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PREPARED BY
NEHA KEWAT
TUTOR
DEFINITION :-
A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that occur
damage , ecological disruption, loss of human life or
deterioration of health and health services on a scale
sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from
outside the affected community or area.
According to WHO
Disaster Nursing can be defined as the adaptation of
professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting
the physical and emotional needs resulting from a
disaster.
Disaster nursing can be defined as 'The adaptation of
professional nursing knowledge, skills and attitude in
recognizing and meeting the nursing, health and
emotional needs of disaster victims." WHO
DISASTER NURSING :-
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISASTER
• Predictability
• Controllability
• Speed of onset
• Length of forewarning
• Duration of impact
• Scope and intensity of impact
GOALS OF DISASTER NURSING
• To meet the immediate basic survival needs of populations
affected by disasters (water, food, shelter, and security).
• To identify the potential for a second disaster.
• To appraise both risks an resources in the environment.
• To correct inequalities in access to health care or
appropriate resources,
• To empower survivors to participate in and advocate for
their own health and well-being.
• To respect cultural, lingual, and religious diversity in
individuals and families and to apply this principle in all
health promotion activities.
• To promote the highest achievable quality of life for
survivors.
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTER :-
NATURAL DISASTER
• Natural hazards are naturally occurring
physical phenomena caused either by rapid
or slow onset events which can be
geophysical (earthquakes, landslides,
tsunamis and volcanic activity), hydrological
(avalanches and floods), climatological
(extreme temperatures, drought and
wildfires), meteorological (cyclones and
storms/wave surges) or biological (disease
epidemics and insect/animal plagues).
• Technological or man-made hazards
(complex emergencies/conflicts, famine,
displaced populations, industrial accidents
and transport accidents) are events that are
caused by humans and occur in or close to
human settlements. This can include
environmental degradation, pollution and
accidents.Technological or man-made hazards
(complex emergencies/conflicts, famine,
displaced populations, industrial accidents
and transport accidents)
PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT :-
1. Ethical principal :-
 Observe basic rights of beneficence
 Share risk information
 Share assignment data
2. Strategic principle :-
 Recognize strategic consider
 Balance of trust VS control
3. Tactile principle :-
Recognize Tactile consideration
Establish baseline portions
Ensure relevance of indicators
4. Implementation principles :-
The implementation is the final step of principal implementing
all planned strategies.
• Principles of disaster management: -
Sanford(1984)
1. Prevention of occurrence
2. Minimizing casualty number
3. Preventing further casualties
4. Rescuing the injured
5. Providing first aid
6. Evacuating the injured
7. Providing definitive care
8. Facilitating reconstruction recovery
THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF
DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
:-
 Disaster prevention
Disaster preparedness
Disaster response
Disaster mitigation
 Rehabilitation
Reconstruction
Post disaster
• Response
• Recovery
• Rehabilitat
ion
Pre disaster
• Prevention
• Mitigation
• Preparedne
ss
DISASTER CYCLE :-
Mitigation - Minimizing the effects of disaster.
Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability
analyses; public education.
Preparedness - Planning how to respond.
Examples: preparedness plans; emergency
exercises/training; warning systems.
Response - Efforts to minimize the hazards created by a
disaster.
Examples: search and rescue; emergency relief .
Recovery - Returning the community to normal.
Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.
A.PRE -IMPACT PHASE:-
Disaster preparedness :-
Is an ongoing multipurpose activity, integral part of the
national system responsible for developing plans and
programs for disaster management, prevention,
mitigation, response ,rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Co-ordination of a variety of sectors to carry out:
1. Evaluation of risk
2. Adopt standard and regulation.
3. organize communication and response mechanism.
4. Ensure all the resources-ready &easily mobilized.
5. Develop public education programs.
1. Policy development
The policy development is the formal statement of a
course of action .
 Establish long- term goals.
 Assign responsibilities for achieving goal
 Establish recommended work practice.
The recognition of the problem associated with
disaster as being part of a total.
Govt.responsibility and to ensure the best possible
arrangements, given available resources.
