SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CHAPTER II
EARLY FILIPINO STUDENTS
ACTIVITIES IN SPAIN
(1880-1882)
Filipino Students to Spain
o After the events of 1872, a sort of lull settled on Filipino nationalist
activities in the Philippines and in Spain.
o Burgos had been executed
o Other Filipino priests who had been prominent in the controversy over
the parishes returned from their exile
o Archbishop Martinez resigned in 1874 and replaced by a Dominican,
Archbishop Pedro Payo on the following year.
o Towards 1880 the tiny trickle of students from Philippines to the
universities of the Peninsula gradually turned into a steady flow.
Filipino Students to Spain
o Most of the early students came from well-to-do families (*mostly
creoles and mestizos)
o They were soon followed by young men of Chinese Mestizo or Spanish
Mestizo and those who came from wealthy native families.
Creoles- tended to identify themselves with the peninsular Spaniards
Chinese Mestizo- identified himself with the native Filipino or Indio
* Under this time all those born in the Philippines shared a certain feeling, not yet
clearly defined, of being Filipinos, especially on early periods because of radical
divisions had come to the force.
Filipino Students to Spain
o What kind of SPAIN did these Filipino students of the 1880s come into?
IT’S POLITICAL
IT’S RELIGIOUS
IT’S EDUCATIONAL
*it influenced them and gave direction to their nationalistic
aspirations
Filipino Students to Spain
oAntonio Canovas Del Castillo
 THE ARCHITECT OF RESTORATION
Great admirer of British Parliamentary system
The last quarter of the 19th Century witnessed his efforts to form a Spanish
Parliamentary System in that image.
On the accession of Alfonso XII to the throne in 1875 – largely the work of
Canovas – Del Castillo created around himself the Partido Liberal-
Conservador / aka CONSERVATIVES
Filipino Students to Spain
o Though a conservative group as a whole it was NOT OF THE EXTREME
RIGHT and though it generally supported the church, it was NOT
EXPLICITLY SO COMMITED.
o The New Constitution of 1876, which embodied the program of Canovas
aroused bitter protests from the VATICAN and SPANISH BISHOPS.
*WHY???
Because though it proclaimed CATHOLICISM as the religion of the
Spanish nation, unlike the 1869 CONSTITUTION, it nevertheless tolerated
the private practice of OTHER RELIGIONS.
Filipino Students to Spain
o On the left of Canovas’ party and with his encouragement arose the
party headed by Praxides Mateo Sagasta, known as the
Constitutionalist or LIBERAL PARTY.
• They rally to those monarchist who still held to the constitution of 1869, but supported
ALFONSO XII.
o FUSIONIST PARTY - formed afther the addition by 1878 of splinter
groups from both left and right.
Filipino Students to Spain
o The two dynastic parties though not without a doctrinal basis, were
largely united on rather opportunistic grounds and were subject to
frequent schisms and realignment.
* Most Doctrinaire is from left and right that refuses to recognize
Alfonist monarchy.
 Extreme Right – CARLISTS ( supporting Don Carlos VII’s claim to the throne, intransigently
Catholic, traditionalist, and absolutist.
 Left – were various factions of repablicans, hopelessly divided among themselves and
united only in opposition of monarchy.
Filipino Students to Spain
oEMILIO CASTELAR
- LAST PRESIDENT of the REPUBLIC, led the REPUBLICANOS
HISTORICOS or POSIBILISTAS
o FEDERALISTAS
- under Francisco Pi y Margall, another former president,
held aloof, as did the advocates of a unitary republic under
the 3rd former president Nicolas Salmeron.
Filipino Students to Spain
• Manuel Ruiz Zorilla – declared for the restoration of the republic means
of revolution, and from his exile in France directed endless conspiracies
to this end.
• Zorillistas or Republicanos Progreistas from time to time joined in coalitions with
other republican factions, now participating in, now abstaining from elections.
• All these coalitions were short-lived, however, and soon terminated in new
internecine struggles.
Filipino Students to Spain
• In the next 22 years till the assassination of Canovas by an anarchist in
1897, the 2 parties alternated in power eleven times.
• The atmosphere of corruption that has characterized so much of
nineteenth-century political life was PERPETUATED.
• Not only were there eleven changes of party during this period, but
both Canovas and Sagasta within a single term of office often
reorganized their cabinet two or three times.
Filipino Students to Spain
Filipino Students to Spain
• PEDRO PATERNO
 one of the two(2) Filipino nationalists known with certainty to have been in Spain
before 1880 (*the other was Gregorio Sanciano)
 he has come to Spain in 1871 ( studied Philosophy & Theology in Salamanca)
Later had gone to Mandrid where he obtained doctorate in law in 1880
Son of Maximo Paterno, a wealthy, Manila businessman who was among
deported to Marianas in 1872
 Because of his father he has contact with men as Manuel Regidor and Manueal
Azcarraga (Philippine borns who has left Philippines and then got involved in
political issues.)
PEDRO PATERNO
 Paterno has made numerous highly-placed friends in 1880s and his home was
often placed for reunions artisticas, at which gathered many of the most
prominent literary and political figures of Spain.
 In 1880 he brought out a small volume of verse entitled Sampaguitas . This was
presented as the first volume of a project collection entitled “Biblioteca Filipina”,
designed to make known to the public “The mature fruits produced by the
Filipino youth”.
* The verses make only occasional mention of the Philippines, and are mostly
romantic lyrics.
Filipino Students to Spain
o Gregorio Sanciano
 of greater significance and certainly of greater merit was the work of Gregorio
Sanciano.
 of Chinese mestizo origin, like the Paternos, Sanciano had already earned his
doctorate in law by 1880. (* he began to contribute articles to news paper EL
DEMOCRATA on reforms needed in Philippines especially economic matters)
 in 1881 he published a book called El progreso de Filipinas.
 He pointed to the URGENT necessity of roads, bridges, railroads, and public
works in general to promote agriculture
 The educational system was inadequate
 A radical change in the system of raising revenue was needed, the taxation
and collection of tribute was unjust
 All of these form radical discrimination
Gregorio Sanciano
 He proposed the abolition of various indirect taxes and customs duties,
showing how they impeded the progress of the economy.
 He proposed property tax, an industrial and commercial tax, and others
based on ability to pay.
 To achieve it, he pointed out the means that must be taken to establish
clear titles to landed property and to provide the acquisition of
unoccupied or state-owned lands.
Gregorio Sanciano
 his entire book is eminently practical, treating in dispassionate fashion
the economic problems of the country and their solution.
 His book was more on an economic study
 Some sections of his book are charged with deep nationalist feeling
 He somehow expresses a calm serene tone of his exposition and
replaced it by muted sense of outrage at the injustice and inexpediency
