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Digital euro
Implications for
the financial system
June 2023
Table of Contents
01 02 03
CBDCs –
definition
and trends
Focus on
digital euro
The role of the private
sector in the digital
euro ecosystem
04
Contact details
CBDCs –
definition
and trends
A brief history of central bank money
Cashless
transactions
The Bank of England was
a model for central banks
and operation of the gold
standard. The reform of
the Bank of France in
1848 resulted in the first
modern central bank as a
public institution with a
monopoly on bank note
issuance. Germany’s
Reichsbank, established
in 1875, was probably the
most modern in terms of
its operations.
The Reichsbank pioneered
cashless transactions with the
first giro-transfers or book-
entry adjustments for the
transfer of credit balances.
The Federal Reserve was
established in 1913. In the
‘70s it became the first to
use electronic transfers for
its large-value payments
system (Fedwire). This has
become the standard for
real-time gross settlement
systems and processing of
central bank reserves.
CBDCs would be a new
form of central bank money
that would complement
banknotes and reserves.
Bank notes
replace the gold
standard
Electronic
transfers
CBDCs
CBDC is a third format of money that exists alongside cash and electronic deposits. It is fully
fungible at a 1:1 rate with cash and central bank reserves. CBDC is the first digital form of central
bank money available to the public and is best thought of as a digital form of cash that is
transferable P2P. It offers additional functionality such as programmability. The issuance and
distribution of any form of central bank money, excluding bank notes, is nowadays strictly local.
A CBDC is a token-based payments medium with the properties of digital bearer instruments. It
utilizes either a one-tier or a two-tier distribution model. For retail, a two-tier distribution model
requires that businesses and individuals have wallets with their bank and request CBDC through
their bank. The model limits disintermediation of the banking system, keeping the current system
intact while spurring innovation.
The introduction of a CBDC merits careful consideration of a large variety of design features. Some
of these are independent, others involve trade-offs. For the most durable results, these choices
should be made in line with the central bank’s objectives. The considerations include resiliency,
scalability, performance and throughput, availability, security, cost and efficiency, and
programmability.
What is a central bank digital currency?
DEFINITION
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
TECHNOLOGY
CONSIDERATIONS
The Bank of Japan said
its pilot will test the use of its
CBDC and a forum will be set
up with the private sector to
discuss retail payments and
related technology.
The Central Bank of
Brazil has invited firms to co-
pilot its CBDC, the digital real.
The pilot includes testing the
buying and selling of federal
public bonds by individuals.
The European Central
Bank communicated its
desire to focus on:
• Tokenization of securities
leveraging a wholesale
CBDC for securities
settlement issued on DLT.
• Wholesale CBDC as a vehicle
to enhance cross-border and
cross-currency settlements.
BIS (The Bank for International Settlements) announced project Mariana to investigate the use of automated market makers for FX trading and settlement with testing
across the Swiss franc, euro and Singapore dollar.
mBridge continues post-pilot to advance real live transactions across 20 commercial banks in 4 jurisdictions.
The Reserve Bank of
India and the Central Bank of
UAE started to collaborate on
financial services innovation.
The PoC and pilot focus on
CBDC interoperability.
Recent CBDC developments
The Reserve Bank
of Australia tested a series of
use cases including offline
payments, tokenized bills,
interoperable CBDC for
trusted Web3 commerce and
liquid assets security trading.
BIS (The Bank for International Settlements) announced project Mariana to investigate the use of automated market makers for FX trading and settlement with
testing across the Swiss franc, euro and Singapore dollar.
Defining the future of money
CBDCscan,inthelongerterm,becomeakeycomponentinre-architectingtheglobalfinancialinfrastructure.
A CBDC would constitute a new format of central bank money, the
digital token, to serve as settlement medium on alternative
financial market infrastructures. It is to extend access and reach of
central bank money to address actual and new payment needs.
CBDC, given the importance of central bank money, can serve as
catalyst to shape the future of money itself.
Introduction of a new format of money and payment
infrastructure could make the payments landscape more diverse
and resilient. CBDC may also serve broader public policy objectives
and support government-led initiatives including to extend financial
assistance including to address emergencies.
A MORE RESILIENT & DIVERSE PAYMENTS LANDSCAPE
CBDC may unlock payment innovation in retail, cross-country and
wholesale payments. This would encourage competition and the
creation of new services like offline payments, immediate asset
settlement and custody solutions by existing financial institutions
and new actors.
NEW SERVICES, INNOVATION & COMPETITION
CBDC can exhibit new functionalities like programmability and
traceability that can support new use cases. Programmability
facilitates embedding complex business logic into payments.
Traceability ensures provenance is assured and can help
establishing a safer and more transparent payments environment.
EXPANDED FUNCTIONALITIES
A CBDC could enhance the usability and attractiveness of the
national currency and promote its
international use strengthening the strategic autonomy of countries.
CBDCs may help accelerate the transition to a digital
economy advancing digital inclusion for the society at large.
PAYMENTS EFFICIENCY & RISK ELIMINATION
CBDC offers the possibility to enhance efficiency given the nature
of token-based transfers and exchanges. It shall derisk payments
and establish more direct payments relations in particular for
international transactions. Tokens enable instant and atomic
settlement increasing the velocity of money and changing the
nature of liquidity.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS
NEW MONEY FORMAT
Focus on
digital euro
A digital euro is the same euro as the physical currency – it just has a different format.
▪ The digital euro will be central bank money – in a digital format – accessible to the general public to serve as a payment
instrument in retail transactions.
▪ It will likely be based on digital tokens.
▪ It will be a direct liability of the Eurosystem, similar to banknotes. Issuance of a digital euro will be a substitution of
Eurosystem liabilities and will not change the size of the Eurosystem balance sheet.
▪ Banks will be intermediaries, similar to their role in the distribution of banknotes. At the same time, they may be users.
What is a digital euro?
Digital euro Timeline
October 2020
Publication of Eurosystem report on a digital euro (interesting feature: a digital euro shall be held by
non-residents too)
April 2021
Publication of public consultation on a digital euro. Public stresses need for privacy (other surveys
find less emphasis on privacy)
July 2021
ECB launches digital euro project with initial investigation phase to start in October 2021. Design shall
be informed by users’ preferences and technical advice.
March 2022
Report on payment preferences. Users want universally accepted payment methods online and in-
store and prefer instant and contactless person-to-person payments.
September 2022
First progress report offers possibility to introduce holding ceilings to “limit individual take-up and
the speed of deposit conversion”.
December 2022
Second progress report to highlight two-tier distribution model and affirmation that Eurosystem shall
perform all settlement activities.
April 2023
Third progress report on access for non-banks and governments and for non-resident if they have
access to a Euro Area payment service provider. Limits to be introduced.
June 2023 European Commission to propose regulation to establish a digital euro.
October 2023 Decision to launch development and build phase for digital euro to launch in 2026-27.
Players involved in the investigation phase
As per ECB disclosed communications. Source: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/paym/intro/news/html/ecb.mipnews220916.en.html
NON-EXHAUSTIVE
The aim of this prototyping exercise is to test how well the technology behind a digital euro
integrates with prototypes developed by companies.
