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Copyright Clarity: Using Copyrighted Materials for Digital Learning Renee HobbsTemple UniversityMedia Education LabSchool of Communications & TheaterPhiladelphia PA http://mediaeducationlab.com/copyright
PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Goals for Today’s Session Why creative people value copyright law When you (and your students) can use copyrighted materials without payment or permission under some circumstances When you (and your students) should ask permission or pay a license fee to use copyrighted materials How codes of best practice help people become more confident in understanding and using the doctrine of fair use How the law adapts to changes in society and changes in technology
Media Literacy Critical thinking about media & technology +  Composing using media & technology For what purpose?  To build critical thinking and communication skills Critical Thinking, Reflection & Ethics Using Technology Tools Well Self-Expression & Creativity Teamwork & Collaboration
Supported with a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
What is the purpose of
To promote creativity, innovation and the spread of knowledge Article 1 Section 8 U.S. Constitution
Technology makes it easy to: ,[object Object]
Copy
Modify & Repurpose
Excerpt & Quote From
Distribute,[object Object]
Limit
Charge high fees
Discourage use
Use scare tactics,[object Object]
Problem: Educational Use Guidelines are Confusing! NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS BETWEEN MEDIA COMPANIES  AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia Guidelines for the Educational Use of Music
The documents created by these negotiated agreements give them “the appearance of positive law. These qualities are merely illusory, and consequently the guidelines have had a seriously detrimental effect. They interfere with an actual understanding of the law and erode confidence in the law as created by Congress and the courts” 										--Kenneth Crews, 2001 Educational Use Guidelinesare NOT the Law!
It’s time to replace old knowledge with accurate knowledge
EVERYTHING  IS COPYRIGHTED Any work of expression in fixed or tangible form
Creative Control The Copyright Act grants five rights to a copyright owner: 1. the right to reproduce the copyrighted work;  2. the right to prepare derivative works based upon the work;  3. the right to distribute copies of the work to the public;  4. the right to perform the copyrighted work publicly; and  5. the right to display the copyrighted work publicly.
Owners May Control Copyright through the Licensing Process
LOVE HATE Copyright law enables people to control the creative works  they produce
LOVE HATE Violating Copyright Can Be Expensive The Copyright holder may receive statutory damages for all infringements involved in the action… not less than $750 or more than $30,000 as the court considers just. [...]  When infringement was committed willfully, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages to a sum of not more than $150,000."
EVERYTHING  IS COPYRIGHTED ..but there are exemptions
						--Section 107 					Copyright Act of 1976 The Doctrine of Fair Use For purposes such as  criticism, comment,  news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use),  scholarship or research
The Doctrine of Fair Use “It not only allows but encourages socially beneficial uses of copyrighted works such as teaching, learning, and scholarship. Without fair use, those beneficial uses— quoting from copyrighted works, providing multiple copies to students in class, creating new knowledge based on previously published knowledge—would be infringements. Fair use is the means for assuring a robust and vigorous exchange of copyrighted information.” --Carrie Russell, American Library Association
Bill Graham Archives vs. Dorling Kindersley, Ltd. (2006)
An Example of Transformative Use 	The purpose of the original: To generate publicity for a concert. The purpose of the new work: To document and illustrate the concert events in historical context.
Is Your Use of Copyrighted Materials a Fair Use? Did the unlicensed use “transform” the material taken from the copyrighted work by using it for a different purpose than that of the original, or did it just repeat the work for the same intent and value as the original? Was the material taken appropriate in kind and amount, considering the nature of the copyrighted work and of the use?
