Competency mapping 1


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Competency mapping 1

  1. 1. Competency Methods in HRM
  2. 2. HR Management Framework based on Competency BUSINESS STRATEGY BUSINESS RESULTS Competency based People Strategy The competency framework will be the basis for all HR functions and serve as the "linkage" between individual performance and business results Recruitment & Selection Training & Development Performance Management Reward Management Career Management COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK
  3. 3. Definition of Competency Competency <ul><li>A combination of skills, job attitude, and knowledge which is reflected in job behavior that can be observed, measured and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Competency is a determining factor for successful performance </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of competency is behavior which is an application of skills, job attitude and knowledge. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Skill Job Attitude Knowledge Observable Behavior Job Performance Competency Definition of Competency
  5. 5. <ul><li>1.Competence means a skill and the standard of performance reached, </li></ul><ul><li>Competency refers to the behavior by which it is achieved </li></ul><ul><li>2.What people can do and other focuses on how they do it. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Knowledge-Skill-Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Reading-Practicing-Applying </li></ul><ul><li>4.Competences refers to the range of skills which are satisfactorily performed </li></ul><ul><li>while competencies refers to the behavior adopted in competent performance. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hogg: Competencies are the characteristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which result in effective performance within an occupational area. </li></ul><ul><li>Competency also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one area to another. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A Competency is a underlying characteristic of a manager, that lead to the demonstration of skill and which enables him to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Set of SKILLS Relates to the ability to do, Attribute Relates to qualitative aspects personal traits KNOWLEDGE Relates to information COMPETENCY Outstanding Performance of tasks or activities
  9. 9. <ul><li>Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and </li></ul><ul><li>identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, and attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Competencies are the characteristics of a manger </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies leads to demonstration of skills and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies must lead to effective performance </li></ul><ul><li>Competency also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one area to another. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Motives-drive-direct or select </li></ul><ul><li>Traits-physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept-attitudes-values-self image </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-information </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-ability to perform certain physical or mental task. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Components of a job which are reflected in behavior that are observable in a workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Personal suitability </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Excellence </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Customer Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Building People Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Team Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Ability </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Simulation and case study </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation exercise (in basket exercise) </li></ul><ul><li>quizzing on operational procedures and </li></ul><ul><li>Multi rater feedback  </li></ul><ul><li>abstract thinking and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>team building games and multi rater </li></ul><ul><li>role play /simulation presentation </li></ul><ul><li>data interpretation </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Criteria of competency are a. Superior performance and b. effective performance </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Functioning Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Technical. </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial, </li></ul><ul><li>Human and Conceptual. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Generic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies which are considered essential for all employees regardless of their function or level. For example - Communication, initiative, listening skills etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managerial Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies which are considered essential for managerial or supervisory responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Technical / Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform a specific role in the organisation within a defined technical or functional area of work. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Competency Managerial competency (soft competency) This type of competency relates to the ability to manage job and develop an interaction with other persons. For example : problem solving, leadership, communication, etc.   Functional competency (hard competency) This type of competency relates to the functional capacity of work. It mainly deals with the technical aspect of the job. For example : market research, financial analysis, electrical engineering, etc.
  19. 19. Competency Identification Process Clarify Organizational Strategy and Context Competency Identification <ul><li>Analyze Work Role and Process </li></ul><ul><li>Gather Data through Behavior Event Interview and Focus Group </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Benchmark Study </li></ul>Generate Competency Models Validate, Refine and Implement
  20. 20. <ul><li>Conventional Job Analysis leads to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to perform each of those tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data generation from the experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in Effective Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competency model leads to </li></ul><ul><li>a condensed set of personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Data generation from outstanding performers in addition to experts and other job incumbents </li></ul><ul><li>Results in Outstanding Performance </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Competency approach allows managers to make a distinction between a person's ability to do a set of particular tasks at specified minimum acceptable level and the ability to do the whole job containing these tasks in an outstanding manner. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The “indicators” are to be based on what the current outstanding performance in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>These should be based on what works within the organization and most directly contributes to outstanding performance. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the Behaviour indicators are to be decided within the organisation itself and not by any Management expert or Theory! </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Asking whether an employee &quot;takes initiative,&quot; (a very general concept) is open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Instead ask, &quot;Was it typical of Him to carry out tasks without your having to request that they be done?,&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This question has only 2 sides : either a ‘yes’ or ‘no’, isn’t it? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The steps in building of a model are….. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect enough background information about the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the Job Positions that require competency Models/Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the application of the competency model </li></ul><ul><li>Select a data collection method and plan the approach </li></ul><ul><li>Organize Data collected </li></ul><ul><li>Identify main themes or patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Build the model </li></ul><ul><li>Defining specific behaviour Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Review the model </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Work got Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific management-Taylor and Henry </li></ul><ul><li>Management centric views –WW II </li></ul><ul><li>Mc Clelland- IQ and Personality tests </li></ul><ul><li>Mc Ber- Consulting Methods </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Competency mapping identifies individual strengths, weaknesses, in order to help them understand themselves and future prospects </li></ul><ul><li>Is a process of indentifying key competencies of an organisation and or a job and incorporating them throughout the various processes of organisation </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Export Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire methods </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Story Writing Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incident technique </li></ul><ul><li>Repertory grid </li></ul><ul><li>360 degree Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study Methods </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Competencies help…… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>companies ‘raise the Bar’ of performance expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each employee understand how to achieve stated expectations </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Competency-based Interview for Selection
  30. 30. Types of Interview <ul><li>Conventional Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Competency-based Interview </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conventional Interview <ul><li>Unstructured : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a type of interview where the questions are not designed systematically and not properly structured. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no standard format to follow, therefore the process of interviewing can go in any direction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is seldom equipped with formal guidelines regarding the system of rating/scoring the interview. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>Has low reliability and validity – there is no accuracy in predicting performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible to bias and subjectivity (gut feeling) </li></ul></ul>Conventional Interview
  33. 33. Competency-based Interview (CBI) <ul><li>Is a structured type of interview. The questions are focused on disclosing examples of behavior in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>The process of interview is intended to disclose specifically and in detail examples of behavior in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Is designed based on the principle : past behavior predicts future behavior (Candidates are most likely to repeat these behaviors in similar situations in the future). </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Has a high level of validity and reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipped with a standard scoring system which refers to behavior indicators </li></ul>Competency-based Interview
  35. 35. Approach in Competency-based Interview S What was the S ituation in which you were involved? T What was the T ask you needed to accomplish? A What A ction(s) did you take? R What R esults did you achieve?
