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COMPETENCY MAPPING
DEFINITION
Competence is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. A
competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured
guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the
behaviors in individual employees.
Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key
competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating
those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job
evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization.
1
COMPETENCIES
1. Motives
2. Traits
3. Self-Concept
4. Knowledge
5. Skill
2
1. Motives: Things a person consistently thinks about or wants that
cause action, motives drive, direct and select behavior towards
certain actions. Example: achievement motivation people
consistently set challenging goals for themselves, take responsibility
for accomplishing them and use the feedback to do better.
2. Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent responses to
situations. Good eyesight is physical traits of a pilot. Emotional Self
Control and initiative are more complex consistent responses to
situations.
3
3. Self Concept: A person's attitude value or self image. A person's
values are reactive or respondent motives that predict what a
person would do in the short run. Example: A person who values
being a leader would be more likely to exhibit leadership behavior.
4. Knowledge: Information a person has in a specific work area.
Example: An accountant's knowledge of various accounting
procedures.
5. Skill: Is the ability to perform certain mental or physical tasks.
Example: Mental competency includes analytical thinking. The
ability to establish cause and affect relationship.
4
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
 The era of scientific management where F.W Taylor and Henry
Fords, use of assembly line shifted competencies from workers to
time and motion study.
 During the mid century, World War 2 enforced the management
centric views where managers orders and subordinates has to work
accordingly. Only those in command were assumed to have the
information and abilities to make decisions.
 In the post war decades also they lived under a command and control
hierarchy.
5
 There was a change when McClelland wrote an article in American
psychologist where he stated that IQ & personality tests are he the
predictors of competency. So the company should hire based on
competencies rather than IQ scores only.
 David McClelland is credited with introducing the idea of
"competency" into the human resource literature (Dubois, 1993).
 Competency-based approaches gained popularity and acceptance
within the human resources community through the work of
McClelland.
 Boyatzis is credited with popularizing the term in his book "The
Competent Manager (Woodruff, 1991)".
6
 Boyatzis suggested that a competency was a combination of a motive,
trait, skill, aspect of one's self-image or social role, or a body of
relevant knowledge. In other words, a competency is any
characteristic of an individual that might be related to successful
Performance.
 Klein's (1996) offered one more definition which diverges the most
from the others by suggesting that competencies are Behavioral
indicators. These Behavioral indicators are grouped according to a
central theme, which then becomes the competency.
 In the last century business has come in its attitude towards workplace
competencies. 7
 In the beginning of 20th century, work brought complex skills to the
job, typical business processes required specific competencies for
task at hand.
 This competencies can be acquired through years of learning and
practice.
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APPROACHES TO COMPETENCY
MAPPING
1. Interview
2. Assessment Center
3. Questionnaire
4. Critical Incident Technique
5. Psychometric Assessment
6. 360 Degree Survey
7. Focus Group
9
1. Interview:
Competency-based interviews may be structured, semi-structured or
unstructured depending on the person conducting the competency
mapping. Interview should be carefully designed so as to provide
information about both the easily observed information and the general
disposition and motivation of the employee.
Questions prepared should target each competency and give an overview
of the tangible skills and knowledge possessed by the employee, how he
or she acts under certain conditions, and how they behave with other
people. The questions focus on relating past job performance to future on
the job performance. 10
2. Assessment Center:
Assessment centers is a process (and not a location) that helps to
determine the suitability of employees to specific type of employment or
job role. Using validated tests, different elements of the job are
simulated. The candidates or employees are expected to complete a
number of assessments specifically designed to assess the key
competencies required for the job role they are applying. These tests
focus on assessing the individual based on their knowledge, skills,
attitudes and other behaviors. An essential feature of this process is using
situational test to observe job specific behavior.
11
3. Questionnaire:
Competency mapping questionnaires consist of a list of questions either
standardized or prepared solely for the purpose of competency mapping
which the employees are expected to fill. There may be competency
mapping questionnaire for employees or for managers depending on the
level at which the mapping is being conducted. One form of a
questionnaire is the Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) that makes
use of five domains to examine competencies to improve work
performance. Another form is Functional Job Analysis (FJA) which is a
qualitative analysis and breaks the job down to seven parts: things, data,
worker instructions, reasoning, people, mathematics and language. 12
4. Critical Incident Technique:
This technique was developed by Flanagan (1954) and involves direct
observation of the employee in specific situations. The observations
should be recorded as accurately as possible since it would be used to
identify behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individual or
organization in a specific situation. First step, is to make a list of good
and bad on the job behavior.
After this, the supervisors should be trained to note down incidents when
the employee was successful or not successful in meeting the job
requirements. At the end of the year, a balance sheet for each employee is
created to find how well the employee has performed . 13
5. Psychometric Assessment:
These are standardized and scientific tools used to assess the mental
capacities and behavioral styles of employees in an organization. The
most commonly used psychometric assessment is aptitude, achievement
and personality testing. Aptitude tests help to determine the capacity of
the individual to acquire with training a particular type of skill or
knowledge. Achievement tests help to determine the level of proficiency
an individual has achieved in a given area. Personality testing gives a
description of the unique traits and characteristics that drive the
employee’s behavior. Apart from these, competency mapping rating
scale may also be used as a part of assessment.
14
6. 360 Degree Survey:
360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees receive
confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around
them. This typically includes the employee's manager, peers, and direct
reports. A mixture of about eight to twelve people fill out an anonymous
online feedback form that asks questions covering a broad range of
workplace competencies. The feedback forms include questions that are
measured on a rating scale and also ask raters to provide written
comments. The person receiving feedback also fills out a self-rating
survey that includes the same survey questions that others receive in their
forms.
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7. Focus Group:
A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people
and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political
analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something
else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger
population . It is a form of qualitative research consisting of interviews in
which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions,
beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement,
idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting
where participants are free to talk with other group members.