of law that only foments divisions between classes and races.
Gregorio Sanciano
 he says that by setting one class against another such system has been
at the root of the revolts that have occurred in 19th century.
 according to him this tribute is a symbol of rule imposed by force, as in
the ages of barbarism and has no place in the modern regime of liberty.
 the Filipinos must have to enjoy tax proportioned to their resources,
larger or smaller in amount
Gregorio Sanciano
• His principle of assimilation that all Filipinos were Spanish citizens must
have the same rights and duties as peninsular Spaniards has become
the ostensible basis of nationalist campaign for fifteen (15) years.
• The Philippines should be granted representation in Cortes
• Another point of significance in the his work is the clear line which
connected him with the Philippine reform movement of 1869-72.
Gregorio Sanciano
• The point of departure of his treatise was recommendations of the
Junta de reformas economicas
(*one of several reform commissions set up by Governor de la Torre
in 1869-70)
• But suppressed on the accession of Izquerdo.
• He speaks with nostalgia of “that period of liberty and reforms” and
presents a fervent, if somewhat guarded, defence of most of those
executed or exiled in aftermath of the Cavite Mutiny.
Gregorio Sanciano
• 1870 campaign of anonymous letters against the type of instruction
given in the university by the Dominicans.
(*opposition to the exclusive control of church over education,
triggered nationalists)
• One of the most significant feeling in his book is his impassioned yet
carefully reasoned and documented refutation of he Spanish
commonplace of the indololencia del indigena.
• Turning to the reports of the provincial governors regarding land
matters, he shows contradiction between those who say that valuable
land remains unoccupied because of the indolence of Filipinos and
Those who report on the high rate of immigration and on the scarcity of
land in their provinces.
Gregorio Sanciano
• Sanciano’s book anticipates most of the principal themes of the later
Filipino nationalist campaign;
Administrative reform
Eradication of corruption in the government
Recognition of Filipino rights as loyal Spaniards
Extension of Spanish law to the Philippines
Curtailment of the excessive power of the friars in the
life of the country
Assertion of the dignity of the Filipino.
Gregorio Sanciano
• The book was not the type to have a mass appeal, and information is
lacking on its circulation in the Philippines.
• Jose Rizal was impressed by the book.
(*1882 letter to his brother, he mentioned the proximate return to
the Philippines of Sanciano “the author of EL Progreso deFilipinas”)
(*Rizal’s nationalist essay “Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinos” in La
Solidaridad in 1890 was based on Sanciano’s treatment of the
subject)
Gregorio Sanciano
In 1884 there was disturbance in Pangasinan, apparently over
local grievances, but in the aftermath a number of prominent
Filipinos were imprisoned, among them is Sanciano.
Eventually they were released, but there is no trace of any
further activity on Sanciano’s part before his death a few
years later.
The First Filipino Colony
 Growing Filipino colony appeared during the publication of Sanciano’s
book.
(*it was a baquet given in honor of Fernando de Leon y Castillo,
overseas minister in the liberal government of Sagasta, by the Filipino
colony in Madrid)
 June 25 1881 he had published a long discussed degree abolishing the
government tobacco monopoly in the Philippines.
The First Filipino Colony
At the banquet Visayan medical student Graciano Lopez Jaena,
delivered a speech, he eulogized the glorious mission of Spain
personified by Magellan, Legazpi and others who brought civilization
and progress to the Philippines.
 Philippines (* “Proud to call herself daughter of the fatherland of
Calderon and Cervantes”)
 When liberty and the encouragement of the arts shall reign in her, this
Pearl of the Orient will be a source of inexhaustible wealth for Spain.
The First Filipino Colony
Graciano Lopez Jaena plays an important role in the Filipino
movement.
 born in Jaro, Ilo-ilo in 1856
First studied in the Jaro seminary and later gone to Manila to study medicine
Works as apprentice at a hospital due to lack of secondary diploma , then
returned to his native province.
Had trouble with authorities then later gone to Spain in 1880 to study
medicine at the University of Valencia
1881 gave up his study and left for Madrid then began to be active in political
and journalistic circles
Natural orator and became frequent speaker in meetings of radical groups.
He would be radicalizing force among Filipinos
The First Filipino Colony
 the banquet led to first organizations of Filipinos in Madrid
Early 1882 they founded the Circulo-Hispano Filipino under the
leadership of Juan Atayde, a retired Spanish army officer of the
Philippines by birth.
In its manifesto of 20 April 1882, signed by the acting president, Rear
Admiral Claudio Montero y Gay, its secretary, Juan Atayde, the Circulo
expressed its thanks to Minister Leon y Castillo, to whose “support and
personal mediation it owes its existence”
The First Filipino Colony
 In September 1882, Jose Rizal arrived in Madrid to study medicine and
he endeavoured to give substance to Circulo in faith that it will unite the
Philippines.
 the Circulo founded a bi-weekly news paper called Revista del Circulo
Hispano-Filipino, whose first number appeared on 29 octobr 1882. (*it
doesn’t last long)
 Pardo de tavera merely says that “Some Spaniards from the
Philippines who wrote in it, quickly stopped doing so when they saw
the anti-Spanish character which it was beginning to take.”
The First Filipino Colony
 In 1883 both Circulo and its paper is dead because of the withdrawal of
the older member’s support and the cessation of the subsidy which had
come from the overseas ministry with the fall of the government.
In 1884, Rizal made new attempts to revive the Cirulo, but did not
succeeded.
Jose Rizal
 Jose Rizal did not only serve as the link with the first nationalist
movement which ended tragically; he was to play a decisive role in
shaping the course of the later movement
 Jose Rizal Mercado y Alonso was born in a prominent family in
Calamaba, Laguna.
 Jose Rizal’s father studied at Colegio de San Jose and his mother in
Colegio de Santa Rosa in Manila, his parental grandfather has been a
gobernadrocillo various times and from his mother’s side there were
several relatives who had held minor posts, and a number of lawyers
and priests.
Jose Rizal
 his older brother, Paciano had studied at Colegio de San Jose, and had
been a pupil and a close friend of Father Jose Burgos, with him he was
living up to hi execution in 1872. (*nephew of Father Burgos helped him
to get a place in manila – Jesuit Ateneo Municipal)
All these connections with Burgos greatly influenced Jose Rizal which is
clear from his letter to the Filipino colony in Barcelona: “Had not been
for 1872, Jose Rizal would now be Jesuit, and instead of writing the Noli
Me tangere, would have written the opposite.”
Jose Rizal
 young Jose Rizal is a serious deeply religious boy as his adolescent