Exercising Your Fair Use ReasoningInvolves Critical Thinking
Reflects the “best practices” of educators who use copyrighted material to build critical thinking and communication skills
Five Principles Code of Best Practices in Fair Use  Educators can: make copies of newspaper articles, TV shows, and other copyrighted works and use them and keep them for educational use create curriculum materials and scholarship with copyrighted materials embedded share, sell and distribute curriculum materials with copyrighted materials embedded   Learners can: use copyrighted works in creating new material   distribute their works digitally if they meet the transformativeness standard
Organizations Supporting the Code of Best Practices Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) Action Coalition for Media Education (ACME) National Council of Teachers Of English (NCTE) Visual Studies Division International Communication Association (ICA)
Educators Can Rely on Fair Use   National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has adopted the “Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy  Education” as its official policy on fair use
Video Case Studies  Elementary School Case Study: P.S. 124 The Silas B. Dutcher School Brooklyn, NY High School Case Study: Upper Merion Area High School  King of Prussia, PA College Case Study:  Project Look Sharp at Ithaca College Ithaca, NY
The Code of Best Practices Helps ,[object Object]
 To persuade gatekeepers, including school      leaders, librarians, and publishers, to accept well-founded assertions of fair use ,[object Object]
 To discourage copyright owners from threatening or bringing lawsuits
 In the unlikely event that such suits were brought, to provide the defendant with a basis on which to show that her or his uses were both objectively reasonable and undertaken in good faith.,[object Object]
Communities of Practice Assert Their Fair Use Rights
Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 RIPPING. Criminalizes the use of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent digital rights management (DRM) software that controls access to copyrighted works.  ONLINE TAKEDOWNS. Protects Internet Service Providers against copyright liability if they promptly block access to allegedly infringing material (or remove such material from their systems) if notified by copyright holder; offers a counter-notification provision if use is exempted under fair use
The Results of our Advocacy Users may unlock DVDs protected by the Content Scrambling System when circumvention is for the purpose of criticism or comment using short sections, for educational, documentary or non-profit use.

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Copyright Clarity: Using Copyrighted Materials for Digital Learning

  • 1. Copyright Clarity: Using Copyrighted Materials for Digital Learning Renee HobbsTemple UniversityMedia Education LabSchool of Communications & TheaterPhiladelphia PA http://mediaeducationlab.com/copyright
  • 2. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Goals for Today’s Session Why creative people value copyright law When you (and your students) can use copyrighted materials without payment or permission under some circumstances When you (and your students) should ask permission or pay a license fee to use copyrighted materials How codes of best practice help people become more confident in understanding and using the doctrine of fair use How the law adapts to changes in society and changes in technology
  • 3. Media Literacy Critical thinking about media & technology + Composing using media & technology For what purpose? To build critical thinking and communication skills Critical Thinking, Reflection & Ethics Using Technology Tools Well Self-Expression & Creativity Teamwork & Collaboration
  • 4. Supported with a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • 5. What is the purpose of
  • 6. To promote creativity, innovation and the spread of knowledge Article 1 Section 8 U.S. Constitution
  • 7.
  • 11.
  • 12. Limit
  • 15.
  • 16. Problem: Educational Use Guidelines are Confusing! NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS BETWEEN MEDIA COMPANIES AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia Guidelines for the Educational Use of Music
  • 17. The documents created by these negotiated agreements give them “the appearance of positive law. These qualities are merely illusory, and consequently the guidelines have had a seriously detrimental effect. They interfere with an actual understanding of the law and erode confidence in the law as created by Congress and the courts” --Kenneth Crews, 2001 Educational Use Guidelinesare NOT the Law!
  • 18. It’s time to replace old knowledge with accurate knowledge
  • 19. EVERYTHING IS COPYRIGHTED Any work of expression in fixed or tangible form
  • 20. Creative Control The Copyright Act grants five rights to a copyright owner: 1. the right to reproduce the copyrighted work; 2. the right to prepare derivative works based upon the work; 3. the right to distribute copies of the work to the public; 4. the right to perform the copyrighted work publicly; and 5. the right to display the copyrighted work publicly.
  • 21. Owners May Control Copyright through the Licensing Process
  • 22. LOVE HATE Copyright law enables people to control the creative works they produce
  • 23. LOVE HATE Violating Copyright Can Be Expensive The Copyright holder may receive statutory damages for all infringements involved in the action… not less than $750 or more than $30,000 as the court considers just. [...] When infringement was committed willfully, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages to a sum of not more than $150,000."
  • 24. EVERYTHING IS COPYRIGHTED ..but there are exemptions
  • 25. --Section 107 Copyright Act of 1976 The Doctrine of Fair Use For purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research
  • 26. The Doctrine of Fair Use “It not only allows but encourages socially beneficial uses of copyrighted works such as teaching, learning, and scholarship. Without fair use, those beneficial uses— quoting from copyrighted works, providing multiple copies to students in class, creating new knowledge based on previously published knowledge—would be infringements. Fair use is the means for assuring a robust and vigorous exchange of copyrighted information.” --Carrie Russell, American Library Association
  • 27.