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CASE STUDIES IN COMPETENCY
MAPPING
I. CASE STUDY OF MARUTHI UDYOG LTD:-
Personal competency framework-MARUTHI UDYOG LTD. The
personal Competency framework was used identify genuine
competencies for various levels for Maruthi Udyog Ltd . The project
team included key position holders in Maruthi in the human resource
department , along with the consultant and team leader .The following
were identified as competencies for various levels:
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LEVEL 10 LEVEL 11 LEVEL 13 MANAGERS
COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES
INFORMATION
COLLECTION
INFORMATION
COLLECTION
INFORMATION
COLLECTION
STRESS
TOLERANCE
ADAPTABILITY ADAPTABILITY PERSPECTIVE ASCENDANCY
LISTENING LISTENING INDEPENDANCE ORGANSING
FLEXIBILITY FLEXIBILITY INITIATIVE APPRAISING
DECISIVENESS DECISIVNESS ENERGY MOTIVATING
OTHERS
ENERGY ENERGY CUSTOMER
ORIENTED
LEADING
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Planning to develop a Competency Model: It is essential to understand
the business need which drives the project and identify their key success
factors .The competency model should reflect the unique aspects of the
position in a given organization and not be developed in a vacuum.
Questions:
a) What method will we use to develop the model?
b) What are the task that are involved?
c) Who is responsible for carrying them out?
d) What does the successful performance on the job look like?
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II. CASE STUDY OF GHCL:-
Gujarat heavy chemicals limited is one of the premier companies in
heavy chemicals and textile. GHCL is distinguish its growth by financial
performance and outstanding people &processes. Its strives for building
trusting relationships , encouraging entrepreneurship & sharing
prosperity. With the vision to meet the challenges of the national
&international market, it was decided to enhance the operational
performance &further develop the potential of their employees.
Competency mapping at GHCL included the middle & senior level
executives from DGM & above.
20
A competency model for various positions ,definition of all competencies
along with a weighing scale were developed in phase 1 & phase 2 in the
below shown box,
SL. NO Competencies'
1 Strategy &direction
2 Leading change &creativity
3 Active learning & agility
4 Business acumen
5 Promoting synergetic team
work
6 Decisiveness
7 Manage execution
21
The competency were identified on the basis of discussion with the top
management. In order to understand the vision &mission of GHCL. This
was followed by one to one behavior event interviews for the position
holders &the peer group that was to develop the competency model.
Questions:
a) Do you think cordial relationship works in the organization?
b) How does the strategy and direction enhance the competency model?
c) What is the role of the top management?
d) How does the model execute finally?
22
COMPETENCY MAPPING
PROCEDURES
The broad procedures that are followed in an organization while
undertaking the procedures of competency mapping are detailed below:
First stage:
 First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission
of the organization.
Second stage:
 It requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioral
as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively.
23
 Tool for the first and second stage: Structured Interview
Third stage:
 It involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview
Reports;
a) Identification of the competency based on competency frame work
b) Measurement of competency
c) Required levels of competency for each job family
d) Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the
competency based on the indicators. Care should be taken that the
indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment.
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Fourth Stage:
 It requires preparation for assessment.
 Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centers or
360 Degree Feedback.
 If assessment center is the choice for assessment then tools has to be
ready beforehand;
a) Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required.
b) Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency
c) Prepare the schedule for assessment
25
d) Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding
of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behavior has
to be documented.
Fifth Stage:
 It involves conducting assessment center.
 Usually it is a two day program which would involve giving a brief
feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been
assessed and where they stand to.
Sixth stage:
 It involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the
development plan for the developmental areas. 26
STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING
Step-1: Skill identification from the job description
Step-2: Club all the skills across organization
Step-3: Frame skill categories
Step-4: Devote skills into categories
Step-5: Prepare a skill dictionary
Step-6: Understand the levels
Step-7: Mapping is comparison
Step-8: Identify the gap and translate it
Step-9: Measure the effectiveness
27
Step-10: Map the resource again
Step-11: Link the evaluation with performance appraisal schemes
Step-1: Skill identification from the job description:-
Every resource has their designated set of job description allotted.
Identify the skills from the explained job description. Example- One of
the job description for a CNC operator is: He/ She needs to maintain the
machine daily after completing their shift. Skill Identified: Knowledge of
5S(A concept for maintaining cleanliness). Competency identified:
Awareness towards safety and hazard.
28
Step-2: Club all the skills across organization:-
Repeat the above-mentioned process department wise. Talk to managers
and resources. Sum up all the JDS and list down every possible skill that
contribute towards an effective task performance.
Step-3: Frame skill categories:-
Fix the categories apt for your organization. This may depend on your
organizational industry, product, strength and client base too. Example-
Technical, Behavioral and Processes; are some of the category that are
common to almost all.
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Step-4: Devote skills into categories:-
Use your common sense and assign every single skill set into its suitable
category. Example. “Machining” is a skill under Technical parameter.
However, “5S” (the concept) will go to Processes and “Behavioral
safety” can be fixed at Behavioral parameter.
Step-5: Prepare a skill dictionary:-
As the name suggests, it is the explained dictionary of every skill that we
have mentioned above. We have to explain level wise description of
every skill. You can either choose a three - level or four – level
dictionary.
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Level 1 being lowest, Level 2 is Needs improvement, level 3 being
Average and level 4 is good. If the highest level is level 5, try to mark
accordingly.
Step-6: Understand the levels:-
If your dictionary has level 1 being lowest, every single addition to its
level is commensurate with the difficulty/ perfection level to perform the
task. And Level 4 is the epitome for perfection. Assigning resources to
these levels depicts their present caliber and knowledge level in that
particular skill.
31
Example- If I assign Mr. Gorge (Works at manufacturing industry as a
CNC operator for past 2 years) at level 3 in “Machining” skill, then
According to the dictionary, I am stating that he is having an average
level of understanding for this skill.
Step-7: Mapping is comparison:-
One resource needs to map twice against every single skill. As it is a tool
to enhance the skill and get the appropriate training hence, Mr. Gorge
needs to map again for knowing what is the desired skill level for him to
perform the machining task most efficiently. It will vary according to
designation, years of work experience and educational qualification.
32
Example- If Mr. Gorge is a diploma holder and is working at junior level
associate, his required level of competency would be level 4 (On a scale
of 1-5). And if he is a graduate and is at mid-level associate, the desired
level of competency would be much high as at level 5.
Step-8: Identify the Gap and translate it:-
Gap between Actual and Desired is the source of Training need
identification. Comprehend the gap and fix it with appropriate training
and seminar scheduling.
Step-9: Measure the effectiveness:-
The measurement can be done in two phases. One, just after the training,
with a questionnaire and on-job performance. 33
And Two, After six months of training, imparted. The second phase of
measurement is aimed to testify the retention level.
