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Spain and the Philippines in
the 19th Century
Political Instability in Spain
Canovite system/ rotativism
Abandonment of Mercantilism
laissez-faire policy
Encomienda System
Social Structure
Administrative Organization
Educational System
Administrative Organization
Spain established a centralized colonial government that was
composed of a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT and the LOCAL
GOVERNMENT that administered provinces,towns,cities and
municipalities
Spanish Crown(The Monarchy of Spain) through Ministry of
Colonies
King of Spain
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
(Governor-General)
Barrios
(Cabeza deBarangay)
CITYGOVERNMENT
AYUNTAMIENTO
(Cabildo)
Pueblos
(Gobernadorcillos)
PROVINCIALGOVERNMENT
ALCALDIA
(Alcalde Mayor)
THE COLONIALGOVERNMENT
THE JUDICIAL BRANCH
(Royal Audiencia, Residencia, Lower
Courts, Governor-General)
MUNICIPAL
GOVERNMENT
CORRIGIMIENTO
(Corregidor)
Barrios
(Cabeza deBarangay)
Cabildo
CityCouncil
Alcalde
Regidores
Aguacil Mayor
Escribando
Executive Branch
Governor-General(GobernadoryCapitán General)
Salary: 40,000 pesos
 head of the Spanish colonial government
 Appointed by the Spanish monarch
 Representedthe crownin all governmental matters
 Vice RoyalPatron overreligious affairs
 - He could nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes
 Commander-in-chief of the colonial army
 Supervised all government offices and collection of taxes
Governor-generalas the Chief Executive of the colonial government
 Had the powerto appoint and dismiss public officials, exceptthose personally chosen by
the King
 Ex-officio presidentof the Royal Audiencia (SupremeCourt)
 Has legislative powers,he can legislate laws for the colony
 ActosAcordados-laws enacted by the governor-general
Executive Branch
Qualification:
Must be apeninsulares or a Spaniardborn inSpain
Executive Branch
Alcaldias(Provinces)
Head: Alcalde Mayor/ provincial governor
Salary: 300 pesos-2000 pesos before1847
1500 pesos-1600 pesosafter 1847
• Exercises executive and judicial functions
• Most corrupt unit in local government due to indulto decommercio
• Manages the day-to-day operations of the provincial government
• Implements laws and supervised the collection of taxes
Provincial Government
Qualification:
Must be an Insulares or Spaniard bornin the Philippines
Provincial Government
Pueblos(Towns)
Head:Gobernadorcillo/town mayor
Salary: 24 pesos (exemptedfromtaxation)
Atfirst,he was electedby allmarriedmales.In the19th century, hewas votedby 13
electors.
Prepares thetributelist(padron), recruitmentand distributionofmenfordraft labor,
communalpublicwork and militaryconscription (quinto), postalclerk andjudgein
minor civilsuits
Intervenes in all administrativecases pertainingtohis town:lands, justice,financeand
themunicipalpolice
Provincial Government
Qualifications:
Any native/ Chinese mestizo
At least 25 years old
Literate in oral orwritten Spanish
A CabezadeBarangay of 4years
Provincial Government
The officialsof the pueblo weretaken from the Principalía,the noble
classof pre-colonialorigin.
Their namesare survived by prominent familiesin contemporary
Philippinesociety such as Duremdes, Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan,
Liwanag, Pangilinan,Panganiban, Balderas,and Agbayani, Apalisok,
Aguinaldo to name a few.
Provincial Government
Emilio Aguinaldo
a Chinese Mestizo andwho was
the Gobernadorcilloof Cavite El
Viejo (nowKawit).
Provincial Government
Barrios(Barangays)
Head: Cabeza deBarangay/ BarrioAdministrator
Maintain peace and order
Collect taxes and tributes in the barangay
Responsible for peace and order and recruitedmenfor
communal public works
Provincial Government
Qualifications:
Literate in Spanish
Has good moral character
Cabezas who servedfor 25 years were exemptedfrom forcedlabor.