memoirs and the accounts of his Jesuit professor reveal.
 Jose Rizal is very fond of Jesuits during his student years, even after he
forsook his catholic religion he never stopped to visit them, he only did
when they themselves decided so. He only renewed his contact once
more during his exile in Dapitan and in his last hours he was
accompanied by Jesuits from the Ateneo Municipal.
Jose Rizal
In his writing when he was just 18 (1879), he says, “My second year as
border [1876-77] was like the first, except that in the time there had
been a great development of my patriotic sentiments, as well as of an
acute sensitivity”
In 1880 his composition “A la juventud Filipina” won the prize offered
in Manila for the best poem by an indio mestizo. (* in it he calls on the
Filipino youth, “Fair hope of my fatherland”.)
Jose Rizal
 In 1881 the Liceo Artistico-Literario of Manila, which has offered the
prize previously mentioned, offered another in a single contest, open to
Peninsulars and Filipinos, to honor Cervantes. Again, Jose Rizal still a
medical student of nineteen, won the first prize this time over various
peninsular journalists and friar professors of the university, with an
allegory entitled “El Consejo de los Dioses”.
 One night in 1880, he passed in the darkness a lieutenant of the civil
guard without knowing who it was, without saying a word struck him
with his sword, wounding him.
Jose Rizal
 Because of this incident he came to the palace of the governor-general,
Fernando Primo de Rivera to demand justice, but not only he was
served none, he didn’t even get to see the general. (*this incident made
a deep impression on him)
For him, the incident demand the equality of Filipino and Peninsular, it
obsess Jose Rizal ‘s thoughts in the years to come, and its denial in
theory and practice would goad him into a clash with the offenders, NO
MATTER WHAT THE COST.
Jose Rizal
 the inequality leads Jose Rizal of breaking his studies at the University
of Sto. Tomas and leaving Philippines for Europe. (*but this was not all
the reason)
 the correspondence with his brother Paciano and with other close
friends, though couched in somewhat guarded terms, at least makes
clear that Jose Rizal and Paciano regarded his studies in Europe as
means of fulfilling patriotic mission, or of preparing himself to do
something for his country.
Jose Rizal
 he had left without informing his parents, whose disapproval he
apparently feared, secretly assisted by his brother and hi uncle, who has
send him money for his support abroad.
 A letter of Paciano was sent few weeks after his departure, speaks of
distress of his parents and how did he carry to let it be secret even unto
his own father .
The letter also says that, in the town of Calamba, his departure was
subject of attempts at conjecture for many days, “but none of them hit
the mark”.
Jose Rizal
 Paciano hoped that Jose Rizal would not stay in Barcelona to complete
his medical course, since “the principal object of your journey to Europe
is not to perfect yourself in that career, but in other matters of greater
utility, or, to say the same thing in other words, in that which you are
more inclined.”
 the following moth his cousin and close friend Vicente Gella wrote Jose
Rizal that the sorely missed him while he was in “search of the good we
all desire. . . May God Assist you in return for the good which you are
doing on behalf of your countrymen”.
Jose Rizal
 another friend suggest that he study law as well for “it will be much
use of the purpose you have in mind”.
 a few days after arriving in Barcelona Jose Rizal wrote to his family
about how Jesuits there that was introduced to him by his professor
from Ateneo, had helped him lodging, and had lent him money until his
funds from the Philippines arrive.
 I have gone through their college, and am making studies on various
matters in order to apply them there when I get back”.
Jose Rizal
 Jose Rizal wrote to Paciano later that year;
“Tell your friends, those who have resources, that I invite their sons
to come to these parts. I would wish that the coming generation, that
which is to govern and direct Calamba by the principles of the twentieth
century, may be a generation of brilliant light, intelligent and progressive”.
Jose Rizal
 engaging in politics in Spain did not seem to be part of his plans, for he
wrote later one of sisters, apparently explaining why he would not make
use of political influence to get himself a government post,
“ I … have always considered myself here as foreigner, and … have
not concealed my indifference to all who have proposed that I join
political parties…”
*for a time he considered professorship on his homeland but he will never be accepted
by the Dominicans who now looked at him with suspicion.
Jose Rizal
 Diaryong Tagalog
 short-lived bilingual nationalist news paper of Manila
 chiefly the work of Filipinos, Basilio Teodoro Moran and Marcelo H. Del
Pilar, but the titular ownership of the paper was vested in Francisco Calvo y
Munoz, a peninsular functionary who allied himself at this time, and later in
Spain, with Filipino nationalists.
Jose Rizal was asked by Teodoro to contribute articles to the news paper, the
first of these, “El amor Patrio”, appeared in the issue of 20 August 1882.
Jose Rizal
Jose Rizal said that it is fitting that we too should be grateful to our
beloved country;
“In the fashion then the ancient Hebrews, who offered in the
temple the first fruits of their love, we, in the foreign land, will dedicate
our first accebts to our country, still wrapped in the clouds and mists of
the morning, but always fair and poetic, ever more fervently worshipped,
in proportion to our distance an the length of our absence from her.”
Jose Rizal
 in this paragraph of Jose Rizal he sings the praises of love of country.
He calls on his countrymen to love their country, as men in ever age
have loved and fought and died for theirs. He concludes:
“Love her, yes! But not as men loved in other times, practicing
fierce virtues, virtues rejected and reprobated by true morality and by
mother nature! Not by glorying in fanaticism, in destruction, in cruelty,
no! A more smiling dawn now appears on the horizon, of soft and
peaceful rays, messenger of life and of peace; the true dawn of
Christianity, an omen of days of happiness and tranquillity. Our duty will
be to follow the arid, but peaceful and productive paths of knowledge,
which lead on to progress; and from there to the union desired and
prayed for by Jesus Christ in the night of His Passion.”
Jose Rizal
 the clear distinction of the Philippines from Spain, “foreign land”,
caused many Spaniard in Manila to frown, as his brother-in-law wrote
him some months later, warning him to “to be careful, because you
seem to be on their list”.
 few months later news paper ceased to publication for lack of funds,
struck by the twin disasters of devastating typhoon and the cholera
epidemic of 1882 .
Jose Rizal
 1880 – 1882
Pedro Paterno, Gregorio Sanciano, Jose Rizal – Each on his own way
had begun to articulate growing consciousness among Filipinos abroad
that they were not merely vassals of Apian, but people equal and distict,
with their own to seek and cherish.
THANK YOU !