Step-10: Map the resource again:-
Competency mapping is a cyclic process. If, after two-phased evaluation,
the resource has improved, then the actual skill level is enhanced and so
the desired one too.
Step-11: Link the evaluation with performance appraisal schemes:-
It is a very useful tool for objective appraisals.
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BUSINESS STRATEGIES
Business level strategies – Is a strategy that encompasses the overall
competitive theme a company chooses to stress, the way it positions
itself in the market place to gain a competitive advantage and the
different positioning strategies it can use in different industry settings.
Business strategy - Is the managerial plan for directing and running a
particular business unit. Such strategy defines the products market
posture of its individual business units. Business strategy deals with
special issues of;
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a) How the organization intends to compete in that specific business?
b) What is the role of each key functional area in contributing to the
success of business?
c) How resources will be allocated with the business unit?
 Business strategy may be external as well as internal.
General approaches to make business strategies effective are:
 Matching strategies with objectives.
 Matching strategies with environmental forces.
 Matching strategies with corporate strength.
 Strategies to reflect personal values of key executives.
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 Strategies to match with operating plans and programmes.
 Matching strategies with current performance actual v/s planned.
 Strategy and organizational motivation.
According to Mintzberg’s 5P’s, Business Strategy is a;
Plan- How to get there?
Pattern- As emerging out actions Consistent over time.
Position- It reflects the decision to offer particular products and services
in a particular market.
Ploy- A maneuver intended to outwit a competition.
Perspective- Vision / Direction as a view of what the company or
organization is to become. 37
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
Meaning:-
A written description of the standards or characteristics to be assessed for
a given task or activity used by a line manager or assessor to ascertain if
an individual, group or organization can perform a specified task or
activity to the defined standard or characteristics.
Performance criteria are used for numerous purposes in organization in
business and also students.
38
CRITERIA SAMPLING
1. Con-Current Validation:-
The procedure involves 3 steps;
a) Select a sample of current employees.
b) Give each employee the proposed selection test and simultaneously
collect information on the criterion variable.
c) Compute the correlation between the test scores and criterion scores.
E.g.; on 200 employees a correlation of 0.35 between scheduling and
planning test score and supervisory rating of performance recently done:-
will indicate that these are high performers.
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2. Predictive Validation:-
In this scores of actual job applicants who are tested (time) & then hired.
Since test scores not used by HR, specialist, the job performance of those
are collected as time 2 performance scores. And then correlation between
time 1 & time 2 are drawn. Problems in this method are;
Sample size required
Time required to perform a typical predictive study
40
41
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
1. In basket
2. Group discussion
3. Role play - (or) interview simulation
4. Presentation and report writing
5. Managing problems
6. Qualifications screen
7. Job simulations
8. Knowledge and skills test
9. Talent measures 42
10. Cultural fit and value inventories
11. Background investigation
12. Integrity tests
13. Physical- abilities tests
14. Fact finding and analysis exercises
15. Business games
16. Role play exercises
43
1. In basket:-
Individuals are asked to handle, in writing, materials that might be found
in an in-basket. Item might include memos, letters, requisitions,
telephone message etc. assessed on their strategies and rationale
underlying their actions.
2. Group discussion:-
Individuals are asked to discuss among themselves hypothetical
problems appropriate to their job role. And arrive at a consensus
decisions or recommended solution.
3. Role play - (or) interview simulation:-
Individuals asked to role play and give reasons and information needed.
44
4. Presentation and report writing:-
Made to give presentation to an appropriate group, or write a report on a
specific issue, challenge or a case.
5. Managing problems:-
Asked to analyse, in writing one or more problems. This analysis may be
followed by group discussion or question from the committee members.
6. Qualifications screen:-
To ensure the requisite qualifications, experience, educational degrees or
citizenship.
45
7. Job simulations:-
Response to simulated actual job tasks are noted. Simulations conducted
using, paper and pen exercise, trained role players, computers provides
information not only on competencies, but also provide realistic preview
of key job roles.
8. Knowledge and skills test:-
Essentially assess knowledge and skills in specific subject areas viz:
Computer programming, or financial areas. Complex to design,
particularly in terms of establishing questions and scoring guidelines.
46
9. Talent measures:-
To understand the personal (natural) characteristics that are associated
with success in certain jobs problem solving ability, work ethic,
leadership characteristics and interpersonal skills/style are to be assessed.
10. Cultural fit and value inventories:-
Will give an indication of how well an individual is fitting into particular
work environment. Similar to talent measures, but focus on predicting
tenure and organizational commitment.
11. Background investigation:-
Information about an individual other than the person himself useful to
have background information to safeguard organization interest. 47
12. Integrity tests:-
Less expensive approach as compared to background investigations.
These are written test to bring out the true character of an individual.
13. Physical- abilities tests:-
These involve having individuals complete physical exercise to assess
talents and capabilities such as strength, endurance, dexterity and vision
morally used for physically demanding jobs.
14. Fact finding and analysis exercises:-
Applicable for self assessment since the fact base is finite and most
inferences can be anticipated. This makes easier to develop a scoring
key. 48
15. Business games:-
Simulation tests in which an individual might select from a checklist of
different response options or choose different approaches and take
different paths through the simulation.
16. Role play exercises:-
Good as selection tool candidates would select or evaluate various
response options at key points during the interaction efficient in
gathering multiple responses in a relatively short period of time. An
alternate to traditional testing approaches to candidate screening.
Involves appraising multiple dimension of performance using several
methods and raters. 49
DATAANALYSIS
 Proven tools and analysis techniques are to capture details of
employees regarding his competencies and administration details.
Tools are based on the results of the assessment centres, appraisals,
interviews, inventories etc. So that the gap matrix can be formulated.
Gap analysis also focuses on the level of competency for the particular
job position.
 Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for
an organization, the jobs and functions within it.
50
 Competency mapping is important and is an essential activity. Every
well-managed firm should have well defined roles and list of
competencies required to perform each role effectively.
 Competency mapping identifies an individual’s strengths and
weaknesses in order to help them better understand themselves and to
show them where career development efforts need to be directed.
 Competency mapping is not only done for Con-firmed employees of
an organization and it can also be done for contract workers or for
those seeking employment to emphasize the specific skills which
would make them valuable to a potential employer. These kinds of
skills can be determined, when one is ready to do the work. 51
VALIDATING THE COMPETENCY
MODELS
 Competency models are carefully derived organization specific list of
skills or competencies needed to manage effectively in that
organization.