Provincial Government
Corregimiento
Head: Corregidor
Governed the provinces that werenot yet entirely under
Spanish control
Municipal Government
Ayuntamiento/ City
Head: Cabildo/ City Council
City mayor/ Alcaldeenordinario
Councilors/Regidores
Chiefconstables/ Aguacilmayor
Secretary/ Escribano
City Government
King of Spain
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
(Governor-General)
Barrios
(Cabeza deBarangay)
CITYGOVERNMENT
AYUNTAMIENTO
(Cabildo)
Pueblos
(Gobernadorcillos)
PROVINCIALGOVERNMENT
ALCALDIA
(Alcalde Mayor)
THE COLONIALGOVERNMENT
THE JUDICIAL BRANCH
(Royal Audiencia, Residencia, Lower
Courts, Governor-General)
MUNICIPAL
GOVERNMENT
CORRIGIMIENTO
(Corregidor)
Barrios
(Cabeza deBarangay)
Cabildo
CityCouncil
Alcalde
Regidores
Aguacil Mayor
Escribando
Union of Church and State
 Spanish friar- supervising representative of the Spanish government for all local affairs
 He was practically the ruler of town as he was the local inspector, health inspector, prison
inspector, inspector of the accounts of the gobernadorcillos and cabeza de barangays.
 His approval was required in census lists, tax lists, list of army conscripts, and register of
births, deaths and marriages.
 Frailocracia- fear of thecivil authorities to the friars
GuardiaCivil- organizedin 1867, a corps ofnative policeunder the
leadershipof Spanish officersfor the purpose of dealingwith
outlaws and renegades
In 1880, it was the most fearedinstrument ofsummaryarrestsof
individuals identifiedby the friarsas filibusterosor enemies of the
government and erehesor enemies of the Catholic Church
Union of Church and State
Residencia
Investigates the performanceof aGovernor-General who
was about to bereplaced.
The incomingGovernor-Generalwas usually a member,
submits a report offindings to the King.
Visita
The Council of Indies in Spain sent a government
official called the VisitadorGeneral to observe
conditions in the colony.
Union of Church and State
Royal Audiencia
Highest court in the land
Served as an advisory bodyto the Governor-General, checksand
reports his abuses
Audits the expenditures ofthe colonialgovernment
Sends a yearly report to Spain
SUMMARY
Spanishadministrationwascorrupt andinefficient.
Owingto thedistanceof thePhilippines fromSpain, thegovernor-general
exercised absolutepowers.
 He could reward positionsin the bureaucracy tohisfavorites who were
unqualified and unfitfor government service.
Widespread selling oflower positionsto highestbidders
Social Structure
Philippine society wasfeudalistic as aconsequence of theencomienda system
imposed bythe colonizers.
They collected all formsof taxesand tributesfrom theFilipinos andeven required
thenatives torender poloyservicioor forced labor to the governmentand the
Catholicchurch.
LimpiezadeSangreor purity of blood- Spanishdoctrine
Peninsulares(Spaniards born in Spain)
Insulares(Spaniards bornin the Philippines)
Spanish mestizos
Chinesemestizos
Principalia (ruling classofnative elites:
gobernadorcillo, cabeza de barangay, landowners,
merchants,wealthy native families)
Indios or native (masses)
Social Structure
Social Structure
 Social rankingwascreatedinour society.
 Social tensionswerecreatedbetweenandamongclasses.
 A systemofracial discriminationcameto beinstitutionalized.
 Highpositionsingovernmentwereopenedonlyto thepure bloodedSpaniards.
 MembersofthemiddleclassandtheIndioswereconsideredinferiorbytheupperclassesand
unworthyofeducation.