More Related Content

What's hot

The indolence of the Filipinos
The indolence of the FilipinosThe indolence of the Filipinos
The indolence of the Filipinos
Zille Rodriguez
 
The retraction
The retractionThe retraction
The retraction
school
 
Spanish colonial government part iii
Spanish colonial government part iiiSpanish colonial government part iii
Spanish colonial government part iii
Marcy Canete-Trinidad
 
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENTPHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
Yanne Evangelista
 
Propaganda Movement
Propaganda MovementPropaganda Movement
Poems of Rizal
Poems of RizalPoems of Rizal
Poems of Rizal
Mary-Ann Molar
 
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptxFIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
Pjung1
 
Cultural changes ang identity
Cultural changes ang identityCultural changes ang identity
Cultural changes ang identity
Kristine Camille Bigaw
 
La liga filipina
La liga filipinaLa liga filipina
La liga filipina
Jillian May Peralta
 
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENTPROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
Jesrael Medrano
 
The world during rizal's time
The world during rizal's timeThe world during rizal's time
The world during rizal's time
Pam Bangot
 
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptxRETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
MarlonBianzon
 
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptxGROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
ReynaLynPallarPadill
 
Rizal exam
Rizal examRizal exam
Rizal exam
Henrietta Sanchez
 
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdfMga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
Aira Rara
 
Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
Rizal in the 19th Century PhilippinesRizal in the 19th Century Philippines
Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
Genesis Felipe
 
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino peopleThe Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
niesha12
 
Katipunan
KatipunanKatipunan
Katipunan
Junhel Dalanon
 
The Rise of Filipino Nationalism
The Rise of Filipino NationalismThe Rise of Filipino Nationalism
The Rise of Filipino Nationalism
Bianca Villanueva
 
Rizal’s First Travel Abroad
Rizal’s First Travel AbroadRizal’s First Travel Abroad
Rizal’s First Travel Abroad
Yosef Eric C. Hipolito, BA, LPT
 

What's hot (20)

The indolence of the Filipinos
The indolence of the FilipinosThe indolence of the Filipinos
The indolence of the Filipinos
 
The retraction
The retractionThe retraction
The retraction
 
Spanish colonial government part iii
Spanish colonial government part iiiSpanish colonial government part iii
Spanish colonial government part iii
 
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENTPHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
 
Propaganda Movement
Propaganda MovementPropaganda Movement
Propaganda Movement
 
Poems of Rizal
Poems of RizalPoems of Rizal
Poems of Rizal
 
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptxFIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
FIRST-CRY-OF-BALINTAWAK-OR-PUGADLAWIN.pptx
 
Cultural changes ang identity
Cultural changes ang identityCultural changes ang identity
Cultural changes ang identity
 
La liga filipina
La liga filipinaLa liga filipina
La liga filipina
 
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENTPROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
 
The world during rizal's time
The world during rizal's timeThe world during rizal's time
The world during rizal's time
 
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptxRETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
RETRACTION OF RIZAL.pptx
 
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptxGROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
GROUP-1-site-of-the-first-mass.pptx
 
Rizal exam
Rizal examRizal exam
Rizal exam
 
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdfMga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
Mga Gunita ng HimagsikanTrue Version of the Philippine Revolution (1).pdf
 
Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
Rizal in the 19th Century PhilippinesRizal in the 19th Century Philippines
Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
 
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino peopleThe Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
The Act of Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino people
 
Katipunan
KatipunanKatipunan
Katipunan
 
The Rise of Filipino Nationalism
The Rise of Filipino NationalismThe Rise of Filipino Nationalism
The Rise of Filipino Nationalism
 
Rizal’s First Travel Abroad
Rizal’s First Travel AbroadRizal’s First Travel Abroad
Rizal’s First Travel Abroad
 

Similar to Chapte 2(early filipino students activites in spain)

report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family treereport-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
JohnCarloEdejer
 
The 19th Century Philippines - Presentor.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines  - Presentor.pptxThe 19th Century Philippines  - Presentor.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines - Presentor.pptx
joshualallenvargas
 