 The models are used to integrate HR practices so that selection,
performance appraisal, 3600 feedback instruments, and training
programs are all aimed at building the same essential skills.
52
 Managers understand the competencies valued by their organization,
receive appraisal and 360 feedback on their possession of these
competencies, attend formal training programs aimed at improving
key competencies, and can engage in self directed learning or receive
individual coaching to build their standing on specific competencies.
 Role of competency model looks at the role of an individual in the
organization. It does not restrict itself to one job and instead, studies
the part played by the employee in achieving the organizations super
ordinate goals.
53
 If defines the specific functional skills, like cash flow management,
that employees working in those functions need. The functional -
competency model is built around key business functions, like,
finance, production and marketing. d to have or acquire.
 The core competency model is based on the value systems, vision and
mission of the organization. It defines the set of soft skills that should
be possessed by every employee of the organization.
 A combination of these models obviously allows the company to map
the functional managerial and behavioural attributes that are required
for each position in the organization.
54
 Apart from ensuring a perfect fit, this also facilitates cross functional
moves and succession planning. Besides ensuring effective
recruitment, competency profiling can help an organization chart -
career - paths, for its key performers. And smart companies are also
using the tool to enhance performance of their employees, expedite re
engineering and catalyze change management initiatives.
55
SHORTCUT METHOD
 Select the top superior performers and bottom 10, not average
performers, and administer a1test. The test should reflect the relative
competency levels.
 Informal verification such as data from the group, interview
summaries or the record and comments may be one way to validate
the assessment just after the assessment; a quick survey can be done
by asking the employees about their opinions regarding the reliability
of the assessment.
 The responses should be kept confidential and should be anonymous.
The analysis/validation should be done by outsiders. 56
 To check the accuracy, a sample of employees from all levels can use
the assessment instrument. The differences can be worked out through
discussions and plan for model refinement.
 The 360-degree feed back can be used for validation. The respondents
can specify the responses.
 A simple of respondents can be contacted to verify every item of
assessment at all levels.
 The data should help standardization so that true assessment can be
determined statistical analysis would identify the percentage of
responses where the ratings were higher/lower than the actual.
57
 Several of the techniques can be used concurrently each technical
would make a unique contribution which would be useful in
validation.
 Usefulness may range from involvement, by understanding the model
and its administration, to generating quality data and facilitating
improvement in assessment instrument.
 The larger the group, the more valid is the validation study.
 Irrespective of approach, the value of validation lies in the accuracy of
the model and validity of the assessment tool / instrument.
58
 Take a look at the best jobs for the future.
 In the past, careers were stable, linear and singular. People chose one
path and pursued it over the course of their lives from college to
retirement.
 Careers are now complex, fragmented, specialized, collaborative and
ever evolving. More often than not, our work life will be made up of a
portfolio of micro-careers.
 Professions of "the future" are on the one hand those that survive, on
the other those yet to be born.
MAPPING FUTURE JOBS
59
 Such profession, which is expected to demand in the labor market in
the future.
 Untouchables…are people whose jobs cannot be outsourced, digitized
or automated.
How can we create the list of the top future jobs?
a) Salary: How much do people earn on average in the job?
b) Job opportunities: How much is the job expected to grow in terms
of the number of people employed, and which jobs have the greatest
recruitment demand?
60
c) Business need: Which jobs do employers say are difficult to fill
because of lack of candidates with the right skills and experience?
There are 3 trends in the formation of the jobs of future;
a) Basic Professions: Which are unchanged, widely popular, regardless
of the condition of the economy, will inspire occupations related to
satisfying basic human needs: doctor, nurse, seller, electrician,
gardener, etc.
b) Changing Jobs: Based on the achievements of previous years or are
the result of mergers of different specializations
c) New Jobs: Emerging on the market
61
SINGLE INCUMBENT JOBS
 This approach is usually used for positions, which are managerial or at
least static.
 This approach is usually needed for those positions, which will have
spending authority levels, and defined succession planning.
 This approach assumes on position per person.
62
USING COMPETENCY PROFILES IN HR
DECISIONS
63
1. Mapping talent
2. Managing performance
3. Managing change
4. Managing knowledge
1. Mapping talent:-
 Need is to go beyond traditional practices for attracting, retaining and
developing talent factors to focus are:
a) Strong performance ethics in the company
b) Opportunity for long term wealth creation
c) Exciting job challenges
d) Autonomy on jobs
e) Flexibility in employment terms (telecommunicating, job sharing etc)
f) Differentiated and competitive compensation packages
g) Company’s concern for maintaining work/life balance
64
h) Company’s practices for talent development etc are some of the key
factors for retention and development of talent.
2. Managing performance:-
 Need is to integrate these with other organizational systems (PA:
Performance analysis):
a) Business plan development process
b) work systems and processes
c) Compensation and rewards
d) Career and competency development systems etc
65
e) Issues to be addressed to make it an effective tool for performance
management eg.
f) Alignment: factored measured by PA system are related to
organizational strategies and tactics.
g) Balance: What is achieved and how it is achieved to ensure long
term sustainability?
h) Relevance: To extent to which the system is integrated with the
emerging changes in the nature of work. Team based work, project
assignments, virtual teams, cross border assignment.
i) Consequence: Apart from rewarding food performance to ensure
superior future performance. 66
j) Acceptance: To fulfil user’s expectations and also as a support to
improve performance of the employees.
3. Managing challenge:-
 Transformations taking place among Indian companies are:
a) Mergers and acquisitions
b) Movement in to radically new market
c) Restructuring product / service portfolios
d) Corporate restructuring downsizing etc
e) Radical changes in corporate strategies
f) Transformation of corporate identity 67
 Reasons for above:
a) Fast pace of environment market dynamics
b) Changing market dynamics
c) Technological innovations and globalization building and nurturing
these are the agenda for HR professionals.
d) Leading change identify leaders and resources
e) Creating a need simulating a vision of outcome of the change
f) Mobilizing commitment of stare holders, management, unions
g) Changing systems and structures
68
h) Aligning to support changing efforts monitoring progress mechanism
developed to indicate progress and direction of change making
change last.
i) Institutionalizing the change in the organization
4. Managing knowledge:-
 Applicable to all industries apart form it reason are:
a) Product/service offered only knowledge based
b) Product/ services to be innovate – internal processes and capabilities
to excel.