 The adoption of all hazards and people centered
approach to Disaster Risk Management.
The recognition of disaster risk and vulnerability
reduction as essential for sustainable development
planning.
 The development of effective risk management
arrangements that links various level of government.
 The development of an attitude of self - help within
the community through ongoing education and
awareness programs.
2.Institutional or hospital disaster
planning :-
Disaster planning is important and necessary in every
hospital . Every hospital , therefore, should be able to
initiate immediate action in the event of :-
1. An internal disaster e.g. fire and explosions , for which
fire fighting system and fire extinguishers are kept ready.
2. Some external disaster , like vehicular accidents , fire
and explosions.
3. Major external disaster like tornado, earthquake .
4. Threats of disaster Eg. warning of tornado, volcanic
eruptions
The hospital planning includes :-
 Hospital preparedness
 Communication system
 Medical management
1. Constitution of a disaster management committee.
2. Control centre
3. Command centre
4. Reception centre and rapid response team
5. Information and communication
6. Arrangement of disaster bed
7. Logistic support system
8. Emergency blood bank
9. Triage
10. Documentation
11. Disposal of death cases
12. Staff
13. Stores and equipments
14. Dietary services
15. Prevention of epidemics
B.IMPACT PHASE:
Search,rescue and first-aid:
Major disaster, the need
for search ,rescue and first-aid is likely to be so great
that organized Relief services will be able to meet only a
small fraction of the demand.most immediate help
comes from the uninjured survivors.
Field care:
most injured person converge
spontaneously to health facilities, using whatever
transport is available, regardless of the facilities,
operating status.
Cont...
Triage:
Triage classified Four color code systems:-
Red -indicates high priority treatment or
transfer.
Yellow - medium priority
Green - indicates ambulatory patient's
Black - dead or moribund patients.
 Tagging - All patients should be identified with
tags stating their name , age,place of Origin ,
triage category, diagnosis and treatment.
Cont....
Identification of dead:
Taking care of the dead is an
essential part of the disaster management care of
the dead includes:-
a. Removal of the dead from the disaster scene
b. shifting to the mortuary
c. Identification
d. Reception of bereaved relatives . proper respect
for the dead is of great importance.
C.POST - IMPACT PHASES:-
i. Disaster response:-
Immediate reaction to disaster is
anticipated,or soon after it begins in order to assess the
need,reduce the suffering, limit the spread and consequences
of the disaster, open up the way to rehabilitation by:-
Mass evaluation
 search and rescue
 Emergency medical services
 securing water and food
maintenance of law and order
Implementing the disaster management plan.
Cont...
 Development of search and rescue team
Setting up medical camps and mobilizing re6
providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities.
 Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control.
Vaccination
ii . Rehabilitation :- Rehabilitation starts from the very
first moment of a disaster . In first week of disaster , the
pattern of health needs , will change rapidly , moving
from casualty treatment to more routine primary health
care .services should be recognised and restructured .
Priorities also shift from health care towards
environmental heath measures. Some of them are as
follows :-
Water supply
Food safety
Basic sanitation and personal
hygiene
Vector control
PSYCHOSOCIAL REHABILITATION AND
RELOCATION :-
The rehabilitation measures are :-
 Public education :- under the national disaster
planning itself , people should be educated about
keeping themselves healthy and to meet any
disaster situation skillfully .
 Reception centers should be opened to receive a
large number of displaced people with govt.
Direction and financial support and sometimes
international support.
Cont......
 Welfare centers need to be established at various
strategic points for providing food, clothing ,
lodging , registration of refuges , electing
registration booth centres.
 Medical care centres these include facilities for
prevention of disease, control of spread of
infection , provision for emergency surgery ,
obstetric care and infant care.
iii . Disaster Mitigation :-
• It is virtually impossible to prevent occurrence of most
Natural Disasters, but it is possible to minimize or
mitigate their damage effects.
• Mitigation measures aim to reduce the vulnerability of
the system. E.g. By improving and enforcing building
codes etc.