PEER-TO-PEER ONLINE PAYMENTS
PEER-TO-PEER OFFLINE PAYMENTS
POINT-OF-SALE PAYMENTS INITIATED BY THE
PAYER
POINT-OF-SALE PAYMENTS INITIATED BY THE
PAYEE
E-COMMERCE PAYMENTS
A digital euro will complement existing central bank banknotes and offer a “cash plus” option.
Key ECB arguments include:
▪ Integrity: This rests largely on the view that, in the event of the disappearance of cash, citizens should have
access to central bank money, on demand.
▪ Resilience: It is seen as a response to the threat of alternative payment means, especially initiatives like Meta’s Diem.
▪ Integration: A digital euro will help in the establishment of a pan-European payments framework.
▪ Diversification: It will form part of alternative payment systems.
▪ Confidence: The digital euro is essential to safeguard confidence in the financial system.
(This is a controversial point, the economics of which seem weak.)
Why is a digital euro needed?
The ECB is struggling to present a convincing vision of the digital euro – most of its arguments are defensive and place insufficient
emphasis on innovation. This could endanger the project.
Many are still asking: “What is the point of a digital euro?”
A digital euro will serve as a payments
instrument.
The project focuses on:
▪ Person-to-person payments conducted
(i) online and (ii) offline
▪ Payments initiated in-store
(iii) by the payer and (iv) by the payee
▪ Payments for (v) e-commerce
USER-FACINGAPPS/DEVICES
WALLETS
CONNECTIONTODEDICATEDCASHACCOUNTS
CONNECTIONTOTHEDIGITALEUROSETTLEMENTENGINE
COMPONENTSOFADIGITALEURO
Use cases examined by the digital euro project:
The ECB has been conducting various experiments to test different possible components of a digital euro. These include front-end
and back-end prototypes using UTXO data models and API interfaces.
The debate
DIGITAL LIMITS PRIVACY COMPENSATION
MODEL
FUNCTIONAL
ARCHITECTURE
The choice of
architecture remains
open.
There is speculation
that a digital euro will
not be based on a
blockchain; it could use
a centralized system
and/or be account-
based and an extension
of existing payment
systems.
Banks have repeatedly
voiced concerns that a
digital euro will crowd
out bank deposits.
Evidence for this is
weak.
As a mitigating
measure, the ECB
proposes limits for
which the economics
are weak.
Digital payments are
traceable.
The ECB wants the
digital euro to be the
most private digital
money, with possibly a
tiered structure of
increasing disclosure
requirements
depending on the
amount transacted.
A compensation model
will be critical to ensure
the economic viability
of the digital euro and
will not unduly rely on
subsidies.
Merchants will likely be
key to adoption if they
see economic
benefits of driving
customers to using a
digital euro.
Components of a future
functional architecture
of the digital euro will
require intermediaries
to adopt new
capabilities.
A digital euro will
be integrated with
existing systems.
Digital
Accounts vs Tokens
Money is normally an account or book entry. Accounts
represent liabilities of the account issuer and transfers can
be performed between account holders of the same
institution.
Tokens represent a new medium with properties akin to a
bearer instrument. They constitute liabilities of the token
issuers are held in wallets and typically aim to be
transferred peer-to-peer. Tokens offer functionalities like
programmability and traceability to address new
payment needs.
Centralised vs Decentralised systems
Existing payment infrastructures rest mostly on
centralised systems where a system operator validates
and performs transactions. All data and values are with a
single entity.
Blockchain or other distributed ledger technology (DLT)
platforms typically constitute a network of independent
computers where validation and transfers are determined
jointly by the computer network. All data and values are
distributed amongst network participants.
The Limits
Why limits?
Banks have repeatedly argued that a digital euro (retail)
will cause liquid balances to migrate from bank accounts
to the digital euro due to the safety attributes of central
bank money. In addition, there is a fear that if a digital
euro is considerably cheaper to transact with than
conventional payment means, merchants will encourage
end-users to use the digital euro.
To protect banks, holding ceilings have been considered
as a means of limiting digital euro balances
Economics of limits
Limits serve to micromanage the demand for central bank
money. Limits are a direct monetary policy measure that are
normally at odds with existing monetary policy frameworks.
The case for limits remains speculative amid weak evidence of a
threat of bank disintermediation.
Limits would be perceived as arbitrary. In the euro area a limit of
€3,000 has often been proposed, while in the UK limits of
£10,000-20,000 are being discussed.
Demand for money is normally addressed through monetary
policy measures. If the demand for a digital euro is perceived as
being inconsistent with the objective of central bank monetary
policy, the central bank should resort to its available monetary
policy tools.
Bank disintermediation
Germany: Deposits in state savings banks.
Evidence
▪ The evidence supporting concerns about bank disintermediation
is weak.
▪ Deposit patterns do not suggest that there is systematic cyclical or
structural migration from weak to strong banks and from private-
to public-sector banks, even in times of financial distress.
▪ The recent banking crisis in the US caused a deposit outflow from
small banks amounting to no more than 4% of total deposits.
▪ Germany’s savings banks or Sparkassen, which are state-owned
banks, have maintained a relatively stable 23% - 27% share of
total deposits, confirming the view that safety is not a
determining factor for deposit holders.
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
2000
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
2017
2019
2021
2023
Source: Bundesbank
Percent of total deposits of all banking groups
NON-EXHAUSTIVE
Privacy
Data Payer Payer Wallet Payer PSP Central Bank Payee PSP Payee Wallet Payee Other PSPs*
Payer ID X ? X ? ?
Payer wallet ID X X X ? X X
Payer PSP ID X X X ? X X X
Payer public key(s) ? X X X X X ? X
Amount X X X X X X X X
Payee public key ? X X X X X ? X
Payee PSP ID X X X ? X X X
Payee wallet ID X X ? X X X
Payee ID ? ? X ? X
Minimum visibility of payment data in a tokenized and intermediated CBDC
* On decentralized implementations only – DLT distributes some or all data to all network participants.
Notes:
• Payer and payee may be offered an option to share or not share their identities with each other, depending on policy.
• Public keys could be long-term, short-term, or single-use (per-payment). Re-use of a public key reveals correlations between a
given user’s payments to the central bank and other PSPs.* Single-use keys minimize such correlation.
• Additional techniques can improve privacy and data protection:
– Participating PSPs can be contractually or legally bound to use collected data only for specific purposes (e.g., transaction validation)
– Cryptographic techniques can hide data while still allowing verification of correctness (so-called zero-knowledge proofs)
– Confidential computing uses secure hardware to protect data; data is encrypted whenever not inside secure hardware
Privacy
Privacy
The digital euro will ensure considerable privacy, although
not complete anonymity. The ECB will safeguard only meta
data and will not have access to transaction data. The aim
is to make the digital euro the most private digital money.
Cash may not represent an adequate benchmark for
providing privacy in payments
Vis-à-vis whom?
