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PRESENTATION ON CONTROL TECHNIQUE AND
            PERFORMANCE




Submitted by:          Submitted to:
Rakesh kumar           Mrs. Reena sidana
(MBA 1st semester)     HOD MBA
INTRODUCTION
1.   To enable managers effectively control the
     organizational activities, a large number of
     controlling techniques are available.
2.   A manager should know these techniques and in
     which situation it should be applied.
3.   There are two types of techniques of controlling.
TWO TECHNIQUES


 Traditional techniques
 Modern techniques
TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES
         1.   Personal observation
         2.   Budgeting
         3.   Break-even analysis
         4.   Financial statement
         5.   Statistical data & report
         6.   Setting examples
         7.   Standard costing
         8.   Written instructions
PERSONAL OBSERVATION
 This is the most traditional method of control.
 It helps managers to collect first hand information.
 It also creates a psychological pressure on the
  employees to perform well as they are aware that they
  are being observed personally on their job.
 How ever it is very time consuming , & not suitable for
  all kinds of jobs.
BUDGETING    Meaning-
             A budget is a statement
              which reflects future
              incomes ,expenditures &
              profits of the firm.
             Benefit of budgeting-
         1. Standards of
            performance
         2. Planning
         3. Predicting the future
         4. Financial planning
BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS
 It deals with the study of the relationship between
    costs, volume, & profit.
   It determines the probable profit and losses at
    different levels of activity.
   The sales volume at which there is no profit, no loss is
    known as breakeven point.
   It can be calculated as ,
   Breakeven point=fixed cost/selling price per unit –
    variable cost per unit.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
    Financial statements shows financial position of
     a firm over a period of time, generally one year.
    These are prepared along with last year
     statements, so that firm can compare its present
     performance with last year’s performance &
     improve its future performance.
    It offers information on ,
1.   Liquidity
2.   Financial strength
3.   profitability
STATISTICAL DATA & REPORT
 Statistical analysis in the form of
  averages,percentages,ratios,..etc.
 Data can be used for diagramatic representations like
  histograms, pie chart, bar graphs..etc.
 A Report is a statement that represents data in the
  form of information for carrying out the controlling
  function.
SETTING EXAMPLES
 It is old saying that “example is better than precepts”
 Some managers follow this and put good examples of
  performance before subordinates and expect the same
  from them.
 Behaviour and actions of subordinates can be
  controlled through exemplary behaviour of the
  manager.
STANDARD COSTING
 It is a technique of cost control.
 Under this technique ,standard costs of
  materail,labour,overheads etc. are determined.
 Actual cost are recorded and compared with the
  standard costs and variances are found out.
 Then measures are taken to prevent variances in
  future.
WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS

 These instructions are issued time to time to the
  organization members.
 These provide latest information and instructions in
  the light of changing rules and conditions.
 These are supplementary control technique.
MODERN TECHNIQUES

1. Return on investment.
2. Management audit.
3. Management information system (MIS).
4. PERT/CPM.
RETURN ON INVESTMENT
 Investment consists of fixed asset
  and working capital used in business.
 Profit on the investment is a reward for risk taking.
 If the ROI is high then the financial performance of a
  business is good and vice-versa.
 It also shows the areas where corrective actions are
  needed.
MANAGEMENT AUDIT
 Management Audit is an evaluation of the
  management as a whole. It critically examines the
  full management process.
 It finds out the efficiency of the management.
 Management auditing is conducted by a team of
  experts.
 The data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn about
  managerial performance and efficiency.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEM
 In order to control the organisation properly the
  management needs accurate information.
 Information is collected continuously to identify
  problems and find out solutions.
 They need information about the internal working of
  the organisation and also about the external
  environment.
 MIS collects data, processes it and provides it to the
  managers.
PERT/CPM
 Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
  and Critical Path Method (CPM) techniques were
  developed in USA in the late 50's.
 Any programme consists of various activities and sub-
  activities.
 Importance is given to identifying the critical activities.
 by controlling the time of the critical activities, the total
  time and cost of the job are minimized.
THANKS