  36. 36. Situation Can you explain the situation? Where and when did the situation happen? What events led up to it? Who was involved in the situation (work colleagues, supervisor, customers)? Approach in Competency-based Interview
  37. 37. What tasks were you supposed to do at that time? What did you actually do at that time? How did you do it? What specific steps did you take? Who was involved? Tasks/Actions Approach in Competency-based Interview
  38. 38. What was the outcome? Can you tell me the results of taking such action? What specific outcome was produced by your action? Results Approach in Competency-based Interview
  39. 39. Competency-based Career Planning
  40. 40. Career Planning Flow Career Planning System Career Path Design Analysis of Employees Future Plan Implementation of Development Program
  41. 41. Defining Career Path Career Path is a series of positions that one must go through in order to achieve a certain position in the company. The ‘path’ is based on the position competency profile that an employee must have to be able to hold a certain position. What Is Career Path?
  42. 42. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Assessing Employee Career Plan Employee Career Needs <ul><li>Assessment of the career type of the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the employee competency level (for example through assessment center ) </li></ul>Organization Career Needs <ul><li>Assessment of the competency profile required by the position </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the organization’s need of manpower planning </li></ul>Match?
  43. 43. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Employee Development Program Employee Career Needs Organization Career Needs Match? Special Assignment Mentoring Executive Development Program Job Enrichment On the Job Development Apprenticeship in Other Company Presentation Assignment Training/Workshop Desk Study Development Programs and Interventions
  44. 44. Competency-based Training & Development
  45. 45. Competency-based Training Framework Required competency level for certain position Competency Gap Competency Assessment Current competency level of the employee Training and Development Program
  46. 46. Competency-based Performance Management
  47. 47. Individual Performance elements has two main categories: 1. Performance Results : Hard or quantitative aspects of performance (result) 2. Competencies : It represents soft or qualitative aspects of performance (process) Individual Performance Element
  48. 48. <ul><li>Performance Results Score </li></ul>2. Competencies Score Individual Performance Element Overall Score Will determine the employee’s career movement, and also the reward to be earned
  49. 49. Competency-based Assessment centers
  50. 50. Assessing Competency through Assessment Center <ul><li>Assessment Center Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>A standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple trained observers and techniques are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments about behaviors are made, in major part, from specifically developed assessment simulations. </li></ul><ul><li>These judgments are pooled in a meeting among the assessors or by a statistical integration process </li></ul>
  51. 51. Types of Test in Assessment Center <ul><li>In-trays or in-baskets involve working from the contents of a manager’s in-tray, which typically consists of letters, memos and background information. You may be asked to deal with paperwork and make decisions, balancing the volume of work against a tight schedule. </li></ul>In-Basket Exercise <ul><li>In a role play, you are given a particular role to assume for a certain task. The task will involve dealing with a role player in a certain way, and there will be an assessor watching the role play. </li></ul>Role Simulation
  52. 52. <ul><li>In a fact-finding exercise, you may be asked to reach a decision starting from only partial knowledge. Your task is to decide what additional information you need to make the decision, and sometimes also to question the assessor to obtain this information. </li></ul>Fact-Finding Exercise Types of Test in Assessment Center <ul><li>You may be required to make a formal presentation to a number of assessors. In some cases this will mean preparing a presentation in advance on a given topic. In other cases, you may be asked to interpret and analyse given information, and present a case to support a decision.  </li></ul>Presentation
  53. 53. Types of Test in Assessment Center <ul><li>Group exercises are timed discussions, where a group of participants work together to tackle a work-related problem. Sometimes you are given a particular role within a team, for example sales manager or personnel manager. Other times there will be no roles allocated. You are observed by assessors, who are not looking for right or wrong answers, but for how you interact with your colleagues in the team. </li></ul>Group Discussion
  54. 54. Competency Score Results of Observation Through the Assessment Center Competency Assessment and Rating
  55. 55. Competency-Based Pay
  56. 56. Competency-Rewards and Recognition
  57. 57. <ul><li>Competency profiling is the process of identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Competency profiling is business/company specific </li></ul>