• Disaster Prevention implies complete elimination of
damages from a hazrd , but it is not realistic in most
hazards. E.g. Relocating a population from a flood plain
or from beach front
• Medical casualty could be drastically reduced by
improving the structural quality of houses, schools,
and public or private buildings.
• Also ensuring the Safety of Health facilities, public
Health Services , Water supply , Sewerage system
etc.
The mitigation program will direct the following
activities :-
Identify areas exposed to natural hazards and
determine the vulnerability of key health facilities and
water systems.
 Coordinate the work of multi disciplinary teams in
designing and developing building codes and protects
and water distribution for damages .
Hospitals must remain operational to attend to disaster
victims.
Include Disaster Mitigation Measures in the planning
and development of new facilities.
Cont....
Inform , sensitizeand train those personnel's who are
involved in planning , administration , operation ,
maintenance and use of facilities about disaster
mitigation .
Promote the inclusion of disaster
Effects of disaster :-
• Death
• Disabilities
• Increase in communicable diseases
• Psychological problem
• Food shortage
• Socio economic losses
• shortage of drugs and medical supplies
• Environmental disruption
TEAM , GUIDELINES, PROTOCOLS,
EQUIPMENTS , RESOURCES
 DISASTER TEAM :-
A disaster action team (DAT) is a group of volunteers who
have been trained by the Red Cross to respond to the
scene of a disaster.
• DMAT are categorised according to their ability to
response an MCI
• level - I DMAT can be deployed within 8 hours
notification and remain self - sufficient for 72 hrs within
enough food , water, shelter , medical supplies to treat
patient
• Level - II Lack enough equipment to be self sufficient
but are used to replace a level I
Team members :-
 Chairman
 Vice chairman
 Min. National Defence
 Rep. Min . Of communication, transport , post and constructions (CTPC ) - Member
 Rep. Min of health - member
 Rep. Of min .of industry - member
 Rep. Min of information and culture - Member
 Rep. Min of education - Member
 Rep. Lao Red Cross Society (LRCS) -Member
 Ministry of labor and Social Welfare
 Office casework
 Training team
 Recruitment team
Guidelines for disaster
preparedness :-
Assessment is the process of determining :-
The impact which a hazard has had on a society.
The needs and priorities for immediate emergency
measures to save and sustain the lives of survivors
The possibilities for facilitating and expediting
Longer term recovery and development
 Three general priorites are to be identified for early
assessments :-
• Location of problem
• Magnitude of problem
• Immediate priorities
 Emergency medical and health
 Search and rescue
 Personal and household needs
 Economic needs
Equipment for disaster
management :-
• First aid article
• Medical supplies needed
• Communication
• Transport
Resources :-
• Medical personal
• Medical equipments
• Basic needs (food, shelter , water )
COORDINATION AND INVOLVEMENT
OF COMMUNITY NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTARY AGENCIES
National and international voluntary agencies :-
• Red cross society
• District hospital
• UNICEF
• WHO
• voluntary organisation
• Local government
Functions of UNICEF during
disaster period
• Education
• Nutrition
• Water
• Sanitation
• Technical support
• Training
Function of Red cross society
during disaster :-
• Identify and trains
• Collaborative with other voluntary
• Active disaster group
• Educate
• Information
• Support
District hospital
• Treatment
• Training
• Awareness
Local government
• Co - ordination
• Training
• Repair Republic building
• Public health services
• Effect of disaster
Role of nurse ;working
1. Prepare the triage protocol : triage consist of rapidly
classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their
injuries and the level promote medical intervention .
