Medicine,
10, 73. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-73
Bohannon, J. (2013). Who’s Afraid of Peer Review? Science, 342(6154), 60–65. doi:10.1126/science.342.6154.60
Gumpenberger, C., Ovalle-Perandones, M.-A., & Gorraiz, J. (2013). On the impact of Gold Open Access journals. Scientometrics,
96(1), 221–238. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0902-7
Larivière, V., Haustein, S., & Mongeon, P. (2015). The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PloS One, 10(6),
e0127502.
Martín-Martín, A., Costas, R., van Leeuwen, T., & López-Cózar, E. D. (2018). Evidence of Open Access of scientific publications in
Google Scholar: a large-scale analysis. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1803.06161.
Solomon, D. J., Laakso, M., & Björk, B.-C. (2013). A longitudinal comparison of citation rates and growth among open access
journals. Journal of Informetrics, 7(3), 642–650. doi:10.1016/j.joi.2013.03.
Torres-Salinas, D., Robinson-Garcia, N., & Aguillo, I. F. (2016). Bibliometric and Benchmark Analysis of Gold Open Access in
Spain: Big Outpu... Profesional de La Informacion, 25(1), 17–24. doi:10.3145/epi.2016.ene.03

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Disentangling gold open access

  • 1. Disentangling Gold Open Access Disciplinary and Country Effect
  • 2. Objectives ➢ Learn on differences by country on Gold OA publication patterns ➢ Discuss and reflect on impact differences derived from Gold OA, publisher type and specialization field ➢ Reflect on the changes in the publication industry derived from the emergence of OA megajournals and implications for research assessment
  • 3. Agenda I. Open Access and academia ➢ Beliefs and controversies ➢OA and Open Science II. Journals and publishers ➢The APC model ➢ Predatory journals and OA detractors ➢ The new and the old oligopolies of publishers III. Publication patterns worldwide ➢ Differences by country and discipline ➢ Three models of Gold OA publishing
  • 4. Open Access and academia
  • 5. Open Access and academia “[…] it is up to the scientific community to change the system in a similar fashion and in paralell to the open Access and open science movements” Larivière et al., 2015
  • 6. Open Access and academia
  • 7. Open Access and academia 1. OA = OA journals 2. All OA journals charge publication fees 3. The authors have to pay these fees 4. Publishing in non-OA journals = no OA 5. OA journals are low quality 6. OA mandates infringe academic freedom
  • 8. Open Access and academia EU Open Science Monitor 2018 Data: Scopus
  • 9. Open Access and academia EU Open Science Monitor 2018 Data: Scopus
  • 10. Open Access and academia EU Open Science Monitor 2018 Data: Scopus GOLD 39.7% | GREEN 26.1%
  • 11. Open Access and academia Data: Google Scholar, CrossRef
  • 12. Open Access and academia Data: WoS Period: 2007-2015 Data sources, period frame, OA definitions and subject classifications are important!!
  • 13. Open Access and academia Data: WoS Period: 2007-2015 Data sources, period frame, OA definitions and subject classifications are important!!
  • 14. Open Access and academia Open Access is one of the many pillars by which Open Science practices are supported
  • 15. Journals and publishers FIRST WAVE − LATE 1990s • OA publishing dominated by individual initiatives • Journal of of Medical Internet Research main exponent SECOND WAVE − 1990s and 2000s • Movement led by scientific societies • Some examples: British Medical Journal | Scielo THIRD WAVE − 2000s • Birth of OA publishers: BMC and PLOS ONE • Introduction of the APC (Article Processing Charges) business model Björk & Solomon, 2012
  • 16. Journals and publishers THE APC MODEL AND PEER REVIEW SYSTEM • Most sustainable solution to maintain journals as a profitable business • It allows ‘savings up to 30%’ compared to subscription model • Ensure wide accessibility and visibility to sci literature • Speed of publication • Peer review sloppy • Opens door to predatory journals • Journals have a monetary interest on accepting and publishing manuscripts • OA journals tend to have lower Journal Impact Factor
  • 17. “The open-Access movement has been a blessing to anyone who has unscientific ideas and wants to get these ideas into print” Jeffrey Beall, 2013 Journals and publishers
  • 18. Journals and publishers • 2013 –Science Magazine publishes ‘Who’s afraid of peer review?’ by John Bohannon, a scientific journalist • He submitted 304 versions of a bogus paper to OA journals, 157 were accepted • This was seen as an attack by Science Magazine to OA, as it sent the subtle message that OA and poor quality were related.