LA LIGA Powerpoint presentation PPT.pptx
LA LIGA Powerpoint  presentation PPT.pptxLA LIGA Powerpoint  presentation PPT.pptx
LA LIGA Powerpoint presentation PPT.pptx
LyrehcAblasi
 
The Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
The Birth of a Filipino National ConsciousnessThe Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
The Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
Cirilo Gazzingan III
 
Rizalwc3
Rizalwc3Rizalwc3
Rizalwc3
DMMMSU-MLUC
 
Philippine History
Philippine HistoryPhilippine History
Philippine History
Edmundo Dantes
 
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
mirylyngomezalcones
 
The Reform and its movement
The Reform and its movementThe Reform and its movement
The Reform and its movement
Vjisyl Venize Guadalquiver
 
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarter
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarterSs group-reporting-4th-quarter
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarter
zensky13
 
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdfBeige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
stephenreyes102
 
Propaganda
PropagandaPropaganda
Propaganda
May Ann Pepito
 
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptxThe 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
PrancilisoGennRod
 
Nationalism
NationalismNationalism
Nationalism
Herbert Corpuz
 
Chapter 7 - Who is Filipino
Chapter 7 - Who is FilipinoChapter 7 - Who is Filipino
Chapter 7 - Who is Filipino
Cedrick Abadines
 
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
AiraRDelaRosa
 
GEC105 Report.pdf
GEC105 Report.pdfGEC105 Report.pdf
GEC105 Report.pdf
ChristianNoelEslit1
 
19th Century Context Philippines of Rizal
19th Century Context  Philippines of Rizal19th Century Context  Philippines of Rizal
19th Century Context Philippines of Rizal
JhonageneBate
 
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
juliedatuin
 
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERAPHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
Chelsea Basaca
 
The propaganda movement by prof. silva
The propaganda movement by prof. silvaThe propaganda movement by prof. silva
The propaganda movement by prof. silva
Neilson Silva
 

Similar to Chapte 2(early filipino students activites in spain) (20)

report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family treereport-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
report-in-life and works of Jose Rizal. Specifically his family tree
 
The 19th Century Philippines - Presentor.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines  - Presentor.pptxThe 19th Century Philippines  - Presentor.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines - Presentor.pptx
 
LA LIGA Powerpoint presentation PPT.pptx
LA LIGA Powerpoint  presentation PPT.pptxLA LIGA Powerpoint  presentation PPT.pptx
LA LIGA Powerpoint presentation PPT.pptx
 
The Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
The Birth of a Filipino National ConsciousnessThe Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
The Birth of a Filipino National Consciousness
 
Rizalwc3
Rizalwc3Rizalwc3
Rizalwc3
 
Philippine History
Philippine HistoryPhilippine History
Philippine History
 
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
The Beginning of Filipino Nationalism (MID 1700`S -1900`S)
 
The Reform and its movement
The Reform and its movementThe Reform and its movement
The Reform and its movement
 
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarter
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarterSs group-reporting-4th-quarter
Ss group-reporting-4th-quarter
 
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdfBeige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
Beige Scrapbook Art and History Presentation.pdf
 
Propaganda
PropagandaPropaganda
Propaganda
 
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptxThe 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
The 19th Century Philippines as RizaL's Context.pptx
 
Nationalism
NationalismNationalism
Nationalism
 
Chapter 7 - Who is Filipino
Chapter 7 - Who is FilipinoChapter 7 - Who is Filipino
Chapter 7 - Who is Filipino
 
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
Background-On-The-Socio-Political-Situation-Of-The-Philippines-During-Rizals-...
 
GEC105 Report.pdf
GEC105 Report.pdfGEC105 Report.pdf
GEC105 Report.pdf
 
19th Century Context Philippines of Rizal
19th Century Context  Philippines of Rizal19th Century Context  Philippines of Rizal
19th Century Context Philippines of Rizal
 
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
Propaganda Movement (Pedro Paterno)
 
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERAPHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA
 
The propaganda movement by prof. silva
The propaganda movement by prof. silvaThe propaganda movement by prof. silva
The propaganda movement by prof. silva
 

Recently uploaded

Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
Kalna College
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Prof. Dr. K. Adisesha
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end examBPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
sonukumargpnirsadhan
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record ProperlyAccounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
TechSoup
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
khuleseema60
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Kalna College
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
Kalna College
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
deepaannamalai16
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
Payaamvohra1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end examBPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record ProperlyAccounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
 

Chapte 2(early filipino students activites in spain)