• Red - high injury
• Yellow - medium injury
• Green - ambulatory patient
• Black - dead
2. Managing behavioural issue:
3. Creating awareness
• Technological needs
• Self reliance
• Communication
• Preparation of first aid kit
ROLE OF NURSE IN DIFFERENT
PHASES :-
Disaster phase
• Passing message to the nearby hospitals
• Getting ready with emergency equipment
• Discharging the patient
• Creating awareness
Response phase
• Identify the population
• Trialing the victim
• Care for injured person
• Transporting patient
Recovery phase :-
• Counselling
• Continuing care
• Vacational training
• Rehabilitation
Risk reduction phase :-
• Awareness about disaster
• Training to people
• Mass health education
• Education about warning sign of disaster
DISASTER MANAGE-WPS Office-1.pptx PREPARED BY NEHA KEWAT

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DISASTER MANAGE-WPS Office-1.pptx PREPARED BY NEHA KEWAT

  • 2. DEFINITION :- A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that occur damage , ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. According to WHO
  • 3. Disaster Nursing can be defined as the adaptation of professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting the physical and emotional needs resulting from a disaster. Disaster nursing can be defined as 'The adaptation of professional nursing knowledge, skills and attitude in recognizing and meeting the nursing, health and emotional needs of disaster victims." WHO DISASTER NURSING :-
  • 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF DISASTER • Predictability • Controllability • Speed of onset • Length of forewarning • Duration of impact • Scope and intensity of impact
  • 5.
  • 6. GOALS OF DISASTER NURSING • To meet the immediate basic survival needs of populations affected by disasters (water, food, shelter, and security). • To identify the potential for a second disaster. • To appraise both risks an resources in the environment. • To correct inequalities in access to health care or appropriate resources, • To empower survivors to participate in and advocate for their own health and well-being. • To respect cultural, lingual, and religious diversity in individuals and families and to apply this principle in all health promotion activities. • To promote the highest achievable quality of life for survivors.
  • 9. • Natural hazards are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events which can be geophysical (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic activity), hydrological (avalanches and floods), climatological (extreme temperatures, drought and wildfires), meteorological (cyclones and storms/wave surges) or biological (disease epidemics and insect/animal plagues).
  • 10.
  • 11. • Technological or man-made hazards (complex emergencies/conflicts, famine, displaced populations, industrial accidents and transport accidents) are events that are caused by humans and occur in or close to human settlements. This can include environmental degradation, pollution and accidents.Technological or man-made hazards (complex emergencies/conflicts, famine, displaced populations, industrial accidents and transport accidents)
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT :- 1. Ethical principal :-  Observe basic rights of beneficence  Share risk information  Share assignment data 2. Strategic principle :-  Recognize strategic consider  Balance of trust VS control 3. Tactile principle :- Recognize Tactile consideration Establish baseline portions Ensure relevance of indicators 4. Implementation principles :- The implementation is the final step of principal implementing all planned strategies.
  • 13. • Principles of disaster management: - Sanford(1984) 1. Prevention of occurrence 2. Minimizing casualty number 3. Preventing further casualties 4. Rescuing the injured 5. Providing first aid 6. Evacuating the injured 7. Providing definitive care 8. Facilitating reconstruction recovery
  • 14. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM :-  Disaster prevention Disaster preparedness Disaster response Disaster mitigation  Rehabilitation Reconstruction Post disaster • Response • Recovery • Rehabilitat ion Pre disaster • Prevention • Mitigation • Preparedne ss
  • 15.
  • 16. DISASTER CYCLE :- Mitigation - Minimizing the effects of disaster. Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education. Preparedness - Planning how to respond. Examples: preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems. Response - Efforts to minimize the hazards created by a disaster. Examples: search and rescue; emergency relief . Recovery - Returning the community to normal. Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.
  • 17. A.PRE -IMPACT PHASE:- Disaster preparedness :- Is an ongoing multipurpose activity, integral part of the national system responsible for developing plans and programs for disaster management, prevention, mitigation, response ,rehabilitation and reconstruction. Co-ordination of a variety of sectors to carry out: 1. Evaluation of risk 2. Adopt standard and regulation. 3. organize communication and response mechanism. 4. Ensure all the resources-ready &easily mobilized. 5. Develop public education programs.
  • 18. 1. Policy development The policy development is the formal statement of a course of action .  Establish long- term goals.  Assign responsibilities for achieving goal  Establish recommended work practice. The recognition of the problem associated with disaster as being part of a total.
