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CONCEPT OF SHODHANA 
PRESENTER : DR. SAYANTAN BERA 
2nd YEAR P.G. SCHOLAR 
DEPARTMENT OF PANCHAKARMA 
D.G.M.A.M.C. GADAG
वस्तु निर्देश् 
 प्रस्ताविा 
 व्युत्पनि 
 निरुनि 
 शोधि महत्व 
 शोधि गुण 
 शोधि लाभ 
 शोधि काल 
 स्वस््य शोधि & र्दोषािुसार शोधि 
 शोधि वृक्ष 
 शोधि योग्य 
 शोधि अयोग्य 
 वर्जयय नवषय 
 र्दुवयल पुरुष शोधि 
 शोधिोिर निनकत्सा 
 शोधि अनतयोग प्रनतकार 
 CRITERIA TO SELECT A PATIENT FOR SHODHANA 
 IMPORTANCE OF PURVA KARMA BEFORE SODHANA 
 IMPORTANCE OF PASCHAT KARMA AFTER SODHANA 
 PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION OF SHODHANA PROCEDURES 
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHODHANA &PANCHAKARMA 
 DISCUSSION 
 CONCLUSION
प्रस्ताविा : 
निनकत्सा: 
यानभिः नियानभर्ाययन्ते शरीरे धातविः समािः । 
सा निनकत्सा नवकाराणाां कमय तनिषर्ाां स्मृतम् ॥ (च.सू-१६/३४) 
The procedure by which Dhatus are brought into equilibrium condition is termed as Chikitsa. 
In a broader sense Chikitsa is divided into two categories – 1. Shodhana 
2. Shamana 
शोधि: 
शोधिां यत् कुनपताि् र्दोषाि् नििःसायय बनहिः रोगोशमिां करोनत ॥ (अ.सं,सू-इन्दु -१/३७) 
Shodhana is the method of eliminating the vitiated doshas from the body to pacify the disease. 
शमि: 
ि शोधयनत ि द्वेनि समाि् र्दोषाांस्तथोद्दताि् । 
समीकरोनत नवषमाच्शमिां तद्यथा अमृता ॥ (श.पू-४/२) 
The drug which brings the normalcy of doshas without elimination & aggravation is known as Shamana. 
व्युत्पनि : 
शोधि = शुध् + नणि् + ल्युट् (शब्दकल्पम) 
शुध् = शौि (Clean) 
Shodhana is derived from ‘Shudh’ – It means Cleansing. 
निरुनि : 
यनर्दरयेद्बनहर्दोषाि् पञ्िधा शोधिञ्ि तत् । 
निरूह वमिां कायनशररेको आस्रनवस्रुनत ॥ (अ.हृ,सू-१४/६)
Sodhana is the procedure by which doshas (vitiated) are expelled out from the body. There are 5 types of Shodhana - 
 Niruha basti 
 Vamana 
 Kaya reka (virechana) 
 Shiro reka (nasya) 
 Asra visruti (rakta mokshana) 
यर्दौषधां वातानर्दिन्तिः नस्थताि् वनहरीरयेत नक्षपेत् तत् 
शोधिम् । तच्ि पञ्िधा, पन्िनवधम् । (अरुणदत्त) 
Arun Dutta says that in Sarvangasundar Commentary --- By which procedure vitiated Vatadi doshas are removed from body is known as Shodhana. Shodhana is classified into 5 types. 
स्थािाद्वनहिययेर्दुर्धवयमधो वा मलसञ्ियम् र्देहसांशोधिां तत्साĥेवर्दानल फलां यथा ॥ (शा. पू – ४/८) 
The procedure which detaches the accumulation of Mala from their respective places & expels upwards or 
downwards, is known as Samshodhana. 
eg – Devadali (Jimitaka) 
--------- प्रकुनपत स्थािात् मलसञ्ियां र्दोषार्दीिाां सस्थािात उर्धवयमधो वा वनहिययेत् वनह: करोनत तĥेहे शरीरे शोधिां कनथतम् । (दीपपका,आढ्मल) 
In the commentary of Sharangdhar Samhita, Adhmala said that - The Prakupita Dosha leads to Mala sanchaya (accumulated in their respective places), by administering or giving the Shodhana therapy, the accumulated Malas expells out & by this process Sharir shuddhi takes place.
शोधि महत्व : (WHY शोधन IS BEST?) 
र्दोषाकर्दानित् कूप्यनन्त नर्ता लङ्घिपािि िः । 
नर्ता सांशोधियेतु ि तेषाां पुिरुिव: ॥ (च.सू-१६/२०) 
र्दोषाकर्दानित् कूप्यनन्त नर्ता लङ्घिपािि िः । 
ये तु सांशोधि िः शुद्दा ि तेषाां पुिरुिविः ॥ (अ.स,सू-५/२४) 
(अ.हृ,सू-४/२६) 
Acharya Charaka and Vagbhatt said almost same about the Mahatva of Shodhana. They said that – 
The doshas which have been mitigated by Langhana & Pachana, are likely to aggravate once again. But those doshas conquered by Shodhana therapy will never increase again. 
समूलांर्दोषापहारकत्वां सांशोधिस्य, लङ्घि पािियोस्तु र्दोषापहरत्वे सत्यनप ि सांशोधिवत्- र्दोषहन्तृत्वनमत्याह – र्दोषा इत्यानर्द । (चक्रपपण दत्त) 
Acharya Chakrapani Dutta said that – The main root cause which is treated by Shodhana, never occurs again. By Langhana, Pachana also the doshas can be treated but sometimes they may aggravated. 
ये पूििः सांशोधि िः शुद्दस्तेषाां ि पुिरुिव: - उत्थािां ि भवनत । (अरूनदत्त) 
Acharya Arun Dutta said that in his Sarvangasundar commentary – Doshas which are expelled out by Shodhana karma will not aggravate again. 
शोधि गुण : 
मलापहां रोगहरां वलवणयप्रसार्दिम । 
नपत्वा सांशोधिां सम्यगायुषा युर्जयते निरम् ॥ (च.सू - १५/२२) 
Acharya Charaka said about the qualities of Shodhana. Those are as follows – 
 Elimination of mala 
 Complete cure of disease 
 Increase strength
 Increase complexion of skin 
 To get long life 
शोधि लाभ : 
According to Vagbhatt – 
वुनद्दप्रसार्दां वलनमनन्ियाणाां धातुनस्थरत्वां र्जवलिस्यर्दीनिम् । 
निराच्िपाकां वयसिः करोनत सांशोधिांसम्यगुपास्यमािम् ॥ (अ.हृ,सू- १८/६०) 
If the shodhana therapies are taken properly, then these benefits are achieving – 
 Increase intelligence 
 Strengthen the sense organs 
 Stability of the tissues 
 Increase digestive power 
 Increase longevity 
According to Charaka – 
एवां नवशुद्दकोष्ठस्य कायानग्िरनभवधयते । 
व्यधयस्िोपशम्यनन्त प्रकृनतश्चिुवतयते ॥ 
इनन्ियानण मिोबुनद्दवयणायश्चास्य प्रसीर्दनत । 
वलां पुनिरप्यां ि वृषता िास्य र्ायते ।। 
र्राां कृच्रेण लभते निरां र्ीवत्यिामयिः । 
तस्मात्सांशोधिां काले युनियुिां नपबेन्िरिः ॥ (च.सू-१६/१७) 
If anyone take the proper sodhana therapy in proper time, then should get these – 
 Elimination of vitiated dosha from Kostha 
 Increase digestive power 
 Curing disease
 Restoring the normal health 
 Strengthen the sense organs 
 Nourishes of mind, intelligence & complexion 
 Gaining of strength, nourishment, virility 
 Not affecting by old age & increasing longevity 
शोधि काल : 
शरत्काले वसन्ते ि प्रावृट काले ि र्देनहिाम् । 
वमिां रेििां ि व कारयेतु कुशलो नभषक् ॥ (शा. उ. – ३/१) 
Vamanadi karmas should be done during Sharad, Vasanta or Pravrit rutu. 