69
c) Changing business environment organizations to develop business
solutions – innovate
 Specific HR intervention required are:
a) Creating a knowledge change culture
b) Systems to mapping tact knowledge
 Actions required:
a) Empowering knowledge workers
b) Refocusing HR by;
 Business knowledge
 Deliverable HR knowledge
 Change agent skills 70
 Credibility and influence to have competency drivers
 Capable of identifying directions
 Choosing paths
 Initiating actions
 Carrying employees together
71
Competency mapping

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Competency mapping

  • 2. DEFINITION Competence is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. 1
  • 3. COMPETENCIES 1. Motives 2. Traits 3. Self-Concept 4. Knowledge 5. Skill 2
  • 4. 1. Motives: Things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action, motives drive, direct and select behavior towards certain actions. Example: achievement motivation people consistently set challenging goals for themselves, take responsibility for accomplishing them and use the feedback to do better. 2. Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations. Good eyesight is physical traits of a pilot. Emotional Self Control and initiative are more complex consistent responses to situations. 3
  • 5. 3. Self Concept: A person's attitude value or self image. A person's values are reactive or respondent motives that predict what a person would do in the short run. Example: A person who values being a leader would be more likely to exhibit leadership behavior. 4. Knowledge: Information a person has in a specific work area. Example: An accountant's knowledge of various accounting procedures. 5. Skill: Is the ability to perform certain mental or physical tasks. Example: Mental competency includes analytical thinking. The ability to establish cause and affect relationship. 4
  • 6. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT  The era of scientific management where F.W Taylor and Henry Fords, use of assembly line shifted competencies from workers to time and motion study.  During the mid century, World War 2 enforced the management centric views where managers orders and subordinates has to work accordingly. Only those in command were assumed to have the information and abilities to make decisions.  In the post war decades also they lived under a command and control hierarchy. 5
  • 7.  There was a change when McClelland wrote an article in American psychologist where he stated that IQ & personality tests are he the predictors of competency. So the company should hire based on competencies rather than IQ scores only.  David McClelland is credited with introducing the idea of "competency" into the human resource literature (Dubois, 1993).  Competency-based approaches gained popularity and acceptance within the human resources community through the work of McClelland.  Boyatzis is credited with popularizing the term in his book "The Competent Manager (Woodruff, 1991)". 6
  • 8.  Boyatzis suggested that a competency was a combination of a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one's self-image or social role, or a body of relevant knowledge. In other words, a competency is any characteristic of an individual that might be related to successful Performance.  Klein's (1996) offered one more definition which diverges the most from the others by suggesting that competencies are Behavioral indicators. These Behavioral indicators are grouped according to a central theme, which then becomes the competency.  In the last century business has come in its attitude towards workplace competencies. 7
  • 9.  In the beginning of 20th century, work brought complex skills to the job, typical business processes required specific competencies for task at hand.  This competencies can be acquired through years of learning and practice. 8
  • 10. APPROACHES TO COMPETENCY MAPPING 1. Interview 2. Assessment Center 3. Questionnaire 4. Critical Incident Technique 5. Psychometric Assessment 6. 360 Degree Survey 7. Focus Group 9
  • 11. 1. Interview: Competency-based interviews may be structured, semi-structured or unstructured depending on the person conducting the competency mapping. Interview should be carefully designed so as to provide information about both the easily observed information and the general disposition and motivation of the employee. Questions prepared should target each competency and give an overview of the tangible skills and knowledge possessed by the employee, how he or she acts under certain conditions, and how they behave with other people. The questions focus on relating past job performance to future on the job performance. 10
  • 12. 2. Assessment Center: Assessment centers is a process (and not a location) that helps to determine the suitability of employees to specific type of employment or job role. Using validated tests, different elements of the job are simulated. The candidates or employees are expected to complete a number of assessments specifically designed to assess the key competencies required for the job role they are applying. These tests focus on assessing the individual based on their knowledge, skills, attitudes and other behaviors. An essential feature of this process is using situational test to observe job specific behavior. 11
  • 13. 3. Questionnaire: Competency mapping questionnaires consist of a list of questions either standardized or prepared solely for the purpose of competency mapping which the employees are expected to fill. There may be competency mapping questionnaire for employees or for managers depending on the level at which the mapping is being conducted. One form of a questionnaire is the Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) that makes use of five domains to examine competencies to improve work performance. Another form is Functional Job Analysis (FJA) which is a qualitative analysis and breaks the job down to seven parts: things, data, worker instructions, reasoning, people, mathematics and language. 12
  • 14. 4. Critical Incident Technique: This technique was developed by Flanagan (1954) and involves direct observation of the employee in specific situations. The observations should be recorded as accurately as possible since it would be used to identify behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individual or organization in a specific situation. First step, is to make a list of good and bad on the job behavior. After this, the supervisors should be trained to note down incidents when the employee was successful or not successful in meeting the job requirements. At the end of the year, a balance sheet for each employee is created to find how well the employee has performed . 13
  • 15. 5. Psychometric Assessment: These are standardized and scientific tools used to assess the mental capacities and behavioral styles of employees in an organization. The most commonly used psychometric assessment is aptitude, achievement and personality testing. Aptitude tests help to determine the capacity of the individual to acquire with training a particular type of skill or knowledge. Achievement tests help to determine the level of proficiency an individual has achieved in a given area. Personality testing gives a description of the unique traits and characteristics that drive the employee’s behavior. Apart from these, competency mapping rating scale may also be used as a part of assessment. 14
  • 16. 6. 360 Degree Survey: 360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them. This typically includes the employee's manager, peers, and direct reports. A mixture of about eight to twelve people fill out an anonymous online feedback form that asks questions covering a broad range of workplace competencies. The feedback forms include questions that are measured on a rating scale and also ask raters to provide written comments. The person receiving feedback also fills out a self-rating survey that includes the same survey questions that others receive in their forms. 15
  • 17. 7. Focus Group: A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population . It is a form of qualitative research consisting of interviews in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. 16