Privacy matters largely when determining disclosure vis-à-
vis a given entity. While intermediaries will likely maintain
information currently available of their customers,
merchants may not or only learn very little about the
identity of the payer.
The general public seems more concerned to share data
with the ECB than with private actors.
Not clear if central bank’s mandate is to safeguard privacy
for the general public.
A compensation policy to incentivize distribution?
THE COMPENSATION
MODEL IS STILL TO BE
DEFINED
PAYMENT FEES
▪ Banks may pay a transaction fee similar to
TARGET2/ TIPS.
▪ Current CBDC cases do not include fees /
sums to be paid by the payer or the
merchant
▪ It is still unclear if commercial banks can
apply fees to end users: i) current account /
card holding fee (on the consumer side) and
acquiring fees (on the merchant side).
1. Fee per transaction to be paid by the banks, similar to actual TARGET2, TIPS remuneration model
COMPENSATION
MODEL
CONSIDERATIONS
TO
INCENTIVIZE
DISTRIBUTION
▪ Establishment of a distribution model will
take account of commercial considerations.
▪ Network effects will generate economic
incentives for acquirers and merchants.
▪ A compensation model should be aligned
with the compensation structures of existing
private-sector solutions.
▪ The ECB is assumed to collect seigniorage
similar to the issuance of banknotes.
Functional architecture (tentative)
A possible functional architecture
will demand new components to
be integrated with existing core
banking and payment systems.
Intermediaries will need to add a
wallet and integration thereof with
its back end system to fund,
defund and settle digital euros and
other peripheral components.
Digital euro could be held by
intermediaries or passed through
directly to end-user wallets.
Payment
System
RTGS system
Funding /
Defunding /
Settlement
Data
warehouse
Intermediary
back end
Node / Wallet
On boarding
repository
Proxy lookup
Dispute
management
Fraud and risk
management
Intermediary
Wholesale CBDC
CBDC WHOLESALE
ECB announced the exploration of new
technologies for wholesale CBDC
recorded on DLT platforms.
Central bank money plays a special role in
large-value payments, making it likely that
a digital euro for wholesale would be of
particular importance.
Several central banks have focused on
wholesale CBDC, particularly for
international payments to challenge the
existing correspondent bank architecture.
Securities settlement: Advent of tokenised securities would
benefit from using a tokenised high grade settlement medium
to enable a token-based securities life cycle end-to-end.
International payments: Sending money abroad should be as
quick and simple as sending a text message.
Foreign exchange trading: Largest financial market still relies
on a slow, highly intermediated system with important residual
risks in particular for smaller currencies.
Use cases
Securities life cycle
In a token-based exchange, a security
token is simply exchanged instantly and
atomically against a wholesale digital
euro, eliminating most risks
▪ Conventional securities trading is subject to
various functions in the securities life cycle,
including trade execution, clearing,
settlement and custody.
▪ The exchange of the security vs. money
involves multiple actors depending on the
nature of the security. Clearing will be
performed at different levels.
▪ In a token-based exchange, a security token
is simply exchanged instantly and
atomically against a money token (a
wholesale digital euro). A DLT platform can
be custodian, CSD and settlement engine at
the same time. Lack of open positions
implies no need for a CCP or other risk
mitigation measures.
Seller
Broker
Exchange
Broker
Buyer
Custodian
CCP
CSD Clearing bank
Conventional
Conventional and new
New
Trade execution
Clearing
Settlement
International payments
International payments based on a
token platform will overcome current
hurdles associated with correspondent
banking
▪ International payments rely on a network
of correspondent banks.
▪ Payment chains can comprise several
institutions, with every bank adding to
potential risks in the transfer.
International payments typically are slow,
opaque and costly.
▪ International payments based on a token
platform would consist of sending a
money token (wholesale digital euro)
from the payer bank to the payee bank.
The payee would hold a token that could
be exchanged or held to perform future
payments.
Payer
Bank A Bank B
Payee
Conventional
Conventional and new
New
Trade execution
Clearing
Settlement
Correspondent
of Bank A
Correspondent
of Bank B
Foreign exchange trading
Foreign exchange on a token platform
would be a direct exchange of principal for
principal instantly and atomically in
wholesale digital euro
▪ The foreign exchange market is the largest
financial market.
▪ Transactions typically consist of making
transfers in the respective currencies in the
large-value payment systems of the country of
the currency. Final exposures are therefore to
correspondent banks only.
▪ For transactions cleared by CLS bank for 18
currencies, exchanges benefit from
multilateral clearing and netting. But similarly,
the transactions are not settled instantly.
▪ Foreign exchange on a token platform would
be a direct exchange of principal for principal,
instantly and atomically, in central bank money
(wholesale digital euro) with no need for
clearing and netting.
Seller
Bank A Bank B
Buyer
Conventional
Conventional and new
New
Trade execution
Clearing
Settlement
Correspondent
of Bank B
CLS Bank
Correspondent
of Bank A
Functional requirements
Custody
Token-based mediums require a new custody
infrastructure and will live outside existing book-entry
systems. Custody represents a foundational capability.
Co-existence of token and book-entry mediums will
become the norm.
Token custody applies to most tokenised instruments
including money, securities and other assets. Adoption of
token custody therefore exhibits a universal character.
Integration
Seamless integration with existing core banking and
payment systems and where applicable at the point of sale
across all form factors will be key for successful adoption
and ensure there will be no undue fragmentation in
payments markets.
Integration will comprise all needed systems that serve to
execute transactions and administer money balances to
ensure the integrity of the general ledger.
Next steps for the digital euro
Architecture
The choice of backend
architecture will determine
if the digital is to expand or
replace existing
capabilities. Priorities will
have to be defined in terms
of financial innovation,
complementarity and
connectivity.
Use case
Retail and wholesale use
cases can co-exist. While
retail will likely struggle to
compete against existing
payment means, in
wholesale the importance
of central bank money
and new needed
functionalities are expected
to drive adoption.
Development
The final architecture will
determine what additional
developments will be
required for a successful
integration with existing
payments capabilities.
Token based mediums will
require new components
for custody.
Roll out
The digital euro could be
rolled-out in a big bang
approach (introduction of
the euro bank notes) or
gradually (TIPS). Merchants
need likely be key
promoters. Wholesale use
cases afford more flexibility
and are less complex.