शीतोिवां र्दोषियां वसन्ते नवशोधयत् ग्रीष्मर्मभ्रकाले । 
घिात्यये वानषयकमाशु सम्यक् प्राप्िोनतरोगािृतुर्ान्ि र्ातु ॥ (अ.हृ,सू – ४/३५) 
The accumulation of dosha arising from Sisir rutu should be expelled out during Vasanta rutu, that arising from Grishma rutu should be expelled out during Abhrakala (varsha rutu), that arising from Varsa rutu should be expelled out during Ghanatyaya rutu(sharad rutu). 
प्रावृट् शुनििभौ ज्ञेयौ शरर्दुर्यसहौ पुििः । 
तपस्यच्ि मधुश्च व वसन्तिः शोधिां प्रनत ॥ 
एतिृति नवकल्प्य वां र्दद्यात् सांशोधिां नभषक् । 
स्वस्थवृिमनभप्रेत्य व्याधौव्यनधवशेि तु ॥ (च. पस – ६/५,६) 
Pravrit – Suchi(ashad) & Nabha (shravana) 
Sharad – Urja (kartika) & Saha (margasirsha) 
Vasanta – Tapasya (phalguna) & Madhu (chaitra) 
These three seasons are suitable for the administration of Shodhana therapies. After determining the exact months constituting these above mentioned seasons, the Bhishak should give the appropriate Shodhana therapy to a healthy person. However for a patient, the appropriateness of the time determined on the basis of the nature of the vyadhi.
स्वस््य शोधि & र्दोषािुसार शोधि : 
प्रावृट्काले वातनवकारािः घिात्यकाले नपिनवकारािः । घिा मेषािः तेषाां अत्यय नििाशो यनस्मि् काले स घित्ययिः शरत्कालिः । वसन्तनर्दिेषु वसन्त नर्दवसेषु श्लेष्मानवकारािः प्रार्दुभयबनन्तिः । ततस्तस्मात् कारणात् शरीरसांशुनद्दिः शरीर सांशोधिां वमिानर्दनभ पञ्िनभिः स्यात् भबेत् । तत्र बनस्तर्दािां वातरोगोपशमाथं नियते । शरत्काले नवरेििां नपिरोगशमिाथयम् । मधुवासरेषु वसन्तनर्दिेषु वमिां श्लेष्मरोगोपशमाथं नियत इनत । (पिसटाचार्य) 
Vata vikara (pravrut) – Basti 
Pitta vikara (sharad) – Virechana 
Kapha vikara (vasanta) – Vamana 
शोधि वृक्ष : 
अथापरे त्रयो वृक्षािः पृथग्ये फलमुनलनभिः । 
स्िुह्यकायश्मन्तकास्तेषानमर्दां कमय पृथक् पृथक् ॥ 
वमिे अश्मन्तकां नवद्यात् स्िुहीक्षीरां नवरेििे । 
क्षीरमकयस्य नवज्ञेयां वमिे सनवरेििे ॥ 
इमाांस्त्रीिपराि् वृक्षािाहुयेषाां नहतास्त्वििः । 
पूतीकिः कृष्णगन्धा ि नतल्वकश्च तथा तरु: ॥ 
नवरेििे प्रयोिव्यिः पूतीकनस्तल्वकस्तथा । 
कृष्णगन्धा पररसपे शोथेष्वशय:सु िोच्यते ॥ 
र्दिुनविनधगण्डेषु कुष्ठेष्वप्यलर्ीषु ि । 
षड्वृक्षाञ्छोधिािेतािनप नवद्यानद्विक्षणिः ॥ (ि.सू – १/११४-११८) 
Ksheer pradhan vriksha – Snuhi (virechana) 
Arka (vamana & virechana) 
Asmantaka (vamana) 
Twaka pradhan vriksha –Putika (virechana) 
Tilwaka (virechana) 
Krishnagandha (visarpa,shotha,arsha,dadru,vidradhi,ganda,kustha,alaji)
शोधि योग्य : 
अनवपाक अरुनििः स्थौल्यां पण्डुता गौरवां क्लमिः । 
नपडकाकोठकण्डूिाां सांभवो अरनतरेव ि ॥ 
आलस्यश्रमर्दौबयल्यां र्दौगयन्र्धयमवसार्दकिः । 
श्लेष्मनपिसमुत्क्लेशो नििािाश अनतनििता ॥ 
तन्िा क्ल ब्यमबुनद्दत्वमशस्तस्वप्िर्दशयिम् । 
बलवणयप्रणाशश्च तृप्यतो बृांहण रनप ।। 
बहुर्दोषस्य नलङ्गानि तस्म सांशोधिां नहतम् । 
उर्धवं ि वािुलोमां ि यथार्दोषां यथाबलम् ॥ (ि. सू – १६/१३-१६) 
Avipaka,aruchi,sthoulya,pandu,gourava,klama,pidaka,kotha,kandu,alasya,dourbalya,dourgandha,avasadaka, sleshma & pitta utklesha,nidra nasha,ati nidra,tandra,klaivya,abuddhitwa,bala varna nasha,bahu dosha linga etc. 
शोधि अयोग्य : 
िण्डिः साहनसको भीरुिः कृतघ्िो व्याग्र एव ि । 
सिार्नभषर्ाां द्वेिातानद्वििः शोकपीनडतिः ॥ 
यादृनश्छको मुमूषयच्ि नवहीििः करण श्च यिः । 
व री व द्यनवर्दग्धच्ि श्रद्दाहीििः सुशङ्नकत: ॥ 
नभषर्ामनवधेयश्च ि उपिम्या नभषनग्वर्दा । 
एतािुपिरि् व द्यो बहूि् र्दोषान्वाप्ियात् ॥ 
एभ्या अन्ये समुपिम्या िरािः सवयरुपिम िः । 
अवस्थाां प्रनवभर्जयेषाां वर्जयय कायय ि वक्षते ॥ (च. पस – २/४-७) 
Chandya,ati sahasa,krutaghna,vyagra, raja & bhishak dwesha, mumurshu, anupakramya rogi etc.
वर्जयय नवषय : 
अि महार्दोष : 
उच्ि भायष्यां रथक्षोभमनतिांिमणासिे । 
अर्ीणोनहत भोर्जये ि नर्दवास्वप्ि सम थुिम् ॥ (च.पस – १२/१०) 
Some factors have the harmful effect to human body. These factors should be avoided for healthy persons as well as diseased person. So these factors also are avoided after Shodhana therapy. 