  • 18. CASE STUDIES IN COMPETENCY MAPPING I. CASE STUDY OF MARUTHI UDYOG LTD:- Personal competency framework-MARUTHI UDYOG LTD. The personal Competency framework was used identify genuine competencies for various levels for Maruthi Udyog Ltd . The project team included key position holders in Maruthi in the human resource department , along with the consultant and team leader .The following were identified as competencies for various levels: 17
  • 19. LEVEL 10 LEVEL 11 LEVEL 13 MANAGERS COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES COMPETENCIES INFORMATION COLLECTION INFORMATION COLLECTION INFORMATION COLLECTION STRESS TOLERANCE ADAPTABILITY ADAPTABILITY PERSPECTIVE ASCENDANCY LISTENING LISTENING INDEPENDANCE ORGANSING FLEXIBILITY FLEXIBILITY INITIATIVE APPRAISING DECISIVENESS DECISIVNESS ENERGY MOTIVATING OTHERS ENERGY ENERGY CUSTOMER ORIENTED LEADING 18
  • 20. Planning to develop a Competency Model: It is essential to understand the business need which drives the project and identify their key success factors .The competency model should reflect the unique aspects of the position in a given organization and not be developed in a vacuum. Questions: a) What method will we use to develop the model? b) What are the task that are involved? c) Who is responsible for carrying them out? d) What does the successful performance on the job look like? 19
  • 21. II. CASE STUDY OF GHCL:- Gujarat heavy chemicals limited is one of the premier companies in heavy chemicals and textile. GHCL is distinguish its growth by financial performance and outstanding people &processes. Its strives for building trusting relationships , encouraging entrepreneurship & sharing prosperity. With the vision to meet the challenges of the national &international market, it was decided to enhance the operational performance &further develop the potential of their employees. Competency mapping at GHCL included the middle & senior level executives from DGM & above. 20
  • 22. A competency model for various positions ,definition of all competencies along with a weighing scale were developed in phase 1 & phase 2 in the below shown box, SL. NO Competencies' 1 Strategy &direction 2 Leading change &creativity 3 Active learning & agility 4 Business acumen 5 Promoting synergetic team work 6 Decisiveness 7 Manage execution 21
  • 23. The competency were identified on the basis of discussion with the top management. In order to understand the vision &mission of GHCL. This was followed by one to one behavior event interviews for the position holders &the peer group that was to develop the competency model. Questions: a) Do you think cordial relationship works in the organization? b) How does the strategy and direction enhance the competency model? c) What is the role of the top management? d) How does the model execute finally? 22
  • 24. COMPETENCY MAPPING PROCEDURES The broad procedures that are followed in an organization while undertaking the procedures of competency mapping are detailed below: First stage:  First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization. Second stage:  It requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioral as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively. 23
  • 25.  Tool for the first and second stage: Structured Interview Third stage:  It involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview Reports; a) Identification of the competency based on competency frame work b) Measurement of competency c) Required levels of competency for each job family d) Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators. Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment. 24
  • 26. Fourth Stage:  It requires preparation for assessment.  Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centers or 360 Degree Feedback.  If assessment center is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand; a) Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required. b) Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency c) Prepare the schedule for assessment 25
  • 27. d) Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behavior has to be documented. Fifth Stage:  It involves conducting assessment center.  Usually it is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stand to. Sixth stage:  It involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas. 26
  • 28. STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING Step-1: Skill identification from the job description Step-2: Club all the skills across organization Step-3: Frame skill categories Step-4: Devote skills into categories Step-5: Prepare a skill dictionary Step-6: Understand the levels Step-7: Mapping is comparison Step-8: Identify the gap and translate it Step-9: Measure the effectiveness 27
  • 29. Step-10: Map the resource again Step-11: Link the evaluation with performance appraisal schemes Step-1: Skill identification from the job description:- Every resource has their designated set of job description allotted. Identify the skills from the explained job description. Example- One of the job description for a CNC operator is: He/ She needs to maintain the machine daily after completing their shift. Skill Identified: Knowledge of 5S(A concept for maintaining cleanliness). Competency identified: Awareness towards safety and hazard. 28
  • 30. Step-2: Club all the skills across organization:- Repeat the above-mentioned process department wise. Talk to managers and resources. Sum up all the JDS and list down every possible skill that contribute towards an effective task performance. Step-3: Frame skill categories:- Fix the categories apt for your organization. This may depend on your organizational industry, product, strength and client base too. Example- Technical, Behavioral and Processes; are some of the category that are common to almost all. 29
  • 31. Step-4: Devote skills into categories:- Use your common sense and assign every single skill set into its suitable category. Example. “Machining” is a skill under Technical parameter. However, “5S” (the concept) will go to Processes and “Behavioral safety” can be fixed at Behavioral parameter. Step-5: Prepare a skill dictionary:- As the name suggests, it is the explained dictionary of every skill that we have mentioned above. We have to explain level wise description of every skill. You can either choose a three - level or four – level dictionary. 30
  • 32. Level 1 being lowest, Level 2 is Needs improvement, level 3 being Average and level 4 is good. If the highest level is level 5, try to mark accordingly. Step-6: Understand the levels:- If your dictionary has level 1 being lowest, every single addition to its level is commensurate with the difficulty/ perfection level to perform the task. And Level 4 is the epitome for perfection. Assigning resources to these levels depicts their present caliber and knowledge level in that particular skill. 31
  • 33. Example- If I assign Mr. Gorge (Works at manufacturing industry as a CNC operator for past 2 years) at level 3 in “Machining” skill, then According to the dictionary, I am stating that he is having an average level of understanding for this skill. Step-7: Mapping is comparison:- One resource needs to map twice against every single skill. As it is a tool to enhance the skill and get the appropriate training hence, Mr. Gorge needs to map again for knowing what is the desired skill level for him to perform the machining task most efficiently. It will vary according to designation, years of work experience and educational qualification. 32
  • 34. Example- If Mr. Gorge is a diploma holder and is working at junior level associate, his required level of competency would be level 4 (On a scale of 1-5). And if he is a graduate and is at mid-level associate, the desired level of competency would be much high as at level 5. Step-8: Identify the Gap and translate it:- Gap between Actual and Desired is the source of Training need identification. Comprehend the gap and fix it with appropriate training and seminar scheduling. Step-9: Measure the effectiveness:- The measurement can be done in two phases. One, just after the training, with a questionnaire and on-job performance. 33
  • 35. And Two, After six months of training, imparted. The second phase of measurement is aimed to testify the retention level. Step-10: Map the resource again:- Competency mapping is a cyclic process. If, after two-phased evaluation, the resource has improved, then the actual skill level is enhanced and so the desired one too. Step-11: Link the evaluation with performance appraisal schemes:- It is a very useful tool for objective appraisals. 34