  • 1. CHAPTER II EARLY FILIPINO STUDENTS ACTIVITIES IN SPAIN (1880-1882)
  • 2. Filipino Students to Spain o After the events of 1872, a sort of lull settled on Filipino nationalist activities in the Philippines and in Spain. o Burgos had been executed o Other Filipino priests who had been prominent in the controversy over the parishes returned from their exile o Archbishop Martinez resigned in 1874 and replaced by a Dominican, Archbishop Pedro Payo on the following year. o Towards 1880 the tiny trickle of students from Philippines to the universities of the Peninsula gradually turned into a steady flow.
  • 3. Filipino Students to Spain o Most of the early students came from well-to-do families (*mostly creoles and mestizos) o They were soon followed by young men of Chinese Mestizo or Spanish Mestizo and those who came from wealthy native families. Creoles- tended to identify themselves with the peninsular Spaniards Chinese Mestizo- identified himself with the native Filipino or Indio * Under this time all those born in the Philippines shared a certain feeling, not yet clearly defined, of being Filipinos, especially on early periods because of radical divisions had come to the force.
  • 4. Filipino Students to Spain o What kind of SPAIN did these Filipino students of the 1880s come into? IT’S POLITICAL IT’S RELIGIOUS IT’S EDUCATIONAL *it influenced them and gave direction to their nationalistic aspirations
  • 5. Filipino Students to Spain oAntonio Canovas Del Castillo  THE ARCHITECT OF RESTORATION Great admirer of British Parliamentary system The last quarter of the 19th Century witnessed his efforts to form a Spanish Parliamentary System in that image. On the accession of Alfonso XII to the throne in 1875 – largely the work of Canovas – Del Castillo created around himself the Partido Liberal- Conservador / aka CONSERVATIVES
  • 6. Filipino Students to Spain o Though a conservative group as a whole it was NOT OF THE EXTREME RIGHT and though it generally supported the church, it was NOT EXPLICITLY SO COMMITED. o The New Constitution of 1876, which embodied the program of Canovas aroused bitter protests from the VATICAN and SPANISH BISHOPS. *WHY??? Because though it proclaimed CATHOLICISM as the religion of the Spanish nation, unlike the 1869 CONSTITUTION, it nevertheless tolerated the private practice of OTHER RELIGIONS.
  • 7. Filipino Students to Spain o On the left of Canovas’ party and with his encouragement arose the party headed by Praxides Mateo Sagasta, known as the Constitutionalist or LIBERAL PARTY. • They rally to those monarchist who still held to the constitution of 1869, but supported ALFONSO XII. o FUSIONIST PARTY - formed afther the addition by 1878 of splinter groups from both left and right.
  • 8. Filipino Students to Spain o The two dynastic parties though not without a doctrinal basis, were largely united on rather opportunistic grounds and were subject to frequent schisms and realignment. * Most Doctrinaire is from left and right that refuses to recognize Alfonist monarchy.  Extreme Right – CARLISTS ( supporting Don Carlos VII’s claim to the throne, intransigently Catholic, traditionalist, and absolutist.  Left – were various factions of repablicans, hopelessly divided among themselves and united only in opposition of monarchy.
  • 9. Filipino Students to Spain oEMILIO CASTELAR - LAST PRESIDENT of the REPUBLIC, led the REPUBLICANOS HISTORICOS or POSIBILISTAS o FEDERALISTAS - under Francisco Pi y Margall, another former president, held aloof, as did the advocates of a unitary republic under the 3rd former president Nicolas Salmeron.
  • 10. Filipino Students to Spain • Manuel Ruiz Zorilla – declared for the restoration of the republic means of revolution, and from his exile in France directed endless conspiracies to this end. • Zorillistas or Republicanos Progreistas from time to time joined in coalitions with other republican factions, now participating in, now abstaining from elections. • All these coalitions were short-lived, however, and soon terminated in new internecine struggles.
  • 11. Filipino Students to Spain • In the next 22 years till the assassination of Canovas by an anarchist in 1897, the 2 parties alternated in power eleven times. • The atmosphere of corruption that has characterized so much of nineteenth-century political life was PERPETUATED. • Not only were there eleven changes of party during this period, but both Canovas and Sagasta within a single term of office often reorganized their cabinet two or three times.
  • 13. Filipino Students to Spain • PEDRO PATERNO  one of the two(2) Filipino nationalists known with certainty to have been in Spain before 1880 (*the other was Gregorio Sanciano)  he has come to Spain in 1871 ( studied Philosophy & Theology in Salamanca) Later had gone to Mandrid where he obtained doctorate in law in 1880 Son of Maximo Paterno, a wealthy, Manila businessman who was among deported to Marianas in 1872  Because of his father he has contact with men as Manuel Regidor and Manueal Azcarraga (Philippine borns who has left Philippines and then got involved in political issues.)
  • 14. PEDRO PATERNO  Paterno has made numerous highly-placed friends in 1880s and his home was often placed for reunions artisticas, at which gathered many of the most prominent literary and political figures of Spain.  In 1880 he brought out a small volume of verse entitled Sampaguitas . This was presented as the first volume of a project collection entitled “Biblioteca Filipina”, designed to make known to the public “The mature fruits produced by the Filipino youth”. * The verses make only occasional mention of the Philippines, and are mostly romantic lyrics.
  • 15. Filipino Students to Spain o Gregorio Sanciano  of greater significance and certainly of greater merit was the work of Gregorio Sanciano.  of Chinese mestizo origin, like the Paternos, Sanciano had already earned his doctorate in law by 1880. (* he began to contribute articles to news paper EL DEMOCRATA on reforms needed in Philippines especially economic matters)  in 1881 he published a book called El progreso de Filipinas.  He pointed to the URGENT necessity of roads, bridges, railroads, and public works in general to promote agriculture  The educational system was inadequate  A radical change in the system of raising revenue was needed, the taxation and collection of tribute was unjust  All of these form radical discrimination
  • 16. Gregorio Sanciano  He proposed the abolition of various indirect taxes and customs duties, showing how they impeded the progress of the economy.  He proposed property tax, an industrial and commercial tax, and others based on ability to pay.  To achieve it, he pointed out the means that must be taken to establish clear titles to landed property and to provide the acquisition of unoccupied or state-owned lands.
  • 17. Gregorio Sanciano  his entire book is eminently practical, treating in dispassionate fashion the economic problems of the country and their solution.  His book was more on an economic study  Some sections of his book are charged with deep nationalist feeling  He somehow expresses a calm serene tone of his exposition and replaced it by muted sense of outrage at the injustice and inexpediency of law that only foments divisions between classes and races.