Social Structure
SPANISH ERA
Education System/
CurriculumFormal and Organized
Religion-oriented education
Spanish missionaries as tutors
Christian doctrine, prayers, and sacred songs
3R’s were only given to brighter pupils
Teach catechism to the natives
Spanish language –compulsory
Inadequate education (suppressed/limited/controlled)
Education is a privilege not a right
Education for the elite
Controlled by friars
SPANISH ERA
Educational Decree of
1863• Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the
enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863
• Provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for
boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal
government;
• Establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the
supervision of the Jesuits.
• The Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students.
• It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged.
Religion + Education
SPANISH ERA
Education System/
Curriculum
Reading + Writing + Catechism
Spanish language is compulsory
Spanish-Devised Curriculum
• The Spanish curriculum consisted of 3R’s – reading, writing and
religion.
• The schools were parochial or convent schools.
• The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the
catecismo.
• The schools were ungraded and the curriculum organization was
separately subject organization
• The method of organization was predominantly individual
memorization
• Entrada, Acenso, Termino – 3 grade levels
SPANISH ERA
Educational Decree of
1863
Spanish-Devised Curriculum
The curriculum required the study of:
• Christian doctrine
• Values
• History
• Reading and writing in Spanish (steno)
• Mathematics
• Agriculture
• Etiquette
• Singing
• World geography
• Spanish history
SPANISH ERA
Educational Decree of
1863
• Remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period.
• There were not enough schools built.
• Teachers tend to use corporal punishment.
• The friars exercised control over the schools and their teachers and
obstructed attempts to properly educate the masses, as they considered
widespread secular education to be a threat to their hold over the
population.
• Schools were often poorly equipped, lacking desks, chairs, and writing
materials.
SPANISH ERA
Educational Decree of
1863 (Issues)
• Though classes were supposed to be held from 7-10 am and 2:30-5 pm
throughout the year, schools were often empty.
• Children skipped school to help with planting and harvesting or even
because their clothes were ragged.
SPANISH ERA
Educational Decree of
1863 (Issues)
• The schools for boys and girls were separated.
• The first established schools were for the boys.
• The Augustinians built the first school in the Philippines situated in
Cebu in 1565.
• College was equivalent to a university during the Spanish regime.
• The student graduated with the degree in Bachelor of Arts (Bachiller
en Artes).
SPANISH ERA
Schools Built
• The first college school for the boys was the “Colegio de San Ignacio”
which was established by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589.
SPANISH ERA
Schools Built
Original name:
Real y Pontificia
Universidad de San Ignacio
de Manila
Years Active: 1590- 1768
Location: Manila
SPANISH ERA
Schools Built
Original name:
Colegio de San Ildefonso
Years Active: 1595-1769
Location: Cebu City, Cebu
Colegio de San Ildefonso
• The Cebu City colegio was established by Fr. Antonio
Sedeno, Fr. Pedro Chirino, and Antonio Pereira of the
Society of Jesus
• After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish
territories in 1767, the buildings and facilities were
taken over first by the Diocese of Cebu, then the
Congregation of the Mission, then later by the Society
of the Divine Word.
• There are several claims that it is now the University
of San Carlos
Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
SPANISH ERA
Schools Built
Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls
in Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but
damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished
in 1866.
SPANISH ERA
Schools Built
Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls in
Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but
damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished in
1866.
Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario
(1611)
is a private, Roman Catholic, teaching and research university run
by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on 28 April 1611 by
Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant
university charter in the Philippines and in Asia and is one of the
world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on
one campus. UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila The Pontifical and Royal
University of Santo Tomas, The
Catholic University of the
Philippines
Escuela Pia de Manila
Established in late 1859 by the Society of
Jesus, it is the oldest Jesuit educational
institution and third-oldest university in the
Philippines.
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The college was founded in 1620.
Colegio de San Juan de Letran has
the distinction of being the oldest
college in the Philippines and the
oldest secondary institution in Asia.