  • 28. Bill Graham Archives vs. Dorling Kindersley, Ltd. (2006)
  • 29. An Example of Transformative Use The purpose of the original: To generate publicity for a concert. The purpose of the new work: To document and illustrate the concert events in historical context.
  • 30. Is Your Use of Copyrighted Materials a Fair Use? Did the unlicensed use “transform” the material taken from the copyrighted work by using it for a different purpose than that of the original, or did it just repeat the work for the same intent and value as the original? Was the material taken appropriate in kind and amount, considering the nature of the copyrighted work and of the use?
  • 31. Exercising Your Fair Use ReasoningInvolves Critical Thinking
  • 32.
  • 33. Reflects the “best practices” of educators who use copyrighted material to build critical thinking and communication skills
  • 34.
  • 35. Five Principles Code of Best Practices in Fair Use Educators can: make copies of newspaper articles, TV shows, and other copyrighted works and use them and keep them for educational use create curriculum materials and scholarship with copyrighted materials embedded share, sell and distribute curriculum materials with copyrighted materials embedded Learners can: use copyrighted works in creating new material distribute their works digitally if they meet the transformativeness standard
  • 36. Organizations Supporting the Code of Best Practices Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) Action Coalition for Media Education (ACME) National Council of Teachers Of English (NCTE) Visual Studies Division International Communication Association (ICA)
  • 37. Educators Can Rely on Fair Use National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has adopted the “Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education” as its official policy on fair use
  • 38. Video Case Studies Elementary School Case Study: P.S. 124 The Silas B. Dutcher School Brooklyn, NY High School Case Study: Upper Merion Area High School King of Prussia, PA College Case Study: Project Look Sharp at Ithaca College Ithaca, NY
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. To discourage copyright owners from threatening or bringing lawsuits
  • 43.
  • 44. Communities of Practice Assert Their Fair Use Rights
  • 45. Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 RIPPING. Criminalizes the use of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent digital rights management (DRM) software that controls access to copyrighted works. ONLINE TAKEDOWNS. Protects Internet Service Providers against copyright liability if they promptly block access to allegedly infringing material (or remove such material from their systems) if notified by copyright holder; offers a counter-notification provision if use is exempted under fair use
  • 46.
  • 47. The Results of our Advocacy Users may unlock DVDs protected by the Content Scrambling System when circumvention is for the purpose of criticism or comment using short sections, for educational, documentary or non-profit use.
  • 48. SHARE THE GOOD NEWS!
  • 51. Music Videos Copyright? What’s Copyright? Users’ Rights, Section 107
  • 52. Three Visions Open Source Business Models Make Copyright Obsolete Creative Communities Develop Codes of Best Practices for Fair Use Flexible Licensing Schemes: Some Rights Reserved
  • 53. Copyright Law Adapts to Changes in Technology and Society
  • 54. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Goals for Today’s Session Why creative people value copyright law When you (and your students) can use copyrighted materials without payment or permission under some circumstances When you (and your students) should ask permission or pay a license fee to use copyrighted materials How codes of best practice help people become more confident in understanding and using the doctrine of fair use How the law adapts to changes in society and changes in technology
  • 55. You Can Share Copyright Clarity Contact: Renee Hobbs Temple University Media Education Lab Philadelphia PA Email: renee.hobbs@temple.edu Phone: (215) 204-3255 Twitter: reneehobbs Web: http://mediaeducationlab.com

Editor's Notes

  1. Institute for Policy Innovation global music piracy causes $12.5 billion of economic losses every year, 71,060 U.S. jobs lost, a loss of $2.7 billion in workers' earnings, and a loss of$422 million in tax revenues, $291 million in personal income tax and $131 million in lost corporate income and production taxes. FORTUNATELY: ten million licensed tracks available on more than 400 different services worldwide.  That’s great news for music fans and the industry alike.
  2. Worst case scenario: $3,3 million – 22 episodes at $150K eachIf you plead ignorance: possibly only $4,400 ($750 * 22 episodes)PLUS YOUR LEGAL FEES + THEIR LEGAL FEES
  3. Worst case scenario: $3,3 million – 22 episodes at $150K eachIf you plead ignorance: possibly only $4,400 ($750 * 22 episodes)PLUS YOUR LEGAL FEES + THEIR LEGAL FEES