  • 36. BUSINESS STRATEGIES Business level strategies – Is a strategy that encompasses the overall competitive theme a company chooses to stress, the way it positions itself in the market place to gain a competitive advantage and the different positioning strategies it can use in different industry settings. Business strategy - Is the managerial plan for directing and running a particular business unit. Such strategy defines the products market posture of its individual business units. Business strategy deals with special issues of; 35
  • 37. a) How the organization intends to compete in that specific business? b) What is the role of each key functional area in contributing to the success of business? c) How resources will be allocated with the business unit?  Business strategy may be external as well as internal. General approaches to make business strategies effective are:  Matching strategies with objectives.  Matching strategies with environmental forces.  Matching strategies with corporate strength.  Strategies to reflect personal values of key executives. 36
  • 38.  Strategies to match with operating plans and programmes.  Matching strategies with current performance actual v/s planned.  Strategy and organizational motivation. According to Mintzberg’s 5P’s, Business Strategy is a; Plan- How to get there? Pattern- As emerging out actions Consistent over time. Position- It reflects the decision to offer particular products and services in a particular market. Ploy- A maneuver intended to outwit a competition. Perspective- Vision / Direction as a view of what the company or organization is to become. 37
  • 39. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA Meaning:- A written description of the standards or characteristics to be assessed for a given task or activity used by a line manager or assessor to ascertain if an individual, group or organization can perform a specified task or activity to the defined standard or characteristics. Performance criteria are used for numerous purposes in organization in business and also students. 38
  • 40. CRITERIA SAMPLING 1. Con-Current Validation:- The procedure involves 3 steps; a) Select a sample of current employees. b) Give each employee the proposed selection test and simultaneously collect information on the criterion variable. c) Compute the correlation between the test scores and criterion scores. E.g.; on 200 employees a correlation of 0.35 between scheduling and planning test score and supervisory rating of performance recently done:- will indicate that these are high performers. 39
  • 41. 2. Predictive Validation:- In this scores of actual job applicants who are tested (time) & then hired. Since test scores not used by HR, specialist, the job performance of those are collected as time 2 performance scores. And then correlation between time 1 & time 2 are drawn. Problems in this method are; Sample size required Time required to perform a typical predictive study 40
  • 42. 41
  • 43. TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION 1. In basket 2. Group discussion 3. Role play - (or) interview simulation 4. Presentation and report writing 5. Managing problems 6. Qualifications screen 7. Job simulations 8. Knowledge and skills test 9. Talent measures 42
  • 44. 10. Cultural fit and value inventories 11. Background investigation 12. Integrity tests 13. Physical- abilities tests 14. Fact finding and analysis exercises 15. Business games 16. Role play exercises 43
  • 45. 1. In basket:- Individuals are asked to handle, in writing, materials that might be found in an in-basket. Item might include memos, letters, requisitions, telephone message etc. assessed on their strategies and rationale underlying their actions. 2. Group discussion:- Individuals are asked to discuss among themselves hypothetical problems appropriate to their job role. And arrive at a consensus decisions or recommended solution. 3. Role play - (or) interview simulation:- Individuals asked to role play and give reasons and information needed. 44
  • 46. 4. Presentation and report writing:- Made to give presentation to an appropriate group, or write a report on a specific issue, challenge or a case. 5. Managing problems:- Asked to analyse, in writing one or more problems. This analysis may be followed by group discussion or question from the committee members. 6. Qualifications screen:- To ensure the requisite qualifications, experience, educational degrees or citizenship. 45
  • 47. 7. Job simulations:- Response to simulated actual job tasks are noted. Simulations conducted using, paper and pen exercise, trained role players, computers provides information not only on competencies, but also provide realistic preview of key job roles. 8. Knowledge and skills test:- Essentially assess knowledge and skills in specific subject areas viz: Computer programming, or financial areas. Complex to design, particularly in terms of establishing questions and scoring guidelines. 46
  • 48. 9. Talent measures:- To understand the personal (natural) characteristics that are associated with success in certain jobs problem solving ability, work ethic, leadership characteristics and interpersonal skills/style are to be assessed. 10. Cultural fit and value inventories:- Will give an indication of how well an individual is fitting into particular work environment. Similar to talent measures, but focus on predicting tenure and organizational commitment. 11. Background investigation:- Information about an individual other than the person himself useful to have background information to safeguard organization interest. 47
  • 49. 12. Integrity tests:- Less expensive approach as compared to background investigations. These are written test to bring out the true character of an individual. 13. Physical- abilities tests:- These involve having individuals complete physical exercise to assess talents and capabilities such as strength, endurance, dexterity and vision morally used for physically demanding jobs. 14. Fact finding and analysis exercises:- Applicable for self assessment since the fact base is finite and most inferences can be anticipated. This makes easier to develop a scoring key. 48
  • 50. 15. Business games:- Simulation tests in which an individual might select from a checklist of different response options or choose different approaches and take different paths through the simulation. 16. Role play exercises:- Good as selection tool candidates would select or evaluate various response options at key points during the interaction efficient in gathering multiple responses in a relatively short period of time. An alternate to traditional testing approaches to candidate screening. Involves appraising multiple dimension of performance using several methods and raters. 49
  • 51. DATAANALYSIS  Proven tools and analysis techniques are to capture details of employees regarding his competencies and administration details. Tools are based on the results of the assessment centres, appraisals, interviews, inventories etc. So that the gap matrix can be formulated. Gap analysis also focuses on the level of competency for the particular job position.  Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization, the jobs and functions within it. 50
  • 52.  Competency mapping is important and is an essential activity. Every well-managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively.  Competency mapping identifies an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in order to help them better understand themselves and to show them where career development efforts need to be directed.  Competency mapping is not only done for Con-firmed employees of an organization and it can also be done for contract workers or for those seeking employment to emphasize the specific skills which would make them valuable to a potential employer. These kinds of skills can be determined, when one is ready to do the work. 51
  • 53. VALIDATING THE COMPETENCY MODELS  Competency models are carefully derived organization specific list of skills or competencies needed to manage effectively in that organization.  The models are used to integrate HR practices so that selection, performance appraisal, 3600 feedback instruments, and training programs are all aimed at building the same essential skills. 52