 उच्चैर्ायष्र् (loud speech) – causes pain in upper part of the body 
 रथक्षोर् (riding wooden cart) – causes pain all over the body 
 अपिचंक्रमण (travelling long way) – causes pain in lower part of the body 
 अपि आसन (constant sitting) – causes pain middle part of the body 
 अजीणय र्ोजन (indigestion) – formation of ama 
 अपिि र्ोजन (unwholesome food) – aggravates different Doshas 
 पदवास्वप्न (sleep during daytime) – increased kapha 
 मैथुनम् (sexual intercourse) – kshaya of the body 
अत्यासिस्थािविाांनस याि । 
स्वप्िनर्दवा म थुिवेगरोधि् ॥ 
शीतोपिारातपशोकरोषाांस्त्यर्ेर्दकालानहतभोर्िां ि । (च. पस – १/५४) 
अर्ीणय म थुिां याि उच्ि भायष्यां नर्दवाशयम् । 
अनतिांिमणास्थािमसात्म्यानर्द ि वर्ययेत् ॥ (का.सं.पस – ५/४)
र्दुवयल पुरुष शोधि : 
र्दुबयलस्य र्दोषािल्पािल्पाि् पुििः पुििः । 
हरेत् प्रभुतािल्पाांस्तु शमयेत प्रच्युतािनप ॥ (सु.पच-३३/३७) 
In a week person, Doshas which are copious & moving should be expelled in a small quantity again and again; & doshas if less, should be mitigated through moving. 
शोधिोिर निनकत्सा : 
भेषर्क्षनपते प्यमाहार बृांहणां िमात् । 
शानलषनिकगोधूममुद्गमाांसघृतानर्दनभ: ॥ 
हृद्यर्दीपिभ षर्जयसांयोगािुनिपनिर्द िः । 
साभ्यङ्गोद्वतयिस्िािनिरुहस्िेहबनस्तनभिः ॥ (अ.हृ.सू -४/२८,२९) 
Bheshaja,pathya,vrumhanaahara,saali,sasthik,godhuma,mudga,mamsa,ghrita,hrudyarasa,yavagu,dipaniya oushadha, abhyanga,udvartana,snana,niruha & sneha basti. 
CRITERIA TO SELECT A PATIENT FOR SHODHANA : 
समीक्ष्य र्दोषौषधर्देशकालसात्म्यानग्िसत्त्वानर्दवयोबलानि । 
बनस्तिः प्रयुिो नियतां गुणाय स्यात् सवयकमायनण ि 
नसनद्दमनन्त ॥ (च.पस – ३/६) 
To achieve success in the administration of Shodhana & to obtained the desired effects, Shodhana should be administered keeping in view the factors like the nature of Dosha, Oushadha, Desha, Kaala, Satmya, Agni, Sattva; & the vaya and bala of the patient. 
In Bahu Doshavastha Shodhana therapy should administered.
IMPORTANCE OF पूवयकमय IN शोधि : 
प्राक् पाििां स्िेहनवनधस्ततच्ि स्वेर्दस्ततिः स्याद्वमिां नवरेकिः । 
निरुहणान्वासिवनस्तकमय िस्यिमश्चेनत नभषग्वराणाम् ॥ (पचपकत्साकापलका) 
येषाां िस्यां नवधातव्यां वनस्तश्च व नह र्देनहिाम् । 
शोधिीयाश्च ये केनित् पूवं स्वेद्यास्तु ते मतािः ॥ (सु.पच-३३/१७) 
Person who are to be administered Nasya, Basti adi Shodhan therapies, for them Swedadi purva karma should be done before Shodhana. 
स्िेहस्वेर्दाविभ्यस्य यस्तु सांशोधिां नपबेत् । 
र्दारु शुष्कनमवािामे र्देहस्तस्य नवशीययते ॥ 
स्िेहस्वेर्दप्रिनलता रस िः नस्िग्ध रूर्दीररतािः । 
र्दोषािः कोष्ठगता र्न्तोिः सुखा हतुं नवशोधि : ॥ (सु.पच – ३३/४६,४७) 
Those who are not given Snehana & Swedana before Shodhana therapy, their body destroyed just as a dry piece of wood when made to bend. Doshas which are made to move by Snehana & Swedana therapy, increased by the use of Snigdha rasa & which have come into kostha are easy to expelled out by Shodhana therapies. 
शाखागतस्यानप र्दोषस्य कोष्ठाियिहेतु: स्िेहिः , स्वेर्दिः कोष्ठमागतस्य सुखेि प्रवृनिकरश्चेनत र्दशययन्िाह – स्िेहस्वेर्द प्रिनलता इत्यानर्द । (डल्िण) 
Before Shodhana therapy Snehana & Swedana Should be given. It helps to bring the Doshas from Shakha to Kostha. 
स्िेहमग्रे प्रयुञ्र्ीत ततिः स्वेर्दमिन्तरम् । 
स्िेहस्वेर्दोपपन्न्स्य सांशोधिमथेतरत् ॥ (च.सु – १३/९९) 
Snehana therapy is required to be administerd first, then the swedana therapy is to be applied. Finally the Shodhana therapy is to be administerd after the administration of of Snehana & swedana.
IMPORTANCE OF PASCHAT KARMA AFTER SODHANA : 
शोधिेि र्दोषक्षय तथा धातुक्षय प्रनतकार 
भेषर्क्षनपते प्यमाहार रेव वृांहणम् । 
घृतमाांसरसक्षीरहृद्ययुषोपशांनहत िः ॥ 
अभ्यङ्गोत्सार्दि िः स्िाि नियरूह िः सािुवासि िः । 
तथ स लभते शमय युर्जयते िायुषा निरम् ॥ (च.सू -१६/२३) 
Bheshaja,pathya,vrumhanaahara,saali,sasthik,godhuma,mudga,mamsa,ghrita,hrudyarasa,yavagu,dipaniya oushadha, abhyanga,udvartana,snana,niruha & sneha basti. 
After Shodhana karma human body gets weak & the agni is diminished. Samsarjana karma is nothing but a dietary regimen which is used to bring the agni to its normalcy.
PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION OF SHODHANA PROCEDURES
वमि : 
AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (ि.क – १/५) 
Vamaka drugs possessing the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi 
and with their ‘Swavirya’ 
Move to ‘Hridaya’ 
From there, through various ‘Dhamanis’ lead to micro and macro channels in the body 
Act over the vitiated complexes in the body 
(i) With 'Agneya Property' - liquefy the complexes 
(ii) With 'Tiksna property' - Break them down into several particles
Liquefied matter then glides through various unctuous or smooth channels towards Kostha 
Enter 'Amasaya' and then stimulated by 'Udana Vayu“ 
Having the dominance of 'Agni' and 'Vayu' elements in the constitution along with self disposition (Prabhava) 
Move in upward direction towards oral cavity 
Expelled to outside through it 
VAMANA 
Vamaka drug has the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi guna &and with their ‘Swavirya’ moves to hridaya. Then it circulates all over the body through various dhamanis and acts over the vitiated complexes in the body. Then it liquefies the complexes & break them into several particles. After that it moves upward direction due to urdhaga prabhava & expels out through mouth. In case of Virechana it moves downwards due to adhaga prabhava & expels out through anus.
PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 
Upper GIT when full Electrical Stimuli for Psychic Stimuli 
of contents stimulation administration of drugs 
Over distended & Over excitable CTZ stimulation Directly stimulates hypothalamus 
Stimulates Vomiting centre 
Automatic motor reaction 
Motor impulses are transmitted from vomiting centre through 
5th,7th,9th,10th,12th Cranial nerves Spinal nerves 
Upper GIT Diaphragm & abdominal muscles 
Initiates VOMITING
Vomitting centre stimulates due to 3 cause – Upper GIT with full of contents, CTZ stimulation & psychic stimuli. Then the motor impulse transmitted through 5th,7th,9th,10th,12th Cranial nerves & Spinal nerves. The nerve impulse stimulates Upper GIT, Diaphragm & abdominal muscles and Initiates VOMITING. 
नवरेिि : 
AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (ि.क – १/५) 
Virechaka drugs possessing the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi 
and with their ‘Swavirya’ 
Move to ‘Hridaya’ 
From there, through various ‘Dhamanis’ lead to micro and macro channels in the body 
Act over the vitiated complexes in the body 
(i) With 'Agneya Property' - liquefy the complexes 
(ii) With 'Tiksna property' - Break them down into several particles
Liquefied matter then glides through various unctuous or smooth channels towards Kostha 
Enter 'Amasaya' and then stimulated by 'Udana Vayu“ 
Having the dominance of 'Prithivi' and 'Jala' elements in the constitution along with self disposition (Prabhava) 
Move in downward direction towards Anus 
(due to Sara guna) 
Expelled to outside through it 
VIRECHANA
PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 
Ingestion of Virechana drug 
Irritation of gastric mucosa 
Sensory signal goes to defecation centre in Medulla oblongata 
Motor response from defecation centre 
Through ganglionic plexus Through vagus nerve 
Increased peristalsis Secretion of various enzymes from 
Gall bladder, pancreas,bruner’s gland 
Reduced absorption Fluid accumulationin the gut 
Increased hydrostatic pressure 
Irritation of sacral & lumber plexus 
VIRECHANA
Virechana drugs irritates gastric mucosa. Then Sensory signal goes to defecation centre in Medulla oblongata. After that the Motor response goes to defecation centre. Through ganglionic plexus it increases peristalsis & through vagus nerve it secrets various enzymes from Gall bladder, pancreas,bruner’s gland. Then Reduced absorption & Fluid accumulationin the gut takes place. It helps to increase hydrostatic pressure. Then Irritation of sacral & lumber plexus takes place. Then the defecation occur. 
बनस्त : 
AYURVEDIC CONCEPT 
POSITION – According to Parashara, Guda is the Mula of the body where all the siraas are located. When basti dravyas administered through the guda, it reaches all over the body. Basti should given to the patient lying on left lateral side as as the Grahani & Guda are situated on the left side of the body. (cha,si- 3/24) 
PAKVASAYA – The given Basti when enters into the pakvasaya, by its virya ,draws the morvid dosha loddged in the entire body from foot to head, just as the sun situated in the sky sucks up the moisture from the earth. (cha. Si-7/64) 
GRAHANI – Basti dravya reaches first to pakvasaya & the to the Grahani. Pakvasaya is the site of purishdhara kala & Grahani is the site of pittadhara kala. Acharya Dalhana says that purishdhara kala & asthi dhara kala is same and pittadhara kala & majja dhara kala is same.So from these we say that basti has direct action on asthi & majja dhatu. Majja is present in the asthi. Also mastulanga is considered as mastaka majja is the seat of vata. So in this way basti is act in CNS. (su,kal-4/40) (su,su-32/12)
PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 
The mode of action of basti can be understand in the following way – 
Drug is administered through anal region 
It gets absorbed in intestinal mucosa & works by 4 mechanism – 
1. By absorption mechanism 
2. By system biology mechanism 
3. By neural stimulation mechanism 
4. By excretory mechanism 
ABSORPTION MECHANISM 
Hyper osmosis takes place 
From colon cell to lumen 
Absorption of endotoxins 
Irritation of Large intestine (due to irrtant property) 
Elimination
SYSTEM BIOLOGY MECHANISM 
Drug is administered through anal region 
It gets absorbed in intestinal mucosa 
Lipid soluble Water soluble 
Passive diffusion Active diffusion 
By these diffusion mechanism the Basti drugs goes to epithelial cell. Then it goes to the capillaries. Then goes to cell after that molecules. 
NEURAL STIMULATION MECHANISM 
Drug given 
ENS is stimulated 
Excites mysentric plexus & sub mucosal plexus 
Neurotransmitters carries information to CNS
CNS acts independently to produce the GUT feeling 
EXCRETORY MECHANISM 
The sigmoidal, rectal & anal region of large intestine are considerably better supplied with parasympathetic nerve fibers than other part of intestine. They are mainly stimulating in action & functions especially on defecation reflexes.
िस्य : 
AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (अ. स, सू – २९/३) 
Nasa is the gateway of Shira 
Drug administerd through the nostrils 
Drug reaches in Srungataka marma 
Spreads in the Murdha taking marma of netra, karna, kantha, siramukha 
Scratches the morbid doshas in supra clavicular region 
Expels the vitiated dosha from uttamanga
PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 
The drug is administered through Nostrils 
Goes to the nasal cavity 
It passes through the Crebiform plate (found in nasal cavity floor) 
It transverse by olfactory neurons of the Receptor cells 
It excites the middle cephalic fossa 
It is connected with 3rd,4th,5th, 6th crenial nerves 
Pituitary gland can also be approached trans nasal route 
Thus the drug acts on brain
रि मोक्षण : 
AYURVEDIC CONCEPT 
RAKTAPRASADANA 
This occurs by the stimulation of Yakrit & Pleeha, which r the root of Raktavaha Srotas. When these Organs are corrected, then the whole Raktavaha Srotas get Corrected. Raktamokshana decrease the workload on Raktavaha Srotas & thus the Yakrit & Pleeha. The Sandrata (prithivi mahabhuta), Dravata (jala mahabhuta) & Pressure (vayu mahabhuta) are corrected. 
PITTA SHODHANA 
Rakta is the seat of Pitta. So Rakta mokshana helps in the Shodhana of pitta. 
PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 
1. Reduces the work load on liver & spleen; stimulates the liver & spleen to perform their normal functions; removes the old & damaged blood cells & helps in formation of new blood cells. 
2. Reduces blood pressure, so useful in HTN. 
3. Reduces the viscosity of blood & thus prevents the thrombus formation, so useful in DVT, thrombo embolism etc.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHODHANA & PANCHAKARMA : 
SHODHANA 
PANCHAKARMA 
5 types – Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya, Raktamokshana 
Mainly 5 types – Vamana, Virechana, Anuvasana basti, Niruha Basti, Shirovirechana. But abyanga, mastiska procedures, different types of swdana are included. 
It is under in Langhana Chikitsa 
It acts -Langhana, Brumhana & Rasayana 
DISCUSSION : 
 Is there any major difference in efficacy of Classical Shodhana procedures & Modified Shodhana procedures? 
 What are the consequences if proper Shodhana Kala are not Maintain in Acute condition of the patients ? 