Educational Aims
•To promote Christianity
•Promotion of Spanish language
• Imposition of Spanish culture
SPANISH ERA
Summary Educational Types
•Formal education
•Religious education
•Catechism
•Doctrine
•Vocational course
Education Methods
•Dictation
•Memorization
•Moro-Moro/cenaculo
•Theater presentation
References
Agoncillo, T. A. (1990). HistoryoftheFilipino People.8th Ed. Quezon City: Garotech
Publishing
Maguigad, R. B,et al. (2000). Rizal: TheFirstFilipino. Manila: Libro Filipino
Enterprises
Zaide, S. M. (1994). ThePhilippines: AUniqueNation. QuezonCity: All Nations
Publishing Co., Inc.

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Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines

  • 1. Spain and the Philippines in the 19th Century
  • 2. Political Instability in Spain Canovite system/ rotativism
  • 3. Abandonment of Mercantilism laissez-faire policy Encomienda System
  • 5. Administrative Organization Spain established a centralized colonial government that was composed of a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT and the LOCAL GOVERNMENT that administered provinces,towns,cities and municipalities Spanish Crown(The Monarchy of Spain) through Ministry of Colonies
  • 6. King of Spain THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH (Governor-General) Barrios (Cabeza deBarangay) CITYGOVERNMENT AYUNTAMIENTO (Cabildo) Pueblos (Gobernadorcillos) PROVINCIALGOVERNMENT ALCALDIA (Alcalde Mayor) THE COLONIALGOVERNMENT THE JUDICIAL BRANCH (Royal Audiencia, Residencia, Lower Courts, Governor-General) MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT CORRIGIMIENTO (Corregidor) Barrios (Cabeza deBarangay) Cabildo CityCouncil Alcalde Regidores Aguacil Mayor Escribando
  • 7. Executive Branch Governor-General(GobernadoryCapitán General) Salary: 40,000 pesos  head of the Spanish colonial government  Appointed by the Spanish monarch  Representedthe crownin all governmental matters  Vice RoyalPatron overreligious affairs  - He could nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes  Commander-in-chief of the colonial army  Supervised all government offices and collection of taxes
  • 8. Governor-generalas the Chief Executive of the colonial government  Had the powerto appoint and dismiss public officials, exceptthose personally chosen by the King  Ex-officio presidentof the Royal Audiencia (SupremeCourt)  Has legislative powers,he can legislate laws for the colony  ActosAcordados-laws enacted by the governor-general Executive Branch
  • 9. Qualification: Must be apeninsulares or a Spaniardborn inSpain Executive Branch
  • 10. Alcaldias(Provinces) Head: Alcalde Mayor/ provincial governor Salary: 300 pesos-2000 pesos before1847 1500 pesos-1600 pesosafter 1847 • Exercises executive and judicial functions • Most corrupt unit in local government due to indulto decommercio • Manages the day-to-day operations of the provincial government • Implements laws and supervised the collection of taxes Provincial Government
  • 11. Qualification: Must be an Insulares or Spaniard bornin the Philippines Provincial Government
  • 12. Pueblos(Towns) Head:Gobernadorcillo/town mayor Salary: 24 pesos (exemptedfromtaxation) Atfirst,he was electedby allmarriedmales.In the19th century, hewas votedby 13 electors. Prepares thetributelist(padron), recruitmentand distributionofmenfordraft labor, communalpublicwork and militaryconscription (quinto), postalclerk andjudgein minor civilsuits Intervenes in all administrativecases pertainingtohis town:lands, justice,financeand themunicipalpolice Provincial Government
  • 13. Qualifications: Any native/ Chinese mestizo At least 25 years old Literate in oral orwritten Spanish A CabezadeBarangay of 4years Provincial Government
  • 14. The officialsof the pueblo weretaken from the Principalía,the noble classof pre-colonialorigin. Their namesare survived by prominent familiesin contemporary Philippinesociety such as Duremdes, Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan, Liwanag, Pangilinan,Panganiban, Balderas,and Agbayani, Apalisok, Aguinaldo to name a few. Provincial Government
  • 15. Emilio Aguinaldo a Chinese Mestizo andwho was the Gobernadorcilloof Cavite El Viejo (nowKawit). Provincial Government
  • 16. Barrios(Barangays) Head: Cabeza deBarangay/ BarrioAdministrator Maintain peace and order Collect taxes and tributes in the barangay Responsible for peace and order and recruitedmenfor communal public works Provincial Government