  • 54.  Managers understand the competencies valued by their organization, receive appraisal and 360 feedback on their possession of these competencies, attend formal training programs aimed at improving key competencies, and can engage in self directed learning or receive individual coaching to build their standing on specific competencies.  Role of competency model looks at the role of an individual in the organization. It does not restrict itself to one job and instead, studies the part played by the employee in achieving the organizations super ordinate goals. 53
  • 55.  If defines the specific functional skills, like cash flow management, that employees working in those functions need. The functional - competency model is built around key business functions, like, finance, production and marketing. d to have or acquire.  The core competency model is based on the value systems, vision and mission of the organization. It defines the set of soft skills that should be possessed by every employee of the organization.  A combination of these models obviously allows the company to map the functional managerial and behavioural attributes that are required for each position in the organization. 54
  • 56.  Apart from ensuring a perfect fit, this also facilitates cross functional moves and succession planning. Besides ensuring effective recruitment, competency profiling can help an organization chart - career - paths, for its key performers. And smart companies are also using the tool to enhance performance of their employees, expedite re engineering and catalyze change management initiatives. 55
  • 57. SHORTCUT METHOD  Select the top superior performers and bottom 10, not average performers, and administer a1test. The test should reflect the relative competency levels.  Informal verification such as data from the group, interview summaries or the record and comments may be one way to validate the assessment just after the assessment; a quick survey can be done by asking the employees about their opinions regarding the reliability of the assessment.  The responses should be kept confidential and should be anonymous. The analysis/validation should be done by outsiders. 56
  • 58.  To check the accuracy, a sample of employees from all levels can use the assessment instrument. The differences can be worked out through discussions and plan for model refinement.  The 360-degree feed back can be used for validation. The respondents can specify the responses.  A simple of respondents can be contacted to verify every item of assessment at all levels.  The data should help standardization so that true assessment can be determined statistical analysis would identify the percentage of responses where the ratings were higher/lower than the actual. 57
  • 59.  Several of the techniques can be used concurrently each technical would make a unique contribution which would be useful in validation.  Usefulness may range from involvement, by understanding the model and its administration, to generating quality data and facilitating improvement in assessment instrument.  The larger the group, the more valid is the validation study.  Irrespective of approach, the value of validation lies in the accuracy of the model and validity of the assessment tool / instrument. 58
  • 60.  Take a look at the best jobs for the future.  In the past, careers were stable, linear and singular. People chose one path and pursued it over the course of their lives from college to retirement.  Careers are now complex, fragmented, specialized, collaborative and ever evolving. More often than not, our work life will be made up of a portfolio of micro-careers.  Professions of "the future" are on the one hand those that survive, on the other those yet to be born. MAPPING FUTURE JOBS 59
  • 61.  Such profession, which is expected to demand in the labor market in the future.  Untouchables…are people whose jobs cannot be outsourced, digitized or automated. How can we create the list of the top future jobs? a) Salary: How much do people earn on average in the job? b) Job opportunities: How much is the job expected to grow in terms of the number of people employed, and which jobs have the greatest recruitment demand? 60
  • 62. c) Business need: Which jobs do employers say are difficult to fill because of lack of candidates with the right skills and experience? There are 3 trends in the formation of the jobs of future; a) Basic Professions: Which are unchanged, widely popular, regardless of the condition of the economy, will inspire occupations related to satisfying basic human needs: doctor, nurse, seller, electrician, gardener, etc. b) Changing Jobs: Based on the achievements of previous years or are the result of mergers of different specializations c) New Jobs: Emerging on the market 61
  • 63. SINGLE INCUMBENT JOBS  This approach is usually used for positions, which are managerial or at least static.  This approach is usually needed for those positions, which will have spending authority levels, and defined succession planning.  This approach assumes on position per person. 62
  • 64. USING COMPETENCY PROFILES IN HR DECISIONS 63 1. Mapping talent 2. Managing performance 3. Managing change 4. Managing knowledge
  • 65. 1. Mapping talent:-  Need is to go beyond traditional practices for attracting, retaining and developing talent factors to focus are: a) Strong performance ethics in the company b) Opportunity for long term wealth creation c) Exciting job challenges d) Autonomy on jobs e) Flexibility in employment terms (telecommunicating, job sharing etc) f) Differentiated and competitive compensation packages g) Company’s concern for maintaining work/life balance 64
  • 66. h) Company’s practices for talent development etc are some of the key factors for retention and development of talent. 2. Managing performance:-  Need is to integrate these with other organizational systems (PA: Performance analysis): a) Business plan development process b) work systems and processes c) Compensation and rewards d) Career and competency development systems etc 65
  • 67. e) Issues to be addressed to make it an effective tool for performance management eg. f) Alignment: factored measured by PA system are related to organizational strategies and tactics. g) Balance: What is achieved and how it is achieved to ensure long term sustainability? h) Relevance: To extent to which the system is integrated with the emerging changes in the nature of work. Team based work, project assignments, virtual teams, cross border assignment. i) Consequence: Apart from rewarding food performance to ensure superior future performance. 66
  • 68. j) Acceptance: To fulfil user’s expectations and also as a support to improve performance of the employees. 3. Managing challenge:-  Transformations taking place among Indian companies are: a) Mergers and acquisitions b) Movement in to radically new market c) Restructuring product / service portfolios d) Corporate restructuring downsizing etc e) Radical changes in corporate strategies f) Transformation of corporate identity 67
  • 69.  Reasons for above: a) Fast pace of environment market dynamics b) Changing market dynamics c) Technological innovations and globalization building and nurturing these are the agenda for HR professionals. d) Leading change identify leaders and resources e) Creating a need simulating a vision of outcome of the change f) Mobilizing commitment of stare holders, management, unions g) Changing systems and structures 68
  • 70. h) Aligning to support changing efforts monitoring progress mechanism developed to indicate progress and direction of change making change last. i) Institutionalizing the change in the organization 4. Managing knowledge:-  Applicable to all industries apart form it reason are: a) Product/service offered only knowledge based b) Product/ services to be innovate – internal processes and capabilities to excel. 69
  • 71. c) Changing business environment organizations to develop business solutions – innovate  Specific HR intervention required are: a) Creating a knowledge change culture b) Systems to mapping tact knowledge  Actions required: a) Empowering knowledge workers b) Refocusing HR by;  Business knowledge  Deliverable HR knowledge  Change agent skills 70
  • 72.  Credibility and influence to have competency drivers  Capable of identifying directions  Choosing paths  Initiating actions  Carrying employees together 71