  • 18. Gregorio Sanciano  he says that by setting one class against another such system has been at the root of the revolts that have occurred in 19th century.  according to him this tribute is a symbol of rule imposed by force, as in the ages of barbarism and has no place in the modern regime of liberty.  the Filipinos must have to enjoy tax proportioned to their resources, larger or smaller in amount
  • 19. Gregorio Sanciano • His principle of assimilation that all Filipinos were Spanish citizens must have the same rights and duties as peninsular Spaniards has become the ostensible basis of nationalist campaign for fifteen (15) years. • The Philippines should be granted representation in Cortes • Another point of significance in the his work is the clear line which connected him with the Philippine reform movement of 1869-72.
  • 20. Gregorio Sanciano • The point of departure of his treatise was recommendations of the Junta de reformas economicas (*one of several reform commissions set up by Governor de la Torre in 1869-70) • But suppressed on the accession of Izquerdo. • He speaks with nostalgia of “that period of liberty and reforms” and presents a fervent, if somewhat guarded, defence of most of those executed or exiled in aftermath of the Cavite Mutiny.
  • 21. Gregorio Sanciano • 1870 campaign of anonymous letters against the type of instruction given in the university by the Dominicans. (*opposition to the exclusive control of church over education, triggered nationalists) • One of the most significant feeling in his book is his impassioned yet carefully reasoned and documented refutation of he Spanish commonplace of the indololencia del indigena. • Turning to the reports of the provincial governors regarding land matters, he shows contradiction between those who say that valuable land remains unoccupied because of the indolence of Filipinos and Those who report on the high rate of immigration and on the scarcity of land in their provinces.
  • 22. Gregorio Sanciano • Sanciano’s book anticipates most of the principal themes of the later Filipino nationalist campaign; Administrative reform Eradication of corruption in the government Recognition of Filipino rights as loyal Spaniards Extension of Spanish law to the Philippines Curtailment of the excessive power of the friars in the life of the country Assertion of the dignity of the Filipino.
  • 23. Gregorio Sanciano • The book was not the type to have a mass appeal, and information is lacking on its circulation in the Philippines. • Jose Rizal was impressed by the book. (*1882 letter to his brother, he mentioned the proximate return to the Philippines of Sanciano “the author of EL Progreso deFilipinas”) (*Rizal’s nationalist essay “Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinos” in La Solidaridad in 1890 was based on Sanciano’s treatment of the subject)
  • 24. Gregorio Sanciano In 1884 there was disturbance in Pangasinan, apparently over local grievances, but in the aftermath a number of prominent Filipinos were imprisoned, among them is Sanciano. Eventually they were released, but there is no trace of any further activity on Sanciano’s part before his death a few years later.
  • 25. The First Filipino Colony  Growing Filipino colony appeared during the publication of Sanciano’s book. (*it was a baquet given in honor of Fernando de Leon y Castillo, overseas minister in the liberal government of Sagasta, by the Filipino colony in Madrid)  June 25 1881 he had published a long discussed degree abolishing the government tobacco monopoly in the Philippines.
  • 26. The First Filipino Colony At the banquet Visayan medical student Graciano Lopez Jaena, delivered a speech, he eulogized the glorious mission of Spain personified by Magellan, Legazpi and others who brought civilization and progress to the Philippines.  Philippines (* “Proud to call herself daughter of the fatherland of Calderon and Cervantes”)  When liberty and the encouragement of the arts shall reign in her, this Pearl of the Orient will be a source of inexhaustible wealth for Spain.
  • 27. The First Filipino Colony Graciano Lopez Jaena plays an important role in the Filipino movement.  born in Jaro, Ilo-ilo in 1856 First studied in the Jaro seminary and later gone to Manila to study medicine Works as apprentice at a hospital due to lack of secondary diploma , then returned to his native province. Had trouble with authorities then later gone to Spain in 1880 to study medicine at the University of Valencia 1881 gave up his study and left for Madrid then began to be active in political and journalistic circles Natural orator and became frequent speaker in meetings of radical groups. He would be radicalizing force among Filipinos
  • 28. The First Filipino Colony  the banquet led to first organizations of Filipinos in Madrid Early 1882 they founded the Circulo-Hispano Filipino under the leadership of Juan Atayde, a retired Spanish army officer of the Philippines by birth. In its manifesto of 20 April 1882, signed by the acting president, Rear Admiral Claudio Montero y Gay, its secretary, Juan Atayde, the Circulo expressed its thanks to Minister Leon y Castillo, to whose “support and personal mediation it owes its existence”
  • 29. The First Filipino Colony  In September 1882, Jose Rizal arrived in Madrid to study medicine and he endeavoured to give substance to Circulo in faith that it will unite the Philippines.  the Circulo founded a bi-weekly news paper called Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino, whose first number appeared on 29 octobr 1882. (*it doesn’t last long)  Pardo de tavera merely says that “Some Spaniards from the Philippines who wrote in it, quickly stopped doing so when they saw the anti-Spanish character which it was beginning to take.”
  • 30. The First Filipino Colony  In 1883 both Circulo and its paper is dead because of the withdrawal of the older member’s support and the cessation of the subsidy which had come from the overseas ministry with the fall of the government. In 1884, Rizal made new attempts to revive the Cirulo, but did not succeeded.
  • 31. Jose Rizal  Jose Rizal did not only serve as the link with the first nationalist movement which ended tragically; he was to play a decisive role in shaping the course of the later movement  Jose Rizal Mercado y Alonso was born in a prominent family in Calamaba, Laguna.  Jose Rizal’s father studied at Colegio de San Jose and his mother in Colegio de Santa Rosa in Manila, his parental grandfather has been a gobernadrocillo various times and from his mother’s side there were several relatives who had held minor posts, and a number of lawyers and priests.
  • 32. Jose Rizal  his older brother, Paciano had studied at Colegio de San Jose, and had been a pupil and a close friend of Father Jose Burgos, with him he was living up to hi execution in 1872. (*nephew of Father Burgos helped him to get a place in manila – Jesuit Ateneo Municipal) All these connections with Burgos greatly influenced Jose Rizal which is clear from his letter to the Filipino colony in Barcelona: “Had not been for 1872, Jose Rizal would now be Jesuit, and instead of writing the Noli Me tangere, would have written the opposite.”