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control techniques

  • 1. PRESENTATION ON CONTROL TECHNIQUE AND PERFORMANCE Submitted by: Submitted to: Rakesh kumar Mrs. Reena sidana (MBA 1st semester) HOD MBA
  • 2. INTRODUCTION 1. To enable managers effectively control the organizational activities, a large number of controlling techniques are available. 2. A manager should know these techniques and in which situation it should be applied. 3. There are two types of techniques of controlling.
  • 3. TWO TECHNIQUES  Traditional techniques  Modern techniques
  • 4. TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES 1. Personal observation 2. Budgeting 3. Break-even analysis 4. Financial statement 5. Statistical data & report 6. Setting examples 7. Standard costing 8. Written instructions
  • 5. PERSONAL OBSERVATION  This is the most traditional method of control.  It helps managers to collect first hand information.  It also creates a psychological pressure on the employees to perform well as they are aware that they are being observed personally on their job.  How ever it is very time consuming , & not suitable for all kinds of jobs.
  • 6. BUDGETING Meaning-  A budget is a statement which reflects future incomes ,expenditures & profits of the firm.  Benefit of budgeting- 1. Standards of performance 2. Planning 3. Predicting the future 4. Financial planning
  • 7. BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS  It deals with the study of the relationship between costs, volume, & profit.  It determines the probable profit and losses at different levels of activity.  The sales volume at which there is no profit, no loss is known as breakeven point.  It can be calculated as ,  Breakeven point=fixed cost/selling price per unit – variable cost per unit.
  • 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENT  Financial statements shows financial position of a firm over a period of time, generally one year.  These are prepared along with last year statements, so that firm can compare its present performance with last year’s performance & improve its future performance.  It offers information on , 1. Liquidity 2. Financial strength 3. profitability
  • 9. STATISTICAL DATA & REPORT  Statistical analysis in the form of averages,percentages,ratios,..etc.  Data can be used for diagramatic representations like histograms, pie chart, bar graphs..etc.  A Report is a statement that represents data in the form of information for carrying out the controlling function.
  • 10. SETTING EXAMPLES  It is old saying that “example is better than precepts”  Some managers follow this and put good examples of performance before subordinates and expect the same from them.  Behaviour and actions of subordinates can be controlled through exemplary behaviour of the manager.
  • 11. STANDARD COSTING  It is a technique of cost control.  Under this technique ,standard costs of materail,labour,overheads etc. are determined.  Actual cost are recorded and compared with the standard costs and variances are found out.  Then measures are taken to prevent variances in future.
  • 12. WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS  These instructions are issued time to time to the organization members.  These provide latest information and instructions in the light of changing rules and conditions.  These are supplementary control technique.
  • 13. MODERN TECHNIQUES 1. Return on investment. 2. Management audit. 3. Management information system (MIS). 4. PERT/CPM.
  • 14. RETURN ON INVESTMENT  Investment consists of fixed asset and working capital used in business.  Profit on the investment is a reward for risk taking.  If the ROI is high then the financial performance of a business is good and vice-versa.  It also shows the areas where corrective actions are needed.
  • 15. MANAGEMENT AUDIT  Management Audit is an evaluation of the management as a whole. It critically examines the full management process.  It finds out the efficiency of the management.  Management auditing is conducted by a team of experts.  The data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn about managerial performance and efficiency.
  • 16. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM  In order to control the organisation properly the management needs accurate information.  Information is collected continuously to identify problems and find out solutions.  They need information about the internal working of the organisation and also about the external environment.  MIS collects data, processes it and provides it to the managers.
  • 17. PERT/CPM  Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM) techniques were developed in USA in the late 50's.  Any programme consists of various activities and sub- activities.  Importance is given to identifying the critical activities.  by controlling the time of the critical activities, the total time and cost of the job are minimized.