RAYMOND CATTELL’S 16 PF
The Cattell 16PF (16 Personality Factor) model is probably the
most-widely used system for categorizing and defining
personality. Other similar systems exist and may be preferred
by some, but it's the 16PF in its various forms that is universally
Unlike other common personal profiling tools, the 16PF defines
our basic, underlying personality, without regard to how we
apply it or the environment in which we apply it.
MYER BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the theory of psychological
type as originally developed by Carl Jung.
Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:
The "rational" (judging)
functions: thinking and feeling
The "irrational" (perceiving)
functions: sensing and intuition
Jung went on to suggest that these functions are expressed in either an
introverted or extraverted form. From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and
Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, described below, on
which the MBTI is based.
Thomas Personal Profile Analysis (PPA) has its original impetus from
the writings of Marston who put forth a theory of human behavior as a
function of two bipolar dimensions, one external and the other
These two dimensions provided a matrix from which the individual’s
typical pattern of interaction could be described through four
characteristics: Dominance, Inducement, Submission and Compliance
(DISC). Marston’s theory assumed that most people are capable of
showing all four of these patterns at different times.
The Thomas Profiling developed by Dr. Thomas Hendrickson aims at
identifying an individual’s
oBehavior under pressure
The California Psychological Inventory™ (CPI™) assessments are powerful
leadership development tools that help individuals and leaders improve
their performance. By describing individuals in the way others see them,
the CPI assessments illustrate a range of personal and work-related
characteristics, motivations, and thinking styles—as well as different ways
people manage themselves and deal with others.
CPI 260® Coaching Report for Leaders
Identifies strengths and blind spots for developing
CPI™ 434 Report
Provides an in-depth, highly accurate portrait of an
individual's professional and personal styles; also provides
details on seven special purpose scales including Managerial
Potential, Work orientation, Creative temperament,
Leadership Potential, Amicability, Enforcement orientation
FIRO-B® stands for Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation
Behavior. Developed by William Schutz in 1958, Schutz first used the
FIRO-B® tool to assess how teams performed in the US Navy.
This tool is used to help individuals and teams better understand their
preferences in satisfying three basic social needs:
the degree to which one belongs to a group,
team or community
the extent to which one prefers to have
structure, hierarchy and influence
one's preference for warmth, disclosure
For each of these factors, FIRO-B® assesses individuals as to:
o how much they express the needs and
o how much they want to have the needs expressed to them from others
The overall 'scores' from the assessment also reveal the degree to which
people attain satisfaction from their interactions with others versus time
BELBIN TEAM ROLE INVENTORY
Belbin identified nine team roles and he categorized those roles into three
Each team role is associated with typical behavioral and interpersonal
strengths. He called the characteristic weaknesses of team roles the
"allowable" weaknesses; as for any behavioral weakness, these are areas to be
aware of and potentially improve.
THE BIRKMAN METHOD®
The Birkman Method® consists of ten scales describing motivations
(Interests) and occupational preferences.
It also has eleven scales describing 'effective behaviors' (Usual
behaviors) and eleven scales describing interpersonal and
environmental 'expectations' (Needs). A corresponding set of eleven
derived scales describe the associated 'less than effective' (Stress)
behaviors when expectations are not fulfilled. Together, these eleven
scales are titled Components.
In application, The Birkman Method® provides a method of improving
personal and interpersonal effectiveness, articulating issues and
resolving them, and revealing hidden assumptions that directly affect
THE BIRKMAN METHOD®
The Birkman Method® notably:
o assesses perceptions and situational motivators
o is non-clinical, online, valid, reliable, and without 'adverse impact'
o identifies 'effective,' 'less than effective' behaviors and provides
practical suggestions to improve personal and interpersonal
o provides respondents with a unique problem-solving approach that
can be applied to many situations, even situations beyond the
extensive report options
o identifies the career choices most likely to appeal to the
The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) is the world’s
best-selling assessment for understanding how different conflicthandling styles affect interpersonal and group dynamics.