  • 17. Qualifications: Literate in Spanish Has good moral character Cabezas who servedfor 25 years were exemptedfrom forcedlabor. Provincial Government
  • 18. Corregimiento Head: Corregidor Governed the provinces that werenot yet entirely under Spanish control Municipal Government
  • 19. Ayuntamiento/ City Head: Cabildo/ City Council City mayor/ Alcaldeenordinario Councilors/Regidores Chiefconstables/ Aguacilmayor Secretary/ Escribano City Government
  • 20. King of Spain THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH (Governor-General) Barrios (Cabeza deBarangay) CITYGOVERNMENT AYUNTAMIENTO (Cabildo) Pueblos (Gobernadorcillos) PROVINCIALGOVERNMENT ALCALDIA (Alcalde Mayor) THE COLONIALGOVERNMENT THE JUDICIAL BRANCH (Royal Audiencia, Residencia, Lower Courts, Governor-General) MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT CORRIGIMIENTO (Corregidor) Barrios (Cabeza deBarangay) Cabildo CityCouncil Alcalde Regidores Aguacil Mayor Escribando
  • 21. Union of Church and State  Spanish friar- supervising representative of the Spanish government for all local affairs  He was practically the ruler of town as he was the local inspector, health inspector, prison inspector, inspector of the accounts of the gobernadorcillos and cabeza de barangays.  His approval was required in census lists, tax lists, list of army conscripts, and register of births, deaths and marriages.  Frailocracia- fear of thecivil authorities to the friars
  • 22. GuardiaCivil- organizedin 1867, a corps ofnative policeunder the leadershipof Spanish officersfor the purpose of dealingwith outlaws and renegades In 1880, it was the most fearedinstrument ofsummaryarrestsof individuals identifiedby the friarsas filibusterosor enemies of the government and erehesor enemies of the Catholic Church Union of Church and State
  • 23. Residencia Investigates the performanceof aGovernor-General who was about to bereplaced. The incomingGovernor-Generalwas usually a member, submits a report offindings to the King.
  • 24. Visita The Council of Indies in Spain sent a government official called the VisitadorGeneral to observe conditions in the colony. Union of Church and State
  • 25. Royal Audiencia Highest court in the land Served as an advisory bodyto the Governor-General, checksand reports his abuses Audits the expenditures ofthe colonialgovernment Sends a yearly report to Spain
  • 26. SUMMARY Spanishadministrationwascorrupt andinefficient. Owingto thedistanceof thePhilippines fromSpain, thegovernor-general exercised absolutepowers.  He could reward positionsin the bureaucracy tohisfavorites who were unqualified and unfitfor government service. Widespread selling oflower positionsto highestbidders
  • 27. Social Structure Philippine society wasfeudalistic as aconsequence of theencomienda system imposed bythe colonizers. They collected all formsof taxesand tributesfrom theFilipinos andeven required thenatives torender poloyservicioor forced labor to the governmentand the Catholicchurch. LimpiezadeSangreor purity of blood- Spanishdoctrine
  • 28. Peninsulares(Spaniards born in Spain) Insulares(Spaniards bornin the Philippines) Spanish mestizos Chinesemestizos Principalia (ruling classofnative elites: gobernadorcillo, cabeza de barangay, landowners, merchants,wealthy native families) Indios or native (masses) Social Structure
  • 30.  Social rankingwascreatedinour society.  Social tensionswerecreatedbetweenandamongclasses.  A systemofracial discriminationcameto beinstitutionalized.  Highpositionsingovernmentwereopenedonlyto thepure bloodedSpaniards.  MembersofthemiddleclassandtheIndioswereconsideredinferiorbytheupperclassesand unworthyofeducation. Social Structure
  • 31. SPANISH ERA Education System/ CurriculumFormal and Organized Religion-oriented education Spanish missionaries as tutors Christian doctrine, prayers, and sacred songs 3R’s were only given to brighter pupils Teach catechism to the natives Spanish language –compulsory Inadequate education (suppressed/limited/controlled) Education is a privilege not a right Education for the elite Controlled by friars
  • 32. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863• Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 • Provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; • Establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. • The Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students. • It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged.