The role of the
private sector
in the
Digital Euro
ecosystem
How the “private” sector is moving
FOCUS ON INTERMEDIATION FOCUS ON DISTRIBUTION FOCUS ON NEW POSITIONING
Build infrastructure and design solutions to
enable interoperability between CBDC / crypto
and traditional payment ecosystems
Provide as-a-service and end-user solutions
to speed up adoption of blockchain assets
(e-wallets, cards, acceptance devices,…)
Money issuance or new money mediums to
enhance payments
“One-click” NFT purchases
Bridge CBDC with traditional payments
Spend fiat and earn crypto
Processing on Crypto prepaid card
Acquisition of blockchain cybersecurity provider
Processing on CBDC prepaid card
Integration of cryptos in PayPal wallet
Global crypto exchange
Acceptance of crypto at checkout
Crypto reporting tool for accounting/ tax
Processing of crypto funds
WL crypto payments app IT platform to issue gold-linked coin
PAYMENTS
PROCESORS
-Non exhaustive-
COMMERCIAL
BANKS
▪ Issuing of a J.P.Morgan coin for B2B real-time payments
▪ B2B real-time payments on Onyx blockchain-based network to
facilitate real-time B2B payments
▪ Blockchain-based open financing platform for trade settlement
communications
▪ Foreign exchange post-trade platform to cut down reconciling efforts
on different back offices
▪ DLT-backed infrastructure to enable real-time 24/7 settlement in
the wholesale market
▪ USDF stablecoin offered by banks to support new and existing
P2P, C2B, B2B, and bank-to-bank payment applications with real-
time settlement and low cost
▪ DLT-based payment app for individuals, enabling P2P real-time
cross-border settlement
▪ DLT-powered corporate lending platform to boost flexibility and
transparency in loan negotiations between bankers and corporates
▪ DLT infrastructure to enable real-time trade / settlement via smart
contracts
▪ Introduction of a stablecoin pegged to the euro, providing clients
with a robust settlement asset for on-chain transactions
Mastercard
Visa Consensys
fiserv bakkt
Ciphertrace
Coinbase
Island Pay
J.P. Morgan
CITI
Binance
BlockFi
Rocketfuel
OKCoin
Verady
Worldline
PayPal
Fnality
USDF
Consortium
Santander
BBVA
BNP Paribas
Societe Generale
Global Gold
Corporation
1. Payment-vs-payment: Deliver
real-time instant settlement for
wholesale interbank payments,
making payments more efficient
and reducing risk.
2. Delivery-vs-payment: Atomic DvP
settlement model for tokenized
securities settlement and further
use cases.
1. Issue tokenized deposit and a
payments platform. The strategy
followed by JPMC Onyx.(1)
2. Join a private-sector-led
consortium. This could include
joining Finality(2), JP Morgan Onyx or
emerging equivalents.
3. Shape the central bank ecosystem.
For example, the model explored by
Banque de France and Swiss
National Bank in Project Jura(3), the
Bank of England consultation(4), or
expanding cross-border CBDC
ecosystems (e.g., mBridge(5)).
1. Refine the digital currency strategy
and assess how a wholesale digital
currency proposition fits into the
overall strategy (e.g., assess the
business case and the target
operating model).
2. Engage with private & public sector
ecosystems to steer the wholesale
digital currency design. This will
ensure customer and business pain
points are addressed.
3. Start to integrate and experiment
with digital currency solutions, and
build the capability for the future.
30
Copyright © 2023 Accenture. All rights reserved.
What can banks do now?
Archetypes of strategic plays
Value proposition
Source: (1) Onyx, (2) Fnality, (3) Project Jura, (4) BoE consultation on d£, (5) mBridge
How could wholesale banks leverage the arrival of a
digital euro?
1. Develop digital money custody
solutions to enable safekeeping of
digital money and assets.
2. Create value-added services, e.g.,
delivery vs. payment on large
purchases like cars, homes, etc.
3. Make retail payments more
efficient, e.g., SMEs are charged
significantly higher costs to accept
payments.1
4. Increase financial inclusion
through rCBDC wallets with lower
identity requirements than bank
accounts.1
1. Build the rCBDC wallet in-house (a
potentially risky option as the rCBDC
business case is not proven).
2. Embed a rCBDC wallet provider in
the bank’s channels. Co-create the
proposition with a partner, using an
extension of open banking to digital
currencies.
3. Use a market utility. Leverage a
market solution through a SaaS
white-label model to de-risk the
upfront investment while the
business case is unproven.
1. Refine the digital currency strategy
and assess how a retail digital
currency proposition fits into the
overall strategy (e.g., assess the
business case and the target
operating model).
2. Engage with the central bank to
mitigate the impact to the business
model. In addition, retail banks can
steer the rCBDC design to ensure
that customer and business pain
points are addressed.
3. Start to integrate and experiment
with digital currency solutions, and
build the capability for the future.
31
Copyright © 2023 Accenture. All rights reserved.
What can banks do now?
Archetypes of strategic plays
Value proposition
Source: (1) BoE consultation on d£
How could retail banks leverage the arrival of a digital
euro?
The positioning of financial institutions
EVOLVE YOUR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
ACQUIRING SERVICES EVOLUTION: SW/ HW update to
current infrastructure (POS, ATM) and launch of new features
TOKENIZED BANK PRODUCTS: E.g. deposit, credit,
insurance, trade finance…
DATA MONETIZATION: Includes PFM/BFM evolution,
triggering / campaign as a service and raw data monetization
EXCHANGE PLATFORM: Build an exchange to enable a digital
euro – fiat, D€-CBDC and CBDC-crypto conversion
DIGITAL EURO CARD: Physical / virtual card enabling digital
euro transactions at traditional physical / virtual POS
DIGITAL EURO LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT SUITE: To be
provided to governments and corporates to monitor and
control the usage of the digital euro
CAPTIVE DIGITAL EURO WALLET: Deploy a front end to
enable your customer base to be fully interoperable with other
fiat / CBDC currencies
DISCOVER NEW BUSINESS MODELS
NEW DEFI ECOSYSTEM ENABLER: Leverage smart
contracts to create second-level financing enabling
financial solutions beyond payments
BANK-AS-A-SERVICE PROVIDER: Enable tier 3 banks
to catch up with digital euro innovation (e.g. treasury,
digital wallet / front-end)
ORACLES : New role consisting of validating
information from the real world to enable smart
contracts on the CBDC blockchain
CBDC PAYTECH: To enable digital euro integration /
interoperability, anti-fraud, digital identity, …
1 2
Who we are
FMI contacts
Who to contact?
Tom Hawkins
thomas.j.hawkins@accenture.com
Daniel Gabriel
daniel.gabriel@accenture.com
Alejandro González Ruiz
a.a.gonzalez.ruiz@accenture.com
Nalin Lad
nalin.lad@accenture.com
Our global Digital Financial Markets and Payments team is on
hand to support you with your digital money journey, end-to-end
from strategy through to implementation.
Sulabh Agarwal
sulabh.agarwal@accenture.com
Nils Beier
nils.beier@accenture.com
Courtney Williams
courtney.williams@accenture.com
Petar Zelic
petar.zelic@accenture.com
Ignacio Lopez del Moral
i.lopez.del.moral@accenture.com
Ousmene Mandeng
ousmene.mandeng@accenture.com
Jorge Sánchez
jorge.sanchez@accenture.com
Jessica Johnson
jessica.b.johnson@accenture.com
CBDC:
Integration, custody
Payments &
Settlements:
Strategy,
experimentation &
implementation
We are here to
support private
banks in their
journey to digital
money, providing
an extensive
knowledge of
CBDC and digital
assets.