Kilman says there are five
methods or modes individuals
have for behaving during
conflict. These methods can be
drawn on a two-axis graph. On
the Y-axis is assertiveness, or
how much the individual tries to
get his or her way. On the X-axis
is cooperativeness, or how much
the individual tries to satisfy
LEARNING STYLES INVENTORY
The Kolb Learning Style Inventory recognizes individual learning preferences,
while encouraging individuals to expand and apply their learning strengths.
Understanding your own style – and that of other people – can help you tune
into the needs of others so that you and your team work more effectively.
Based on experiential learning theory, the learning style inventory was
developed by David Kolb Ph.D. with research that began in 1971. It identifies
four phases in the learning process.
learning from experiences, being sensitive to feelings and people.
Reserving judgment, taking perspectives, looking for meaning.
logically analyzing ideas, planning systematically, using concepts.
showing an ability to get things done, taking risks, influencing.
The Personality and Preference Inventory (PAPI) was originally designed by
Dr Max Kostick, in the early 1960s.
The rationale for the design and formulation of PAPI as an assessment
measuring preferences (Needs) and perceptions (Roles) is based on
Murray’s needs-press theory. The PAPI Role scales measure the individual’s
perception of himself or herself in the work environment and look at areas
such as integrative planning and attention to detail. The Need scales probe
the deeper inherent tendencies of an individual’s behavior such as the need
to belong to groups and finish a task.
Role scales: Leadership role, Organized type, Attention to detail, Conceptual
thinker, Social harmonizer, Ease in decision making, Work pace, Emotional
restraint, Role of the hard worker, Integrative planner
Need scales: Need to control others, Need for rules and supervision, Need
for change, Need to finish a task, Need to be noticed, Need to belong to
groups, Need to relate closely to individuals, Need to be forceful, Need to
achieve, Need to be supportive
EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL COMPETENCY
Emotional and social intelligence makes the difference between a highly
effective leader and an average one. The real benefit comes from the 360°
view into the behaviors that differentiate outstanding from average
It helps managers and professionals create competitive advantage for their
organizations by increasing performance, innovation and teamwork,
ensuring time and resources are used effectively, and building motivation
The emotional and social competency inventory (ESCI) to:
o measure emotional intelligence in your leaders and professionals
o raise awareness through powerful feedback
o focus your coaching and development on crucial capabilities
o bring out the best in individuals and teams.
GROWTH FACTOR INVENTORY
The workforce is shrinking, the ‘baby boomers’ are seeking retirement and
the competition for talent is intensifying. To find new leaders, you need to
look within the organization. But strong performance is not a reliable
indicator of leadership potential. By looking beyond performance in a
current role to future potential, the growth factor inventory (GFI) helps in
identifying precisely who you should target for development.
The GFI is used to:
o Direct investment in leadership development
o spot hidden talent that might otherwise be missed
o ensure managers can fully exploit development opportunities
o ‘reality check’ early evaluations of entry-level employees.
PERSONAL VALUES QUESTIONNAIRE
Based on the research of the renowned psychologist Dr David
McClelland, the PVQ guides learners through various steps to measure
the importance they attach to three social values: achievement,
affiliation and power. These values – or conscious drivers of behavior –
explain the extent to which we want to achieve tasks or standards,
maintain close, friendly relationships or have an impact on others. The
personal values profile will describe how people rate these values at a
The PVQ is a simple, straightforward way for people to begin thinking
about what matters to them – and to consider the implications of this for
PICTURE STORY EXERCISE
The PSE looks beyond actions and intent, revealing the motives that drive
individuals’ behaviors. It provides a uniquely insightful benchmark from
which to build self-awareness and capability. It helps leaders and
professionals understand – and extend – the circumstances when they
are at their best.
It examines an individual’s social motives: three non-conscious concerns
or needs that shape our behaviors. These are the needs to:
I. meet or exceed personal standards of excellence (achievement)
II. maintain close personal relationships (affiliation)
III. have an impact or influence on others (power)
The PSE generates powerful feedback, and can only be administered by
an accredited Hay Group consultant.