CONCLUSION : 
Shodhana acts as Preventive, Curative & Health promotive aspects – 
Preventive aspect 
Shodhana therapy ideally suits for those person who is tend to go through a disease. Thus the sufficient prevention is maintained for the occurrence of the pathogenesis. 
Curative aspects 
When the disease has actually taken place to the vital, to break the pathogenesis, the vital mode of treatment is Shodhana therapy. 
Health promotive aspect 
Not only preventive & curative aspects, it also helps in rebuilding the health. 
-------------------------------------------------- 0 --------------------------------------------------

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CONCEPT OF SHODHANA

  • 1. CONCEPT OF SHODHANA PRESENTER : DR. SAYANTAN BERA 2nd YEAR P.G. SCHOLAR DEPARTMENT OF PANCHAKARMA D.G.M.A.M.C. GADAG
  • 2. वस्तु निर्देश्  प्रस्ताविा  व्युत्पनि  निरुनि  शोधि महत्व  शोधि गुण  शोधि लाभ  शोधि काल  स्वस््य शोधि & र्दोषािुसार शोधि  शोधि वृक्ष  शोधि योग्य  शोधि अयोग्य  वर्जयय नवषय  र्दुवयल पुरुष शोधि  शोधिोिर निनकत्सा  शोधि अनतयोग प्रनतकार  CRITERIA TO SELECT A PATIENT FOR SHODHANA  IMPORTANCE OF PURVA KARMA BEFORE SODHANA  IMPORTANCE OF PASCHAT KARMA AFTER SODHANA  PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION OF SHODHANA PROCEDURES  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHODHANA &PANCHAKARMA  DISCUSSION  CONCLUSION
  • 3. प्रस्ताविा : निनकत्सा: यानभिः नियानभर्ाययन्ते शरीरे धातविः समािः । सा निनकत्सा नवकाराणाां कमय तनिषर्ाां स्मृतम् ॥ (च.सू-१६/३४) The procedure by which Dhatus are brought into equilibrium condition is termed as Chikitsa. In a broader sense Chikitsa is divided into two categories – 1. Shodhana 2. Shamana शोधि: शोधिां यत् कुनपताि् र्दोषाि् नििःसायय बनहिः रोगोशमिां करोनत ॥ (अ.सं,सू-इन्दु -१/३७) Shodhana is the method of eliminating the vitiated doshas from the body to pacify the disease. शमि: ि शोधयनत ि द्वेनि समाि् र्दोषाांस्तथोद्दताि् । समीकरोनत नवषमाच्शमिां तद्यथा अमृता ॥ (श.पू-४/२) The drug which brings the normalcy of doshas without elimination & aggravation is known as Shamana. व्युत्पनि : शोधि = शुध् + नणि् + ल्युट् (शब्दकल्पम) शुध् = शौि (Clean) Shodhana is derived from ‘Shudh’ – It means Cleansing. निरुनि : यनर्दरयेद्बनहर्दोषाि् पञ्िधा शोधिञ्ि तत् । निरूह वमिां कायनशररेको आस्रनवस्रुनत ॥ (अ.हृ,सू-१४/६)
  • 4. Sodhana is the procedure by which doshas (vitiated) are expelled out from the body. There are 5 types of Shodhana -  Niruha basti  Vamana  Kaya reka (virechana)  Shiro reka (nasya)  Asra visruti (rakta mokshana) यर्दौषधां वातानर्दिन्तिः नस्थताि् वनहरीरयेत नक्षपेत् तत् शोधिम् । तच्ि पञ्िधा, पन्िनवधम् । (अरुणदत्त) Arun Dutta says that in Sarvangasundar Commentary --- By which procedure vitiated Vatadi doshas are removed from body is known as Shodhana. Shodhana is classified into 5 types. स्थािाद्वनहिययेर्दुर्धवयमधो वा मलसञ्ियम् र्देहसांशोधिां तत्साĥेवर्दानल फलां यथा ॥ (शा. पू – ४/८) The procedure which detaches the accumulation of Mala from their respective places & expels upwards or downwards, is known as Samshodhana. eg – Devadali (Jimitaka) --------- प्रकुनपत स्थािात् मलसञ्ियां र्दोषार्दीिाां सस्थािात उर्धवयमधो वा वनहिययेत् वनह: करोनत तĥेहे शरीरे शोधिां कनथतम् । (दीपपका,आढ्मल) In the commentary of Sharangdhar Samhita, Adhmala said that - The Prakupita Dosha leads to Mala sanchaya (accumulated in their respective places), by administering or giving the Shodhana therapy, the accumulated Malas expells out & by this process Sharir shuddhi takes place.
  • 5. शोधि महत्व : (WHY शोधन IS BEST?) र्दोषाकर्दानित् कूप्यनन्त नर्ता लङ्घिपािि िः । नर्ता सांशोधियेतु ि तेषाां पुिरुिव: ॥ (च.सू-१६/२०) र्दोषाकर्दानित् कूप्यनन्त नर्ता लङ्घिपािि िः । ये तु सांशोधि िः शुद्दा ि तेषाां पुिरुिविः ॥ (अ.स,सू-५/२४) (अ.हृ,सू-४/२६) Acharya Charaka and Vagbhatt said almost same about the Mahatva of Shodhana. They said that – The doshas which have been mitigated by Langhana & Pachana, are likely to aggravate once again. But those doshas conquered by Shodhana therapy will never increase again. समूलांर्दोषापहारकत्वां सांशोधिस्य, लङ्घि पािियोस्तु र्दोषापहरत्वे सत्यनप ि सांशोधिवत्- र्दोषहन्तृत्वनमत्याह – र्दोषा इत्यानर्द । (चक्रपपण दत्त) Acharya Chakrapani Dutta said that – The main root cause which is treated by Shodhana, never occurs again. By Langhana, Pachana also the doshas can be treated but sometimes they may aggravated. ये पूििः सांशोधि िः शुद्दस्तेषाां ि पुिरुिव: - उत्थािां ि भवनत । (अरूनदत्त) Acharya Arun Dutta said that in his Sarvangasundar commentary – Doshas which are expelled out by Shodhana karma will not aggravate again. शोधि गुण : मलापहां रोगहरां वलवणयप्रसार्दिम । नपत्वा सांशोधिां सम्यगायुषा युर्जयते निरम् ॥ (च.सू - १५/२२) Acharya Charaka said about the qualities of Shodhana. Those are as follows –  Elimination of mala  Complete cure of disease  Increase strength