Digitalassets
Digitalcurrencies
35
Compliance,risk
andpublicpolicy
▪ Due diligence
▪ Compliance
▪ Policy making
▪ Regulatory and
supervisory strategy
▪ Risk assessment
▪ Target operating model
definition
Market Infrastructure:
Tokenization
Asset Services:
Custody strategy,
experimentation and
implementation
How our team can help you
Accenture and the digital euro
Accenture is one of five consultancy firms that form part of a
framework agreement for digital euro design, business model and
realisation with regard to the investigation – and eventually
realisation – phase of a digital euro.
Accenture was a partner for prototyping user interfaces for a digital
euro and their processing through the Eurosystem’s interface and
back-end infrastructure completed in March.
Accenture responded in February 2023 to a public consultation as a
market research exercise on potential design solutions in the market.
Accenture also undertakes work with national central banks of the
Eurosystem including with the Bundesbank and the Banque de
France on wholesale CBDC applications.
36

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Digital Euro: Implications for the Financial System

  • 1. Digital euro Implications for the financial system June 2023
  • 2. Table of Contents 01 02 03 CBDCs – definition and trends Focus on digital euro The role of the private sector in the digital euro ecosystem 04 Contact details
  • 4. A brief history of central bank money Cashless transactions The Bank of England was a model for central banks and operation of the gold standard. The reform of the Bank of France in 1848 resulted in the first modern central bank as a public institution with a monopoly on bank note issuance. Germany’s Reichsbank, established in 1875, was probably the most modern in terms of its operations. The Reichsbank pioneered cashless transactions with the first giro-transfers or book- entry adjustments for the transfer of credit balances. The Federal Reserve was established in 1913. In the ‘70s it became the first to use electronic transfers for its large-value payments system (Fedwire). This has become the standard for real-time gross settlement systems and processing of central bank reserves. CBDCs would be a new form of central bank money that would complement banknotes and reserves. Bank notes replace the gold standard Electronic transfers CBDCs
  • 5. CBDC is a third format of money that exists alongside cash and electronic deposits. It is fully fungible at a 1:1 rate with cash and central bank reserves. CBDC is the first digital form of central bank money available to the public and is best thought of as a digital form of cash that is transferable P2P. It offers additional functionality such as programmability. The issuance and distribution of any form of central bank money, excluding bank notes, is nowadays strictly local. A CBDC is a token-based payments medium with the properties of digital bearer instruments. It utilizes either a one-tier or a two-tier distribution model. For retail, a two-tier distribution model requires that businesses and individuals have wallets with their bank and request CBDC through their bank. The model limits disintermediation of the banking system, keeping the current system intact while spurring innovation. The introduction of a CBDC merits careful consideration of a large variety of design features. Some of these are independent, others involve trade-offs. For the most durable results, these choices should be made in line with the central bank’s objectives. The considerations include resiliency, scalability, performance and throughput, availability, security, cost and efficiency, and programmability. What is a central bank digital currency? DEFINITION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS
  • 6. The Bank of Japan said its pilot will test the use of its CBDC and a forum will be set up with the private sector to discuss retail payments and related technology. The Central Bank of Brazil has invited firms to co- pilot its CBDC, the digital real. The pilot includes testing the buying and selling of federal public bonds by individuals. The European Central Bank communicated its desire to focus on: • Tokenization of securities leveraging a wholesale CBDC for securities settlement issued on DLT. • Wholesale CBDC as a vehicle to enhance cross-border and cross-currency settlements. BIS (The Bank for International Settlements) announced project Mariana to investigate the use of automated market makers for FX trading and settlement with testing across the Swiss franc, euro and Singapore dollar. mBridge continues post-pilot to advance real live transactions across 20 commercial banks in 4 jurisdictions. The Reserve Bank of India and the Central Bank of UAE started to collaborate on financial services innovation. The PoC and pilot focus on CBDC interoperability. Recent CBDC developments The Reserve Bank of Australia tested a series of use cases including offline payments, tokenized bills, interoperable CBDC for trusted Web3 commerce and liquid assets security trading. BIS (The Bank for International Settlements) announced project Mariana to investigate the use of automated market makers for FX trading and settlement with testing across the Swiss franc, euro and Singapore dollar.
  • 7. Defining the future of money CBDCscan,inthelongerterm,becomeakeycomponentinre-architectingtheglobalfinancialinfrastructure. A CBDC would constitute a new format of central bank money, the digital token, to serve as settlement medium on alternative financial market infrastructures. It is to extend access and reach of central bank money to address actual and new payment needs. CBDC, given the importance of central bank money, can serve as catalyst to shape the future of money itself. Introduction of a new format of money and payment infrastructure could make the payments landscape more diverse and resilient. CBDC may also serve broader public policy objectives and support government-led initiatives including to extend financial assistance including to address emergencies. A MORE RESILIENT & DIVERSE PAYMENTS LANDSCAPE CBDC may unlock payment innovation in retail, cross-country and wholesale payments. This would encourage competition and the creation of new services like offline payments, immediate asset settlement and custody solutions by existing financial institutions and new actors. NEW SERVICES, INNOVATION & COMPETITION CBDC can exhibit new functionalities like programmability and traceability that can support new use cases. Programmability facilitates embedding complex business logic into payments. Traceability ensures provenance is assured and can help establishing a safer and more transparent payments environment. EXPANDED FUNCTIONALITIES A CBDC could enhance the usability and attractiveness of the national currency and promote its international use strengthening the strategic autonomy of countries. CBDCs may help accelerate the transition to a digital economy advancing digital inclusion for the society at large. PAYMENTS EFFICIENCY & RISK ELIMINATION CBDC offers the possibility to enhance efficiency given the nature of token-based transfers and exchanges. It shall derisk payments and establish more direct payments relations in particular for international transactions. Tokens enable instant and atomic settlement increasing the velocity of money and changing the nature of liquidity. ECONOMIC AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS NEW MONEY FORMAT
  • 9. A digital euro is the same euro as the physical currency – it just has a different format. ▪ The digital euro will be central bank money – in a digital format – accessible to the general public to serve as a payment instrument in retail transactions. ▪ It will likely be based on digital tokens. ▪ It will be a direct liability of the Eurosystem, similar to banknotes. Issuance of a digital euro will be a substitution of Eurosystem liabilities and will not change the size of the Eurosystem balance sheet. ▪ Banks will be intermediaries, similar to their role in the distribution of banknotes. At the same time, they may be users. What is a digital euro?
  • 10. Digital euro Timeline October 2020 Publication of Eurosystem report on a digital euro (interesting feature: a digital euro shall be held by non-residents too) April 2021 Publication of public consultation on a digital euro. Public stresses need for privacy (other surveys find less emphasis on privacy) July 2021 ECB launches digital euro project with initial investigation phase to start in October 2021. Design shall be informed by users’ preferences and technical advice. March 2022 Report on payment preferences. Users want universally accepted payment methods online and in- store and prefer instant and contactless person-to-person payments. September 2022 First progress report offers possibility to introduce holding ceilings to “limit individual take-up and the speed of deposit conversion”. December 2022 Second progress report to highlight two-tier distribution model and affirmation that Eurosystem shall perform all settlement activities. April 2023 Third progress report on access for non-banks and governments and for non-resident if they have access to a Euro Area payment service provider. Limits to be introduced. June 2023 European Commission to propose regulation to establish a digital euro. October 2023 Decision to launch development and build phase for digital euro to launch in 2026-27.