  • 19. Govt.responsibility and to ensure the best possible arrangements, given available resources.  The adoption of all hazards and people centered approach to Disaster Risk Management. The recognition of disaster risk and vulnerability reduction as essential for sustainable development planning.  The development of effective risk management arrangements that links various level of government.  The development of an attitude of self - help within the community through ongoing education and awareness programs.
  • 20. 2.Institutional or hospital disaster planning :- Disaster planning is important and necessary in every hospital . Every hospital , therefore, should be able to initiate immediate action in the event of :- 1. An internal disaster e.g. fire and explosions , for which fire fighting system and fire extinguishers are kept ready. 2. Some external disaster , like vehicular accidents , fire and explosions. 3. Major external disaster like tornado, earthquake . 4. Threats of disaster Eg. warning of tornado, volcanic eruptions
  • 21. The hospital planning includes :-  Hospital preparedness  Communication system  Medical management 1. Constitution of a disaster management committee. 2. Control centre 3. Command centre 4. Reception centre and rapid response team 5. Information and communication 6. Arrangement of disaster bed 7. Logistic support system 8. Emergency blood bank 9. Triage 10. Documentation 11. Disposal of death cases 12. Staff 13. Stores and equipments 14. Dietary services 15. Prevention of epidemics
  • 22. B.IMPACT PHASE: Search,rescue and first-aid: Major disaster, the need for search ,rescue and first-aid is likely to be so great that organized Relief services will be able to meet only a small fraction of the demand.most immediate help comes from the uninjured survivors. Field care: most injured person converge spontaneously to health facilities, using whatever transport is available, regardless of the facilities, operating status.
  • 23. Cont... Triage: Triage classified Four color code systems:- Red -indicates high priority treatment or transfer. Yellow - medium priority Green - indicates ambulatory patient's Black - dead or moribund patients.  Tagging - All patients should be identified with tags stating their name , age,place of Origin , triage category, diagnosis and treatment.
  • 24. Cont.... Identification of dead: Taking care of the dead is an essential part of the disaster management care of the dead includes:- a. Removal of the dead from the disaster scene b. shifting to the mortuary c. Identification d. Reception of bereaved relatives . proper respect for the dead is of great importance.
  • 25. C.POST - IMPACT PHASES:- i. Disaster response:- Immediate reaction to disaster is anticipated,or soon after it begins in order to assess the need,reduce the suffering, limit the spread and consequences of the disaster, open up the way to rehabilitation by:- Mass evaluation  search and rescue  Emergency medical services  securing water and food maintenance of law and order Implementing the disaster management plan.
  • 26. Cont...  Development of search and rescue team Setting up medical camps and mobilizing re6 providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities.  Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control. Vaccination
  • 27. ii . Rehabilitation :- Rehabilitation starts from the very first moment of a disaster . In first week of disaster , the pattern of health needs , will change rapidly , moving from casualty treatment to more routine primary health care .services should be recognised and restructured . Priorities also shift from health care towards environmental heath measures. Some of them are as follows :- Water supply Food safety Basic sanitation and personal hygiene Vector control
  • 28. PSYCHOSOCIAL REHABILITATION AND RELOCATION :- The rehabilitation measures are :-  Public education :- under the national disaster planning itself , people should be educated about keeping themselves healthy and to meet any disaster situation skillfully .  Reception centers should be opened to receive a large number of displaced people with govt. Direction and financial support and sometimes international support.
  • 29. Cont......  Welfare centers need to be established at various strategic points for providing food, clothing , lodging , registration of refuges , electing registration booth centres.  Medical care centres these include facilities for prevention of disease, control of spread of infection , provision for emergency surgery , obstetric care and infant care.
  • 30. iii . Disaster Mitigation :- • It is virtually impossible to prevent occurrence of most Natural Disasters, but it is possible to minimize or mitigate their damage effects. • Mitigation measures aim to reduce the vulnerability of the system. E.g. By improving and enforcing building codes etc. • Disaster Prevention implies complete elimination of damages from a hazrd , but it is not realistic in most hazards. E.g. Relocating a population from a flood plain or from beach front • Medical casualty could be drastically reduced by improving the structural quality of houses, schools, and public or private buildings.