  • 6.  Increase complexion of skin  To get long life शोधि लाभ : According to Vagbhatt – वुनद्दप्रसार्दां वलनमनन्ियाणाां धातुनस्थरत्वां र्जवलिस्यर्दीनिम् । निराच्िपाकां वयसिः करोनत सांशोधिांसम्यगुपास्यमािम् ॥ (अ.हृ,सू- १८/६०) If the shodhana therapies are taken properly, then these benefits are achieving –  Increase intelligence  Strengthen the sense organs  Stability of the tissues  Increase digestive power  Increase longevity According to Charaka – एवां नवशुद्दकोष्ठस्य कायानग्िरनभवधयते । व्यधयस्िोपशम्यनन्त प्रकृनतश्चिुवतयते ॥ इनन्ियानण मिोबुनद्दवयणायश्चास्य प्रसीर्दनत । वलां पुनिरप्यां ि वृषता िास्य र्ायते ।। र्राां कृच्रेण लभते निरां र्ीवत्यिामयिः । तस्मात्सांशोधिां काले युनियुिां नपबेन्िरिः ॥ (च.सू-१६/१७) If anyone take the proper sodhana therapy in proper time, then should get these –  Elimination of vitiated dosha from Kostha  Increase digestive power  Curing disease
  • 7.  Restoring the normal health  Strengthen the sense organs  Nourishes of mind, intelligence & complexion  Gaining of strength, nourishment, virility  Not affecting by old age & increasing longevity शोधि काल : शरत्काले वसन्ते ि प्रावृट काले ि र्देनहिाम् । वमिां रेििां ि व कारयेतु कुशलो नभषक् ॥ (शा. उ. – ३/१) Vamanadi karmas should be done during Sharad, Vasanta or Pravrit rutu. शीतोिवां र्दोषियां वसन्ते नवशोधयत् ग्रीष्मर्मभ्रकाले । घिात्यये वानषयकमाशु सम्यक् प्राप्िोनतरोगािृतुर्ान्ि र्ातु ॥ (अ.हृ,सू – ४/३५) The accumulation of dosha arising from Sisir rutu should be expelled out during Vasanta rutu, that arising from Grishma rutu should be expelled out during Abhrakala (varsha rutu), that arising from Varsa rutu should be expelled out during Ghanatyaya rutu(sharad rutu). प्रावृट् शुनििभौ ज्ञेयौ शरर्दुर्यसहौ पुििः । तपस्यच्ि मधुश्च व वसन्तिः शोधिां प्रनत ॥ एतिृति नवकल्प्य वां र्दद्यात् सांशोधिां नभषक् । स्वस्थवृिमनभप्रेत्य व्याधौव्यनधवशेि तु ॥ (च. पस – ६/५,६) Pravrit – Suchi(ashad) & Nabha (shravana) Sharad – Urja (kartika) & Saha (margasirsha) Vasanta – Tapasya (phalguna) & Madhu (chaitra) These three seasons are suitable for the administration of Shodhana therapies. After determining the exact months constituting these above mentioned seasons, the Bhishak should give the appropriate Shodhana therapy to a healthy person. However for a patient, the appropriateness of the time determined on the basis of the nature of the vyadhi.
  • 8. स्वस््य शोधि & र्दोषािुसार शोधि : प्रावृट्काले वातनवकारािः घिात्यकाले नपिनवकारािः । घिा मेषािः तेषाां अत्यय नििाशो यनस्मि् काले स घित्ययिः शरत्कालिः । वसन्तनर्दिेषु वसन्त नर्दवसेषु श्लेष्मानवकारािः प्रार्दुभयबनन्तिः । ततस्तस्मात् कारणात् शरीरसांशुनद्दिः शरीर सांशोधिां वमिानर्दनभ पञ्िनभिः स्यात् भबेत् । तत्र बनस्तर्दािां वातरोगोपशमाथं नियते । शरत्काले नवरेििां नपिरोगशमिाथयम् । मधुवासरेषु वसन्तनर्दिेषु वमिां श्लेष्मरोगोपशमाथं नियत इनत । (पिसटाचार्य) Vata vikara (pravrut) – Basti Pitta vikara (sharad) – Virechana Kapha vikara (vasanta) – Vamana शोधि वृक्ष : अथापरे त्रयो वृक्षािः पृथग्ये फलमुनलनभिः । स्िुह्यकायश्मन्तकास्तेषानमर्दां कमय पृथक् पृथक् ॥ वमिे अश्मन्तकां नवद्यात् स्िुहीक्षीरां नवरेििे । क्षीरमकयस्य नवज्ञेयां वमिे सनवरेििे ॥ इमाांस्त्रीिपराि् वृक्षािाहुयेषाां नहतास्त्वििः । पूतीकिः कृष्णगन्धा ि नतल्वकश्च तथा तरु: ॥ नवरेििे प्रयोिव्यिः पूतीकनस्तल्वकस्तथा । कृष्णगन्धा पररसपे शोथेष्वशय:सु िोच्यते ॥ र्दिुनविनधगण्डेषु कुष्ठेष्वप्यलर्ीषु ि । षड्वृक्षाञ्छोधिािेतािनप नवद्यानद्विक्षणिः ॥ (ि.सू – १/११४-११८) Ksheer pradhan vriksha – Snuhi (virechana) Arka (vamana & virechana) Asmantaka (vamana) Twaka pradhan vriksha –Putika (virechana) Tilwaka (virechana) Krishnagandha (visarpa,shotha,arsha,dadru,vidradhi,ganda,kustha,alaji)
  • 9. शोधि योग्य : अनवपाक अरुनििः स्थौल्यां पण्डुता गौरवां क्लमिः । नपडकाकोठकण्डूिाां सांभवो अरनतरेव ि ॥ आलस्यश्रमर्दौबयल्यां र्दौगयन्र्धयमवसार्दकिः । श्लेष्मनपिसमुत्क्लेशो नििािाश अनतनििता ॥ तन्िा क्ल ब्यमबुनद्दत्वमशस्तस्वप्िर्दशयिम् । बलवणयप्रणाशश्च तृप्यतो बृांहण रनप ।। बहुर्दोषस्य नलङ्गानि तस्म सांशोधिां नहतम् । उर्धवं ि वािुलोमां ि यथार्दोषां यथाबलम् ॥ (ि. सू – १६/१३-१६) Avipaka,aruchi,sthoulya,pandu,gourava,klama,pidaka,kotha,kandu,alasya,dourbalya,dourgandha,avasadaka, sleshma & pitta utklesha,nidra nasha,ati nidra,tandra,klaivya,abuddhitwa,bala varna nasha,bahu dosha linga etc. शोधि अयोग्य : िण्डिः साहनसको भीरुिः कृतघ्िो व्याग्र एव ि । सिार्नभषर्ाां द्वेिातानद्वििः शोकपीनडतिः ॥ यादृनश्छको मुमूषयच्ि नवहीििः करण श्च यिः । व री व द्यनवर्दग्धच्ि श्रद्दाहीििः सुशङ्नकत: ॥ नभषर्ामनवधेयश्च ि उपिम्या नभषनग्वर्दा । एतािुपिरि् व द्यो बहूि् र्दोषान्वाप्ियात् ॥ एभ्या अन्ये समुपिम्या िरािः सवयरुपिम िः । अवस्थाां प्रनवभर्जयेषाां वर्जयय कायय ि वक्षते ॥ (च. पस – २/४-७) Chandya,ati sahasa,krutaghna,vyagra, raja & bhishak dwesha, mumurshu, anupakramya rogi etc.