  • 11. Players involved in the investigation phase As per ECB disclosed communications. Source: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/paym/intro/news/html/ecb.mipnews220916.en.html NON-EXHAUSTIVE The aim of this prototyping exercise is to test how well the technology behind a digital euro integrates with prototypes developed by companies. PEER-TO-PEER ONLINE PAYMENTS PEER-TO-PEER OFFLINE PAYMENTS POINT-OF-SALE PAYMENTS INITIATED BY THE PAYER POINT-OF-SALE PAYMENTS INITIATED BY THE PAYEE E-COMMERCE PAYMENTS
  • 12. A digital euro will complement existing central bank banknotes and offer a “cash plus” option. Key ECB arguments include: ▪ Integrity: This rests largely on the view that, in the event of the disappearance of cash, citizens should have access to central bank money, on demand. ▪ Resilience: It is seen as a response to the threat of alternative payment means, especially initiatives like Meta’s Diem. ▪ Integration: A digital euro will help in the establishment of a pan-European payments framework. ▪ Diversification: It will form part of alternative payment systems. ▪ Confidence: The digital euro is essential to safeguard confidence in the financial system. (This is a controversial point, the economics of which seem weak.) Why is a digital euro needed? The ECB is struggling to present a convincing vision of the digital euro – most of its arguments are defensive and place insufficient emphasis on innovation. This could endanger the project. Many are still asking: “What is the point of a digital euro?”
  • 13. A digital euro will serve as a payments instrument. The project focuses on: ▪ Person-to-person payments conducted (i) online and (ii) offline ▪ Payments initiated in-store (iii) by the payer and (iv) by the payee ▪ Payments for (v) e-commerce USER-FACINGAPPS/DEVICES WALLETS CONNECTIONTODEDICATEDCASHACCOUNTS CONNECTIONTOTHEDIGITALEUROSETTLEMENTENGINE COMPONENTSOFADIGITALEURO Use cases examined by the digital euro project: The ECB has been conducting various experiments to test different possible components of a digital euro. These include front-end and back-end prototypes using UTXO data models and API interfaces.
  • 14. The debate DIGITAL LIMITS PRIVACY COMPENSATION MODEL FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE The choice of architecture remains open. There is speculation that a digital euro will not be based on a blockchain; it could use a centralized system and/or be account- based and an extension of existing payment systems. Banks have repeatedly voiced concerns that a digital euro will crowd out bank deposits. Evidence for this is weak. As a mitigating measure, the ECB proposes limits for which the economics are weak. Digital payments are traceable. The ECB wants the digital euro to be the most private digital money, with possibly a tiered structure of increasing disclosure requirements depending on the amount transacted. A compensation model will be critical to ensure the economic viability of the digital euro and will not unduly rely on subsidies. Merchants will likely be key to adoption if they see economic benefits of driving customers to using a digital euro. Components of a future functional architecture of the digital euro will require intermediaries to adopt new capabilities. A digital euro will be integrated with existing systems.
  • 15. Digital Accounts vs Tokens Money is normally an account or book entry. Accounts represent liabilities of the account issuer and transfers can be performed between account holders of the same institution. Tokens represent a new medium with properties akin to a bearer instrument. They constitute liabilities of the token issuers are held in wallets and typically aim to be transferred peer-to-peer. Tokens offer functionalities like programmability and traceability to address new payment needs. Centralised vs Decentralised systems Existing payment infrastructures rest mostly on centralised systems where a system operator validates and performs transactions. All data and values are with a single entity. Blockchain or other distributed ledger technology (DLT) platforms typically constitute a network of independent computers where validation and transfers are determined jointly by the computer network. All data and values are distributed amongst network participants.
  • 16. The Limits Why limits? Banks have repeatedly argued that a digital euro (retail) will cause liquid balances to migrate from bank accounts to the digital euro due to the safety attributes of central bank money. In addition, there is a fear that if a digital euro is considerably cheaper to transact with than conventional payment means, merchants will encourage end-users to use the digital euro. To protect banks, holding ceilings have been considered as a means of limiting digital euro balances Economics of limits Limits serve to micromanage the demand for central bank money. Limits are a direct monetary policy measure that are normally at odds with existing monetary policy frameworks. The case for limits remains speculative amid weak evidence of a threat of bank disintermediation. Limits would be perceived as arbitrary. In the euro area a limit of €3,000 has often been proposed, while in the UK limits of £10,000-20,000 are being discussed. Demand for money is normally addressed through monetary policy measures. If the demand for a digital euro is perceived as being inconsistent with the objective of central bank monetary policy, the central bank should resort to its available monetary policy tools.
  • 17. Bank disintermediation Germany: Deposits in state savings banks. Evidence ▪ The evidence supporting concerns about bank disintermediation is weak. ▪ Deposit patterns do not suggest that there is systematic cyclical or structural migration from weak to strong banks and from private- to public-sector banks, even in times of financial distress. ▪ The recent banking crisis in the US caused a deposit outflow from small banks amounting to no more than 4% of total deposits. ▪ Germany’s savings banks or Sparkassen, which are state-owned banks, have maintained a relatively stable 23% - 27% share of total deposits, confirming the view that safety is not a determining factor for deposit holders. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2000 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: Bundesbank Percent of total deposits of all banking groups
  • 18. NON-EXHAUSTIVE Privacy Data Payer Payer Wallet Payer PSP Central Bank Payee PSP Payee Wallet Payee Other PSPs* Payer ID X ? X ? ? Payer wallet ID X X X ? X X Payer PSP ID X X X ? X X X Payer public key(s) ? X X X X X ? X Amount X X X X X X X X Payee public key ? X X X X X ? X Payee PSP ID X X X ? X X X Payee wallet ID X X ? X X X Payee ID ? ? X ? X Minimum visibility of payment data in a tokenized and intermediated CBDC * On decentralized implementations only – DLT distributes some or all data to all network participants. Notes: • Payer and payee may be offered an option to share or not share their identities with each other, depending on policy. • Public keys could be long-term, short-term, or single-use (per-payment). Re-use of a public key reveals correlations between a given user’s payments to the central bank and other PSPs.* Single-use keys minimize such correlation. • Additional techniques can improve privacy and data protection: – Participating PSPs can be contractually or legally bound to use collected data only for specific purposes (e.g., transaction validation) – Cryptographic techniques can hide data while still allowing verification of correctness (so-called zero-knowledge proofs) – Confidential computing uses secure hardware to protect data; data is encrypted whenever not inside secure hardware
  • 19. Privacy Privacy The digital euro will ensure considerable privacy, although not complete anonymity. The ECB will safeguard only meta data and will not have access to transaction data. The aim is to make the digital euro the most private digital money. Cash may not represent an adequate benchmark for providing privacy in payments Vis-à-vis whom? Privacy matters largely when determining disclosure vis-à- vis a given entity. While intermediaries will likely maintain information currently available of their customers, merchants may not or only learn very little about the identity of the payer. The general public seems more concerned to share data with the ECB than with private actors. Not clear if central bank’s mandate is to safeguard privacy for the general public.