  • 33. Religion + Education SPANISH ERA Education System/ Curriculum Reading + Writing + Catechism Spanish language is compulsory
  • 34. Spanish-Devised Curriculum • The Spanish curriculum consisted of 3R’s – reading, writing and religion. • The schools were parochial or convent schools. • The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo. • The schools were ungraded and the curriculum organization was separately subject organization • The method of organization was predominantly individual memorization • Entrada, Acenso, Termino – 3 grade levels SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863
  • 35. Spanish-Devised Curriculum The curriculum required the study of: • Christian doctrine • Values • History • Reading and writing in Spanish (steno) • Mathematics • Agriculture • Etiquette • Singing • World geography • Spanish history SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863
  • 36. • Remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. • There were not enough schools built. • Teachers tend to use corporal punishment. • The friars exercised control over the schools and their teachers and obstructed attempts to properly educate the masses, as they considered widespread secular education to be a threat to their hold over the population. • Schools were often poorly equipped, lacking desks, chairs, and writing materials. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863 (Issues)
  • 37. • Though classes were supposed to be held from 7-10 am and 2:30-5 pm throughout the year, schools were often empty. • Children skipped school to help with planting and harvesting or even because their clothes were ragged. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863 (Issues)
  • 38. • The schools for boys and girls were separated. • The first established schools were for the boys. • The Augustinians built the first school in the Philippines situated in Cebu in 1565. • College was equivalent to a university during the Spanish regime. • The student graduated with the degree in Bachelor of Arts (Bachiller en Artes). SPANISH ERA Schools Built
  • 39. • The first college school for the boys was the “Colegio de San Ignacio” which was established by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Original name: Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Ignacio de Manila Years Active: 1590- 1768 Location: Manila
  • 40. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Original name: Colegio de San Ildefonso Years Active: 1595-1769 Location: Cebu City, Cebu Colegio de San Ildefonso • The Cebu City colegio was established by Fr. Antonio Sedeno, Fr. Pedro Chirino, and Antonio Pereira of the Society of Jesus • After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, the buildings and facilities were taken over first by the Diocese of Cebu, then the Congregation of the Mission, then later by the Society of the Divine Word. • There are several claims that it is now the University of San Carlos
  • 42. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls in Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished in 1866.
  • 43. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls in Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished in 1866. Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (1611) is a private, Roman Catholic, teaching and research university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on 28 April 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia and is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus. UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines
  • 44. Escuela Pia de Manila Established in late 1859 by the Society of Jesus, it is the oldest Jesuit educational institution and third-oldest university in the Philippines. Colegio de San Juan de Letran The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the Philippines and the oldest secondary institution in Asia.
  • 45. Educational Aims •To promote Christianity •Promotion of Spanish language • Imposition of Spanish culture SPANISH ERA Summary Educational Types •Formal education •Religious education •Catechism •Doctrine •Vocational course Education Methods •Dictation •Memorization •Moro-Moro/cenaculo •Theater presentation
  • 46. References Agoncillo, T. A. (1990). HistoryoftheFilipino People.8th Ed. Quezon City: Garotech Publishing Maguigad, R. B,et al. (2000). Rizal: TheFirstFilipino. Manila: Libro Filipino Enterprises Zaide, S. M. (1994). ThePhilippines: AUniqueNation. QuezonCity: All Nations Publishing Co., Inc.