  • 33. Jose Rizal  young Jose Rizal is a serious deeply religious boy as his adolescent memoirs and the accounts of his Jesuit professor reveal.  Jose Rizal is very fond of Jesuits during his student years, even after he forsook his catholic religion he never stopped to visit them, he only did when they themselves decided so. He only renewed his contact once more during his exile in Dapitan and in his last hours he was accompanied by Jesuits from the Ateneo Municipal.
  • 34. Jose Rizal In his writing when he was just 18 (1879), he says, “My second year as border [1876-77] was like the first, except that in the time there had been a great development of my patriotic sentiments, as well as of an acute sensitivity” In 1880 his composition “A la juventud Filipina” won the prize offered in Manila for the best poem by an indio mestizo. (* in it he calls on the Filipino youth, “Fair hope of my fatherland”.)
  • 35. Jose Rizal  In 1881 the Liceo Artistico-Literario of Manila, which has offered the prize previously mentioned, offered another in a single contest, open to Peninsulars and Filipinos, to honor Cervantes. Again, Jose Rizal still a medical student of nineteen, won the first prize this time over various peninsular journalists and friar professors of the university, with an allegory entitled “El Consejo de los Dioses”.  One night in 1880, he passed in the darkness a lieutenant of the civil guard without knowing who it was, without saying a word struck him with his sword, wounding him.
  • 36. Jose Rizal  Because of this incident he came to the palace of the governor-general, Fernando Primo de Rivera to demand justice, but not only he was served none, he didn’t even get to see the general. (*this incident made a deep impression on him) For him, the incident demand the equality of Filipino and Peninsular, it obsess Jose Rizal ‘s thoughts in the years to come, and its denial in theory and practice would goad him into a clash with the offenders, NO MATTER WHAT THE COST.
  • 37. Jose Rizal  the inequality leads Jose Rizal of breaking his studies at the University of Sto. Tomas and leaving Philippines for Europe. (*but this was not all the reason)  the correspondence with his brother Paciano and with other close friends, though couched in somewhat guarded terms, at least makes clear that Jose Rizal and Paciano regarded his studies in Europe as means of fulfilling patriotic mission, or of preparing himself to do something for his country.
  • 38. Jose Rizal  he had left without informing his parents, whose disapproval he apparently feared, secretly assisted by his brother and hi uncle, who has send him money for his support abroad.  A letter of Paciano was sent few weeks after his departure, speaks of distress of his parents and how did he carry to let it be secret even unto his own father . The letter also says that, in the town of Calamba, his departure was subject of attempts at conjecture for many days, “but none of them hit the mark”.
  • 39. Jose Rizal  Paciano hoped that Jose Rizal would not stay in Barcelona to complete his medical course, since “the principal object of your journey to Europe is not to perfect yourself in that career, but in other matters of greater utility, or, to say the same thing in other words, in that which you are more inclined.”  the following moth his cousin and close friend Vicente Gella wrote Jose Rizal that the sorely missed him while he was in “search of the good we all desire. . . May God Assist you in return for the good which you are doing on behalf of your countrymen”.
  • 40. Jose Rizal  another friend suggest that he study law as well for “it will be much use of the purpose you have in mind”.  a few days after arriving in Barcelona Jose Rizal wrote to his family about how Jesuits there that was introduced to him by his professor from Ateneo, had helped him lodging, and had lent him money until his funds from the Philippines arrive.  I have gone through their college, and am making studies on various matters in order to apply them there when I get back”.
  • 41. Jose Rizal  Jose Rizal wrote to Paciano later that year; “Tell your friends, those who have resources, that I invite their sons to come to these parts. I would wish that the coming generation, that which is to govern and direct Calamba by the principles of the twentieth century, may be a generation of brilliant light, intelligent and progressive”.
  • 42. Jose Rizal  engaging in politics in Spain did not seem to be part of his plans, for he wrote later one of sisters, apparently explaining why he would not make use of political influence to get himself a government post, “ I … have always considered myself here as foreigner, and … have not concealed my indifference to all who have proposed that I join political parties…” *for a time he considered professorship on his homeland but he will never be accepted by the Dominicans who now looked at him with suspicion.
  • 43. Jose Rizal  Diaryong Tagalog  short-lived bilingual nationalist news paper of Manila  chiefly the work of Filipinos, Basilio Teodoro Moran and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, but the titular ownership of the paper was vested in Francisco Calvo y Munoz, a peninsular functionary who allied himself at this time, and later in Spain, with Filipino nationalists. Jose Rizal was asked by Teodoro to contribute articles to the news paper, the first of these, “El amor Patrio”, appeared in the issue of 20 August 1882.
  • 44. Jose Rizal Jose Rizal said that it is fitting that we too should be grateful to our beloved country; “In the fashion then the ancient Hebrews, who offered in the temple the first fruits of their love, we, in the foreign land, will dedicate our first accebts to our country, still wrapped in the clouds and mists of the morning, but always fair and poetic, ever more fervently worshipped, in proportion to our distance an the length of our absence from her.”
  • 45. Jose Rizal  in this paragraph of Jose Rizal he sings the praises of love of country. He calls on his countrymen to love their country, as men in ever age have loved and fought and died for theirs. He concludes: “Love her, yes! But not as men loved in other times, practicing fierce virtues, virtues rejected and reprobated by true morality and by mother nature! Not by glorying in fanaticism, in destruction, in cruelty, no! A more smiling dawn now appears on the horizon, of soft and peaceful rays, messenger of life and of peace; the true dawn of Christianity, an omen of days of happiness and tranquillity. Our duty will be to follow the arid, but peaceful and productive paths of knowledge, which lead on to progress; and from there to the union desired and prayed for by Jesus Christ in the night of His Passion.”
  • 46. Jose Rizal  the clear distinction of the Philippines from Spain, “foreign land”, caused many Spaniard in Manila to frown, as his brother-in-law wrote him some months later, warning him to “to be careful, because you seem to be on their list”.  few months later news paper ceased to publication for lack of funds, struck by the twin disasters of devastating typhoon and the cholera epidemic of 1882 .
  • 47. Jose Rizal  1880 – 1882 Pedro Paterno, Gregorio Sanciano, Jose Rizal – Each on his own way had begun to articulate growing consciousness among Filipinos abroad that they were not merely vassals of Apian, but people equal and distict, with their own to seek and cherish.