  • 10. वर्जयय नवषय : अि महार्दोष : उच्ि भायष्यां रथक्षोभमनतिांिमणासिे । अर्ीणोनहत भोर्जये ि नर्दवास्वप्ि सम थुिम् ॥ (च.पस – १२/१०) Some factors have the harmful effect to human body. These factors should be avoided for healthy persons as well as diseased person. So these factors also are avoided after Shodhana therapy.  उच्चैर्ायष्र् (loud speech) – causes pain in upper part of the body  रथक्षोर् (riding wooden cart) – causes pain all over the body  अपिचंक्रमण (travelling long way) – causes pain in lower part of the body  अपि आसन (constant sitting) – causes pain middle part of the body  अजीणय र्ोजन (indigestion) – formation of ama  अपिि र्ोजन (unwholesome food) – aggravates different Doshas  पदवास्वप्न (sleep during daytime) – increased kapha  मैथुनम् (sexual intercourse) – kshaya of the body अत्यासिस्थािविाांनस याि । स्वप्िनर्दवा म थुिवेगरोधि् ॥ शीतोपिारातपशोकरोषाांस्त्यर्ेर्दकालानहतभोर्िां ि । (च. पस – १/५४) अर्ीणय म थुिां याि उच्ि भायष्यां नर्दवाशयम् । अनतिांिमणास्थािमसात्म्यानर्द ि वर्ययेत् ॥ (का.सं.पस – ५/४)
  • 11. र्दुवयल पुरुष शोधि : र्दुबयलस्य र्दोषािल्पािल्पाि् पुििः पुििः । हरेत् प्रभुतािल्पाांस्तु शमयेत प्रच्युतािनप ॥ (सु.पच-३३/३७) In a week person, Doshas which are copious & moving should be expelled in a small quantity again and again; & doshas if less, should be mitigated through moving. शोधिोिर निनकत्सा : भेषर्क्षनपते प्यमाहार बृांहणां िमात् । शानलषनिकगोधूममुद्गमाांसघृतानर्दनभ: ॥ हृद्यर्दीपिभ षर्जयसांयोगािुनिपनिर्द िः । साभ्यङ्गोद्वतयिस्िािनिरुहस्िेहबनस्तनभिः ॥ (अ.हृ.सू -४/२८,२९) Bheshaja,pathya,vrumhanaahara,saali,sasthik,godhuma,mudga,mamsa,ghrita,hrudyarasa,yavagu,dipaniya oushadha, abhyanga,udvartana,snana,niruha & sneha basti. CRITERIA TO SELECT A PATIENT FOR SHODHANA : समीक्ष्य र्दोषौषधर्देशकालसात्म्यानग्िसत्त्वानर्दवयोबलानि । बनस्तिः प्रयुिो नियतां गुणाय स्यात् सवयकमायनण ि नसनद्दमनन्त ॥ (च.पस – ३/६) To achieve success in the administration of Shodhana & to obtained the desired effects, Shodhana should be administered keeping in view the factors like the nature of Dosha, Oushadha, Desha, Kaala, Satmya, Agni, Sattva; & the vaya and bala of the patient. In Bahu Doshavastha Shodhana therapy should administered.
  • 12. IMPORTANCE OF पूवयकमय IN शोधि : प्राक् पाििां स्िेहनवनधस्ततच्ि स्वेर्दस्ततिः स्याद्वमिां नवरेकिः । निरुहणान्वासिवनस्तकमय िस्यिमश्चेनत नभषग्वराणाम् ॥ (पचपकत्साकापलका) येषाां िस्यां नवधातव्यां वनस्तश्च व नह र्देनहिाम् । शोधिीयाश्च ये केनित् पूवं स्वेद्यास्तु ते मतािः ॥ (सु.पच-३३/१७) Person who are to be administered Nasya, Basti adi Shodhan therapies, for them Swedadi purva karma should be done before Shodhana. स्िेहस्वेर्दाविभ्यस्य यस्तु सांशोधिां नपबेत् । र्दारु शुष्कनमवािामे र्देहस्तस्य नवशीययते ॥ स्िेहस्वेर्दप्रिनलता रस िः नस्िग्ध रूर्दीररतािः । र्दोषािः कोष्ठगता र्न्तोिः सुखा हतुं नवशोधि : ॥ (सु.पच – ३३/४६,४७) Those who are not given Snehana & Swedana before Shodhana therapy, their body destroyed just as a dry piece of wood when made to bend. Doshas which are made to move by Snehana & Swedana therapy, increased by the use of Snigdha rasa & which have come into kostha are easy to expelled out by Shodhana therapies. शाखागतस्यानप र्दोषस्य कोष्ठाियिहेतु: स्िेहिः , स्वेर्दिः कोष्ठमागतस्य सुखेि प्रवृनिकरश्चेनत र्दशययन्िाह – स्िेहस्वेर्द प्रिनलता इत्यानर्द । (डल्िण) Before Shodhana therapy Snehana & Swedana Should be given. It helps to bring the Doshas from Shakha to Kostha. स्िेहमग्रे प्रयुञ्र्ीत ततिः स्वेर्दमिन्तरम् । स्िेहस्वेर्दोपपन्न्स्य सांशोधिमथेतरत् ॥ (च.सु – १३/९९) Snehana therapy is required to be administerd first, then the swedana therapy is to be applied. Finally the Shodhana therapy is to be administerd after the administration of of Snehana & swedana.
  • 13. IMPORTANCE OF PASCHAT KARMA AFTER SODHANA : शोधिेि र्दोषक्षय तथा धातुक्षय प्रनतकार भेषर्क्षनपते प्यमाहार रेव वृांहणम् । घृतमाांसरसक्षीरहृद्ययुषोपशांनहत िः ॥ अभ्यङ्गोत्सार्दि िः स्िाि नियरूह िः सािुवासि िः । तथ स लभते शमय युर्जयते िायुषा निरम् ॥ (च.सू -१६/२३) Bheshaja,pathya,vrumhanaahara,saali,sasthik,godhuma,mudga,mamsa,ghrita,hrudyarasa,yavagu,dipaniya oushadha, abhyanga,udvartana,snana,niruha & sneha basti. After Shodhana karma human body gets weak & the agni is diminished. Samsarjana karma is nothing but a dietary regimen which is used to bring the agni to its normalcy.
  • 14. PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION OF SHODHANA PROCEDURES
  • 15. वमि : AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (ि.क – १/५) Vamaka drugs possessing the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi and with their ‘Swavirya’ Move to ‘Hridaya’ From there, through various ‘Dhamanis’ lead to micro and macro channels in the body Act over the vitiated complexes in the body (i) With 'Agneya Property' - liquefy the complexes (ii) With 'Tiksna property' - Break them down into several particles
  • 16. Liquefied matter then glides through various unctuous or smooth channels towards Kostha Enter 'Amasaya' and then stimulated by 'Udana Vayu“ Having the dominance of 'Agni' and 'Vayu' elements in the constitution along with self disposition (Prabhava) Move in upward direction towards oral cavity Expelled to outside through it VAMANA Vamaka drug has the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi guna &and with their ‘Swavirya’ moves to hridaya. Then it circulates all over the body through various dhamanis and acts over the vitiated complexes in the body. Then it liquefies the complexes & break them into several particles. After that it moves upward direction due to urdhaga prabhava & expels out through mouth. In case of Virechana it moves downwards due to adhaga prabhava & expels out through anus.