  • 31. • Also ensuring the Safety of Health facilities, public Health Services , Water supply , Sewerage system etc. The mitigation program will direct the following activities :- Identify areas exposed to natural hazards and determine the vulnerability of key health facilities and water systems.  Coordinate the work of multi disciplinary teams in designing and developing building codes and protects and water distribution for damages . Hospitals must remain operational to attend to disaster victims. Include Disaster Mitigation Measures in the planning and development of new facilities.
  • 32. Cont.... Inform , sensitizeand train those personnel's who are involved in planning , administration , operation , maintenance and use of facilities about disaster mitigation . Promote the inclusion of disaster
  • 33. Effects of disaster :- • Death • Disabilities • Increase in communicable diseases • Psychological problem • Food shortage • Socio economic losses • shortage of drugs and medical supplies • Environmental disruption
  • 34. TEAM , GUIDELINES, PROTOCOLS, EQUIPMENTS , RESOURCES  DISASTER TEAM :- A disaster action team (DAT) is a group of volunteers who have been trained by the Red Cross to respond to the scene of a disaster. • DMAT are categorised according to their ability to response an MCI • level - I DMAT can be deployed within 8 hours notification and remain self - sufficient for 72 hrs within enough food , water, shelter , medical supplies to treat patient • Level - II Lack enough equipment to be self sufficient but are used to replace a level I
  • 35. Team members :-  Chairman  Vice chairman  Min. National Defence  Rep. Min . Of communication, transport , post and constructions (CTPC ) - Member  Rep. Min of health - member  Rep. Of min .of industry - member  Rep. Min of information and culture - Member  Rep. Min of education - Member  Rep. Lao Red Cross Society (LRCS) -Member  Ministry of labor and Social Welfare  Office casework  Training team  Recruitment team
  • 36. Guidelines for disaster preparedness :- Assessment is the process of determining :- The impact which a hazard has had on a society. The needs and priorities for immediate emergency measures to save and sustain the lives of survivors The possibilities for facilitating and expediting Longer term recovery and development
  • 37.  Three general priorites are to be identified for early assessments :- • Location of problem • Magnitude of problem • Immediate priorities  Emergency medical and health  Search and rescue  Personal and household needs  Economic needs
  • 38. Equipment for disaster management :- • First aid article • Medical supplies needed • Communication • Transport Resources :- • Medical personal • Medical equipments • Basic needs (food, shelter , water )
  • 39. COORDINATION AND INVOLVEMENT OF COMMUNITY NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTARY AGENCIES National and international voluntary agencies :- • Red cross society • District hospital • UNICEF • WHO • voluntary organisation • Local government
  • 40. Functions of UNICEF during disaster period • Education • Nutrition • Water • Sanitation • Technical support • Training
  • 41. Function of Red cross society during disaster :- • Identify and trains • Collaborative with other voluntary • Active disaster group • Educate • Information • Support
  • 42. District hospital • Treatment • Training • Awareness Local government • Co - ordination • Training • Repair Republic building • Public health services • Effect of disaster
  • 43. Role of nurse ;working 1. Prepare the triage protocol : triage consist of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their injuries and the level promote medical intervention . • Red - high injury • Yellow - medium injury • Green - ambulatory patient • Black - dead 2. Managing behavioural issue: 3. Creating awareness • Technological needs • Self reliance • Communication • Preparation of first aid kit
  • 44. ROLE OF NURSE IN DIFFERENT PHASES :- Disaster phase • Passing message to the nearby hospitals • Getting ready with emergency equipment • Discharging the patient • Creating awareness Response phase • Identify the population • Trialing the victim • Care for injured person • Transporting patient
  • 45. Recovery phase :- • Counselling • Continuing care • Vacational training • Rehabilitation Risk reduction phase :- • Awareness about disaster • Training to people • Mass health education • Education about warning sign of disaster