  • 20. A compensation policy to incentivize distribution? THE COMPENSATION MODEL IS STILL TO BE DEFINED PAYMENT FEES ▪ Banks may pay a transaction fee similar to TARGET2/ TIPS. ▪ Current CBDC cases do not include fees / sums to be paid by the payer or the merchant ▪ It is still unclear if commercial banks can apply fees to end users: i) current account / card holding fee (on the consumer side) and acquiring fees (on the merchant side). 1. Fee per transaction to be paid by the banks, similar to actual TARGET2, TIPS remuneration model COMPENSATION MODEL CONSIDERATIONS TO INCENTIVIZE DISTRIBUTION ▪ Establishment of a distribution model will take account of commercial considerations. ▪ Network effects will generate economic incentives for acquirers and merchants. ▪ A compensation model should be aligned with the compensation structures of existing private-sector solutions. ▪ The ECB is assumed to collect seigniorage similar to the issuance of banknotes.
  • 21. Functional architecture (tentative) A possible functional architecture will demand new components to be integrated with existing core banking and payment systems. Intermediaries will need to add a wallet and integration thereof with its back end system to fund, defund and settle digital euros and other peripheral components. Digital euro could be held by intermediaries or passed through directly to end-user wallets. Payment System RTGS system Funding / Defunding / Settlement Data warehouse Intermediary back end Node / Wallet On boarding repository Proxy lookup Dispute management Fraud and risk management Intermediary
  • 22. Wholesale CBDC CBDC WHOLESALE ECB announced the exploration of new technologies for wholesale CBDC recorded on DLT platforms. Central bank money plays a special role in large-value payments, making it likely that a digital euro for wholesale would be of particular importance. Several central banks have focused on wholesale CBDC, particularly for international payments to challenge the existing correspondent bank architecture. Securities settlement: Advent of tokenised securities would benefit from using a tokenised high grade settlement medium to enable a token-based securities life cycle end-to-end. International payments: Sending money abroad should be as quick and simple as sending a text message. Foreign exchange trading: Largest financial market still relies on a slow, highly intermediated system with important residual risks in particular for smaller currencies. Use cases
  • 23. Securities life cycle In a token-based exchange, a security token is simply exchanged instantly and atomically against a wholesale digital euro, eliminating most risks ▪ Conventional securities trading is subject to various functions in the securities life cycle, including trade execution, clearing, settlement and custody. ▪ The exchange of the security vs. money involves multiple actors depending on the nature of the security. Clearing will be performed at different levels. ▪ In a token-based exchange, a security token is simply exchanged instantly and atomically against a money token (a wholesale digital euro). A DLT platform can be custodian, CSD and settlement engine at the same time. Lack of open positions implies no need for a CCP or other risk mitigation measures. Seller Broker Exchange Broker Buyer Custodian CCP CSD Clearing bank Conventional Conventional and new New Trade execution Clearing Settlement
  • 24. International payments International payments based on a token platform will overcome current hurdles associated with correspondent banking ▪ International payments rely on a network of correspondent banks. ▪ Payment chains can comprise several institutions, with every bank adding to potential risks in the transfer. International payments typically are slow, opaque and costly. ▪ International payments based on a token platform would consist of sending a money token (wholesale digital euro) from the payer bank to the payee bank. The payee would hold a token that could be exchanged or held to perform future payments. Payer Bank A Bank B Payee Conventional Conventional and new New Trade execution Clearing Settlement Correspondent of Bank A Correspondent of Bank B
  • 25. Foreign exchange trading Foreign exchange on a token platform would be a direct exchange of principal for principal instantly and atomically in wholesale digital euro ▪ The foreign exchange market is the largest financial market. ▪ Transactions typically consist of making transfers in the respective currencies in the large-value payment systems of the country of the currency. Final exposures are therefore to correspondent banks only. ▪ For transactions cleared by CLS bank for 18 currencies, exchanges benefit from multilateral clearing and netting. But similarly, the transactions are not settled instantly. ▪ Foreign exchange on a token platform would be a direct exchange of principal for principal, instantly and atomically, in central bank money (wholesale digital euro) with no need for clearing and netting. Seller Bank A Bank B Buyer Conventional Conventional and new New Trade execution Clearing Settlement Correspondent of Bank B CLS Bank Correspondent of Bank A
  • 26. Functional requirements Custody Token-based mediums require a new custody infrastructure and will live outside existing book-entry systems. Custody represents a foundational capability. Co-existence of token and book-entry mediums will become the norm. Token custody applies to most tokenised instruments including money, securities and other assets. Adoption of token custody therefore exhibits a universal character. Integration Seamless integration with existing core banking and payment systems and where applicable at the point of sale across all form factors will be key for successful adoption and ensure there will be no undue fragmentation in payments markets. Integration will comprise all needed systems that serve to execute transactions and administer money balances to ensure the integrity of the general ledger.
  • 27. Next steps for the digital euro Architecture The choice of backend architecture will determine if the digital is to expand or replace existing capabilities. Priorities will have to be defined in terms of financial innovation, complementarity and connectivity. Use case Retail and wholesale use cases can co-exist. While retail will likely struggle to compete against existing payment means, in wholesale the importance of central bank money and new needed functionalities are expected to drive adoption. Development The final architecture will determine what additional developments will be required for a successful integration with existing payments capabilities. Token based mediums will require new components for custody. Roll out The digital euro could be rolled-out in a big bang approach (introduction of the euro bank notes) or gradually (TIPS). Merchants need likely be key promoters. Wholesale use cases afford more flexibility and are less complex.