  • 17. PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT Upper GIT when full Electrical Stimuli for Psychic Stimuli of contents stimulation administration of drugs Over distended & Over excitable CTZ stimulation Directly stimulates hypothalamus Stimulates Vomiting centre Automatic motor reaction Motor impulses are transmitted from vomiting centre through 5th,7th,9th,10th,12th Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Upper GIT Diaphragm & abdominal muscles Initiates VOMITING
  • 18. Vomitting centre stimulates due to 3 cause – Upper GIT with full of contents, CTZ stimulation & psychic stimuli. Then the motor impulse transmitted through 5th,7th,9th,10th,12th Cranial nerves & Spinal nerves. The nerve impulse stimulates Upper GIT, Diaphragm & abdominal muscles and Initiates VOMITING. नवरेिि : AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (ि.क – १/५) Virechaka drugs possessing the properties like Usna, Tiksna, Suksma, Vyavayi, Vikasi and with their ‘Swavirya’ Move to ‘Hridaya’ From there, through various ‘Dhamanis’ lead to micro and macro channels in the body Act over the vitiated complexes in the body (i) With 'Agneya Property' - liquefy the complexes (ii) With 'Tiksna property' - Break them down into several particles
  • 19. Liquefied matter then glides through various unctuous or smooth channels towards Kostha Enter 'Amasaya' and then stimulated by 'Udana Vayu“ Having the dominance of 'Prithivi' and 'Jala' elements in the constitution along with self disposition (Prabhava) Move in downward direction towards Anus (due to Sara guna) Expelled to outside through it VIRECHANA
  • 20. PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT Ingestion of Virechana drug Irritation of gastric mucosa Sensory signal goes to defecation centre in Medulla oblongata Motor response from defecation centre Through ganglionic plexus Through vagus nerve Increased peristalsis Secretion of various enzymes from Gall bladder, pancreas,bruner’s gland Reduced absorption Fluid accumulationin the gut Increased hydrostatic pressure Irritation of sacral & lumber plexus VIRECHANA
  • 21. Virechana drugs irritates gastric mucosa. Then Sensory signal goes to defecation centre in Medulla oblongata. After that the Motor response goes to defecation centre. Through ganglionic plexus it increases peristalsis & through vagus nerve it secrets various enzymes from Gall bladder, pancreas,bruner’s gland. Then Reduced absorption & Fluid accumulationin the gut takes place. It helps to increase hydrostatic pressure. Then Irritation of sacral & lumber plexus takes place. Then the defecation occur. बनस्त : AYURVEDIC CONCEPT POSITION – According to Parashara, Guda is the Mula of the body where all the siraas are located. When basti dravyas administered through the guda, it reaches all over the body. Basti should given to the patient lying on left lateral side as as the Grahani & Guda are situated on the left side of the body. (cha,si- 3/24) PAKVASAYA – The given Basti when enters into the pakvasaya, by its virya ,draws the morvid dosha loddged in the entire body from foot to head, just as the sun situated in the sky sucks up the moisture from the earth. (cha. Si-7/64) GRAHANI – Basti dravya reaches first to pakvasaya & the to the Grahani. Pakvasaya is the site of purishdhara kala & Grahani is the site of pittadhara kala. Acharya Dalhana says that purishdhara kala & asthi dhara kala is same and pittadhara kala & majja dhara kala is same.So from these we say that basti has direct action on asthi & majja dhatu. Majja is present in the asthi. Also mastulanga is considered as mastaka majja is the seat of vata. So in this way basti is act in CNS. (su,kal-4/40) (su,su-32/12)
  • 22. PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT The mode of action of basti can be understand in the following way – Drug is administered through anal region It gets absorbed in intestinal mucosa & works by 4 mechanism – 1. By absorption mechanism 2. By system biology mechanism 3. By neural stimulation mechanism 4. By excretory mechanism ABSORPTION MECHANISM Hyper osmosis takes place From colon cell to lumen Absorption of endotoxins Irritation of Large intestine (due to irrtant property) Elimination
  • 23. SYSTEM BIOLOGY MECHANISM Drug is administered through anal region It gets absorbed in intestinal mucosa Lipid soluble Water soluble Passive diffusion Active diffusion By these diffusion mechanism the Basti drugs goes to epithelial cell. Then it goes to the capillaries. Then goes to cell after that molecules. NEURAL STIMULATION MECHANISM Drug given ENS is stimulated Excites mysentric plexus & sub mucosal plexus Neurotransmitters carries information to CNS
  • 24. CNS acts independently to produce the GUT feeling EXCRETORY MECHANISM The sigmoidal, rectal & anal region of large intestine are considerably better supplied with parasympathetic nerve fibers than other part of intestine. They are mainly stimulating in action & functions especially on defecation reflexes.
  • 25. िस्य : AYURVEDIC CONCEPT (अ. स, सू – २९/३) Nasa is the gateway of Shira Drug administerd through the nostrils Drug reaches in Srungataka marma Spreads in the Murdha taking marma of netra, karna, kantha, siramukha Scratches the morbid doshas in supra clavicular region Expels the vitiated dosha from uttamanga
  • 26. PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT The drug is administered through Nostrils Goes to the nasal cavity It passes through the Crebiform plate (found in nasal cavity floor) It transverse by olfactory neurons of the Receptor cells It excites the middle cephalic fossa It is connected with 3rd,4th,5th, 6th crenial nerves Pituitary gland can also be approached trans nasal route Thus the drug acts on brain
  • 27. रि मोक्षण : AYURVEDIC CONCEPT RAKTAPRASADANA This occurs by the stimulation of Yakrit & Pleeha, which r the root of Raktavaha Srotas. When these Organs are corrected, then the whole Raktavaha Srotas get Corrected. Raktamokshana decrease the workload on Raktavaha Srotas & thus the Yakrit & Pleeha. The Sandrata (prithivi mahabhuta), Dravata (jala mahabhuta) & Pressure (vayu mahabhuta) are corrected. PITTA SHODHANA Rakta is the seat of Pitta. So Rakta mokshana helps in the Shodhana of pitta. PROBABLE MODERN CONCEPT 1. Reduces the work load on liver & spleen; stimulates the liver & spleen to perform their normal functions; removes the old & damaged blood cells & helps in formation of new blood cells. 2. Reduces blood pressure, so useful in HTN. 3. Reduces the viscosity of blood & thus prevents the thrombus formation, so useful in DVT, thrombo embolism etc.
  • 28. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHODHANA & PANCHAKARMA : SHODHANA PANCHAKARMA 5 types – Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya, Raktamokshana Mainly 5 types – Vamana, Virechana, Anuvasana basti, Niruha Basti, Shirovirechana. But abyanga, mastiska procedures, different types of swdana are included. It is under in Langhana Chikitsa It acts -Langhana, Brumhana & Rasayana DISCUSSION :  Is there any major difference in efficacy of Classical Shodhana procedures & Modified Shodhana procedures?  What are the consequences if proper Shodhana Kala are not Maintain in Acute condition of the patients ? CONCLUSION : Shodhana acts as Preventive, Curative & Health promotive aspects – Preventive aspect Shodhana therapy ideally suits for those person who is tend to go through a disease. Thus the sufficient prevention is maintained for the occurrence of the pathogenesis. Curative aspects When the disease has actually taken place to the vital, to break the pathogenesis, the vital mode of treatment is Shodhana therapy. Health promotive aspect Not only preventive & curative aspects, it also helps in rebuilding the health. -------------------------------------------------- 0 --------------------------------------------------