  • 19. Journals and publishers • OA journals are not of a lesser quality than traditional ones but are younger Björk & Solomon, 2012 • In fields such as Biomedicine OA journals with APC model have similar citation rates than subscription-based journals Solomon, Laakso & Björk, 2013 • “[O]verall positive impact trend for Top Open Access journals”. Gumpenberger et al., 2013
  • 21. Journals and publishers Nature Springer, Plos One, Hindawi and Frontiers are the new oligopoly of OA publishers
  • 22. Journals and publishers Author pays model JOURNAL JIF 2017 € / article Pubs 2017 Benefits 2017 NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 12.35 3,850 € 4,511 1,736,735 € SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 4.12 1,370 € 25,333 34,706,210 € PLOS ONE 2.77 1,373 € 21,083 28,946,959 € BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 2.58 1,679 € 2,050 3,441,950 € BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 2.42 1,745 € 1,070 1,867,150 € BMJ OPEN 2.41 1,514 € 2,630 3,981,820 €
  • 23. Publication patterns worldwide • Does research ouput published in OA journals have less impact? → OA journals of lesser quality • Are there differences by fields? → Concentration of OA journals in specific areas • Are there differences by countries? → Differing country profiles • Is it really OA what is driving these differences? → Characterization of publishers
  • 24. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014
  • 25. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014 Pilot analysis: Spain as a case study
  • 26. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014 Pilot analysis: Spain as a case study
  • 27. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014 Pilot analysis: Spain as a case study
  • 28. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014 Pilot analysis: Spain as a case study
  • 29. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2007-2016
  • 30. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2007-2016
  • 31. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2005-2014 Pilot analysis: Spain as a case study
  • 32. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2017 SPAIN SOC SCI & HUM MATHS & COMP SCI
  • 33. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2017 SPAIN
  • 34. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2017 AUSTRIA
  • 35. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2017 BRAZIL
  • 36. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2017 UNITED KINGDOM
  • 37. Publication patterns worldwide Data: WoS Period: 2007-2016 Distribution of OA journals by scientific area and impact
  • 38. Publication patterns worldwide OA journals by country: output and impact
  • 39. Publication patterns worldwide COUNTRY PROFILES MODEL I United Kingdom Publication in English language High JIF OA journals Focused on Biomedical Sciences and Life Sciences Main venues are OA megajournals for profit OA publishers from USA, United Kingdom Top OA journals: PLOS One, Scientific Reports, Nature Communications, BMJ Open
  • 40. Publication patterns worldwide COUNTRY PROFILES MODEL II Brazil Publication in national language Low JIF OA journals Diversified OA disciplinary profile Main venues are OA small publishers publicly funded OA publishers from Brazil Top OA journals: PLOS One, Semina-Ciencias Agrarias, Ciencia Rural, Ciencia & Saude Coletiva
  • 41. Publication patterns worldwide COUNTRY PROFILES MODEL III Spain Publication in both English and national languages Diversified publication profile based on JIF Focused on Biomedical Sciences and Social Sciences & Humanities Venues by field: OA megajournals for Biomed, small publishers for SSH OA publishers from USA, United Kingdom, Spain Top OA journals: PLOS One, Scientific Reports, Nutrición Hospitalaria, Sensors, Journal of High Energy Physics
  • 42. Publication patterns worldwide MODEL I • Big OA publishers and megajournals • Concentration of OA pubs in Life Sciences • Main language of publication is English MODEL II • Small national publishers • Diversified disciplinary publication profile • Main language of publication is national language MODEL III • Diversified publication profile with special focus on SSH and Life and Biomed Sci. • Both national and English language • SSH small publishers, Life Sci, large publishers.
  • 43. FORTHCOMING D. Torres-Salinas, N. Robinson-Garcia & H.F. Moed. Disentangling Gold Open Access. Glanzel, W., Moed, H.F., Schmoch U., Thelwall, M. (2018). Handbook of Science and Technology Indicators. Springer https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1311536
  • 44. Disentangling Gold Open Access Disciplinary and Country Effect Nicolas Robinson-Garcia Daniel Torres-Salinas
  • 45. References Beall, J. (2013). The open-access movement is not really about open access. TripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 11(2), 589–597.008 Björk, B.-C., & Solomon, D. (2012). Open access versus subscription journals: a comparison of scientific impact. BMC Medicine, 10, 73. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-73 Bohannon, J. (2013). Who’s Afraid of Peer Review? Science, 342(6154), 60–65. doi:10.1126/science.342.6154.60 Gumpenberger, C., Ovalle-Perandones, M.-A., & Gorraiz, J. (2013). On the impact of Gold Open Access journals. Scientometrics, 96(1), 221–238. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0902-7 Larivière, V., Haustein, S., & Mongeon, P. (2015). The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PloS One, 10(6), e0127502. Martín-Martín, A., Costas, R., van Leeuwen, T., & López-Cózar, E. D. (2018). Evidence of Open Access of scientific publications in Google Scholar: a large-scale analysis. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1803.06161. Solomon, D. J., Laakso, M., & Björk, B.-C. (2013). A longitudinal comparison of citation rates and growth among open access journals. Journal of Informetrics, 7(3), 642–650. doi:10.1016/j.joi.2013.03. Torres-Salinas, D., Robinson-Garcia, N., & Aguillo, I. F. (2016). Bibliometric and Benchmark Analysis of Gold Open Access in Spain: Big Outpu... Profesional de La Informacion, 25(1), 17–24. doi:10.3145/epi.2016.ene.03