  • 28. The role of the private sector in the Digital Euro ecosystem
  • 29. How the “private” sector is moving FOCUS ON INTERMEDIATION FOCUS ON DISTRIBUTION FOCUS ON NEW POSITIONING Build infrastructure and design solutions to enable interoperability between CBDC / crypto and traditional payment ecosystems Provide as-a-service and end-user solutions to speed up adoption of blockchain assets (e-wallets, cards, acceptance devices,…) Money issuance or new money mediums to enhance payments “One-click” NFT purchases Bridge CBDC with traditional payments Spend fiat and earn crypto Processing on Crypto prepaid card Acquisition of blockchain cybersecurity provider Processing on CBDC prepaid card Integration of cryptos in PayPal wallet Global crypto exchange Acceptance of crypto at checkout Crypto reporting tool for accounting/ tax Processing of crypto funds WL crypto payments app IT platform to issue gold-linked coin PAYMENTS PROCESORS -Non exhaustive- COMMERCIAL BANKS ▪ Issuing of a J.P.Morgan coin for B2B real-time payments ▪ B2B real-time payments on Onyx blockchain-based network to facilitate real-time B2B payments ▪ Blockchain-based open financing platform for trade settlement communications ▪ Foreign exchange post-trade platform to cut down reconciling efforts on different back offices ▪ DLT-backed infrastructure to enable real-time 24/7 settlement in the wholesale market ▪ USDF stablecoin offered by banks to support new and existing P2P, C2B, B2B, and bank-to-bank payment applications with real- time settlement and low cost ▪ DLT-based payment app for individuals, enabling P2P real-time cross-border settlement ▪ DLT-powered corporate lending platform to boost flexibility and transparency in loan negotiations between bankers and corporates ▪ DLT infrastructure to enable real-time trade / settlement via smart contracts ▪ Introduction of a stablecoin pegged to the euro, providing clients with a robust settlement asset for on-chain transactions Mastercard Visa Consensys fiserv bakkt Ciphertrace Coinbase Island Pay J.P. Morgan CITI Binance BlockFi Rocketfuel OKCoin Verady Worldline PayPal Fnality USDF Consortium Santander BBVA BNP Paribas Societe Generale Global Gold Corporation
  • 30. 1. Payment-vs-payment: Deliver real-time instant settlement for wholesale interbank payments, making payments more efficient and reducing risk. 2. Delivery-vs-payment: Atomic DvP settlement model for tokenized securities settlement and further use cases. 1. Issue tokenized deposit and a payments platform. The strategy followed by JPMC Onyx.(1) 2. Join a private-sector-led consortium. This could include joining Finality(2), JP Morgan Onyx or emerging equivalents. 3. Shape the central bank ecosystem. For example, the model explored by Banque de France and Swiss National Bank in Project Jura(3), the Bank of England consultation(4), or expanding cross-border CBDC ecosystems (e.g., mBridge(5)). 1. Refine the digital currency strategy and assess how a wholesale digital currency proposition fits into the overall strategy (e.g., assess the business case and the target operating model). 2. Engage with private & public sector ecosystems to steer the wholesale digital currency design. This will ensure customer and business pain points are addressed. 3. Start to integrate and experiment with digital currency solutions, and build the capability for the future. 30 Copyright © 2023 Accenture. All rights reserved. What can banks do now? Archetypes of strategic plays Value proposition Source: (1) Onyx, (2) Fnality, (3) Project Jura, (4) BoE consultation on d£, (5) mBridge How could wholesale banks leverage the arrival of a digital euro?
  • 31. 1. Develop digital money custody solutions to enable safekeeping of digital money and assets. 2. Create value-added services, e.g., delivery vs. payment on large purchases like cars, homes, etc. 3. Make retail payments more efficient, e.g., SMEs are charged significantly higher costs to accept payments.1 4. Increase financial inclusion through rCBDC wallets with lower identity requirements than bank accounts.1 1. Build the rCBDC wallet in-house (a potentially risky option as the rCBDC business case is not proven). 2. Embed a rCBDC wallet provider in the bank’s channels. Co-create the proposition with a partner, using an extension of open banking to digital currencies. 3. Use a market utility. Leverage a market solution through a SaaS white-label model to de-risk the upfront investment while the business case is unproven. 1. Refine the digital currency strategy and assess how a retail digital currency proposition fits into the overall strategy (e.g., assess the business case and the target operating model). 2. Engage with the central bank to mitigate the impact to the business model. In addition, retail banks can steer the rCBDC design to ensure that customer and business pain points are addressed. 3. Start to integrate and experiment with digital currency solutions, and build the capability for the future. 31 Copyright © 2023 Accenture. All rights reserved. What can banks do now? Archetypes of strategic plays Value proposition Source: (1) BoE consultation on d£ How could retail banks leverage the arrival of a digital euro?
  • 32. The positioning of financial institutions EVOLVE YOUR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ACQUIRING SERVICES EVOLUTION: SW/ HW update to current infrastructure (POS, ATM) and launch of new features TOKENIZED BANK PRODUCTS: E.g. deposit, credit, insurance, trade finance… DATA MONETIZATION: Includes PFM/BFM evolution, triggering / campaign as a service and raw data monetization EXCHANGE PLATFORM: Build an exchange to enable a digital euro – fiat, D€-CBDC and CBDC-crypto conversion DIGITAL EURO CARD: Physical / virtual card enabling digital euro transactions at traditional physical / virtual POS DIGITAL EURO LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT SUITE: To be provided to governments and corporates to monitor and control the usage of the digital euro CAPTIVE DIGITAL EURO WALLET: Deploy a front end to enable your customer base to be fully interoperable with other fiat / CBDC currencies DISCOVER NEW BUSINESS MODELS NEW DEFI ECOSYSTEM ENABLER: Leverage smart contracts to create second-level financing enabling financial solutions beyond payments BANK-AS-A-SERVICE PROVIDER: Enable tier 3 banks to catch up with digital euro innovation (e.g. treasury, digital wallet / front-end) ORACLES : New role consisting of validating information from the real world to enable smart contracts on the CBDC blockchain CBDC PAYTECH: To enable digital euro integration / interoperability, anti-fraud, digital identity, … 1 2
  • 33. Who we are FMI contacts
  • 34. Who to contact? Tom Hawkins thomas.j.hawkins@accenture.com Daniel Gabriel daniel.gabriel@accenture.com Alejandro González Ruiz a.a.gonzalez.ruiz@accenture.com Nalin Lad nalin.lad@accenture.com Our global Digital Financial Markets and Payments team is on hand to support you with your digital money journey, end-to-end from strategy through to implementation. Sulabh Agarwal sulabh.agarwal@accenture.com Nils Beier nils.beier@accenture.com Courtney Williams courtney.williams@accenture.com Petar Zelic petar.zelic@accenture.com Ignacio Lopez del Moral i.lopez.del.moral@accenture.com Ousmene Mandeng ousmene.mandeng@accenture.com Jorge Sánchez jorge.sanchez@accenture.com Jessica Johnson jessica.b.johnson@accenture.com
  • 35. CBDC: Integration, custody Payments & Settlements: Strategy, experimentation & implementation We are here to support private banks in their journey to digital money, providing an extensive knowledge of CBDC and digital assets. Digitalassets Digitalcurrencies 35 Compliance,risk andpublicpolicy ▪ Due diligence ▪ Compliance ▪ Policy making ▪ Regulatory and supervisory strategy ▪ Risk assessment ▪ Target operating model definition Market Infrastructure: Tokenization Asset Services: Custody strategy, experimentation and implementation How our team can help you
  • 36. Accenture and the digital euro Accenture is one of five consultancy firms that form part of a framework agreement for digital euro design, business model and realisation with regard to the investigation – and eventually realisation – phase of a digital euro. Accenture was a partner for prototyping user interfaces for a digital euro and their processing through the Eurosystem’s interface and back-end infrastructure completed in March. Accenture responded in February 2023 to a public consultation as a market research exercise on potential design solutions in the market. Accenture also undertakes work with national central banks of the Eurosystem including with the Bundesbank and the Banque de France on wholesale CBDC applications. 36