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TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH IPADS FOR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
The University of Texas at Austin
Minwook Ok & Joan E. Hughes
Council of Exceptional Children (CEC) 2013
Background & Rationale
• Technology-based instruction can support students with
disabilities to enhance their academic
learning, motivation, attention, on-time task and
independence (Bouck & Flanagan, 2009; Fitzgerald, Koury, & Mitchem, 2008;
Woodward & Rieth, 1997)
• iPads have gained popularity recently and
researchers, parents, teachers have demonstrated iPads
can be useful tools for teaching students with disabilities
(Nirvi, 2011)
• However, there is little empirical research investigating the
effects of using iPads in the teaching and learning of
students with disabilities; More research is required
Purpose & Research Question
• To understand the recent phenomenon of iPad
integration into PK-12 schools, especially in a
special education class
• How do iPads support teaching and learning in a
modified high school biology class?
Participants and Setting
• A special educator
o 11 years teaching experience in special education
o Teaching a modified biology class
• Four students
o 9th - 10th graders
o 2 students with LD, 1 student with TBI, 1 student with CP
• High school in an affluent suburban area in US
o Serves 2,500 students
o 74% White, 11% Hispanic, 10% Asian, 4% Multi-Race, 1% African-
Americans, 3% economically disadvantaged, 2% ELL
o High achievement school
o Invests heavily in digital technologies for classrooms
o 1:1 iPad initiative started in May 2011
• A modified high school biology classroom
Research Design
• Qualitative research design: Ethnography
• Data collection
• Field notes of weekly observation in classes
• Formal teacher interview at the beginning and at the end of
semester
• Informal chats with the teacher
• Duration
• One academic semester (Feb-May in 2012)
Modified Biology Class
• Teaching basic cellular chemistry (e.g., atoms, molecules, bonding
animal cells, cellular respiration, ATP production, classification system, human
systems, organization of life)
• Duration: 45 minutes
• Biology class can be difficult for students with disabilities
because of difficult vocabularies and concepts
• Designed to help students with disabilities to learn biology
• Small group instruction class
Teaching and Pedagogy
• Teacher
o Built personal rapport with her students
o Has passion about teaching students with disabilities
o Built classroom environment where students can feel safe; if they make mistakes
they are not going to be ridiculed. Safe place to try and learn
o Likes to integrate technology in her instruction
• Mainly provided “Small group, direct instruction with class discussions”
o A teacher opens PDF class notes on Smartboard, provides lectures on
concepts, fills out the blanks on the note, asks questions to students; students are
asked to open the notes on their iPads and take notes followed by the teacher
• Teacher believes iPads enhance more student-centered instruction and
project-based learning
• Break down to smaller contents, Review contents, Re-teach if
needed, Various materials (e.g., PDF class notes, textbooks, video, pictures)
Use of iPads in Teaching and Learning
• Mainly rely on using PDF files (class notes, tests, test review
materials) to take notes during class or work on tests on
their iPads
• E-mail communication
o Teacher sends class notes or test to students
o Students send homework/completed test to the teacher
o Teacher provides frequent feedback
o Teacher sends class notes to students who miss class
o Student group work
Use of iPads in Teaching and Learning
• Apps
o Screen Chomp: Whiteboard app - Formative assessment
o Noterize: Note taking app- Personalized document (e.g., different color, handwriting)
o Voice flash cards- Auditory scaffolding
o Edmodo: social secure learning network, class site
o Lab app (Toss-up): 3D coin-toss up for teaching gender probability
o Dictionary, spell checker, calculator
o iMovie: Develop student project
o Facetime: Student group work
• Web-browser use
• Edmodo (a free social secure learning network for teachers and students)
• E-mails
• Search information
Assessment
• At least two short quizzes per chapter, frequent pop-quizzes
• Multiple choice, short answers, fill out
blanks, vocabularies, open-ended questions
• Assessment tools
• Edmodo (Teacher uploads pop-quiz, test review, or announcement)
• Noterize app (Open test file on the app to complete test forms)
• Extra credit: Screen-chomp app (formative and summative assessment-
students can create a short video to show their knowledge of contents)
Advantages
• Mobility & Extended learning (learn anywhere & anytime)
• Communication (send notes to students who missed class; enhance teacher-
student/student-student interaction; increase feedback)
• Engagement & Motivation
• Organization
• Collaboration (Facetime, Edmodo, e-mail)
• Easy accommodation for individual students (e.g., larger
font, different color); No need to go to testing center (e.g., read aloud
test)
• Independent study tool (providing scaffolding)
• Builds Confidence
Barriers
• Limited time for professional learning
• Charging & Updating (going things slow down)
• Limited Memory
• No Flash capability (does not work with Smartbaord)
• Distractions & off-task behavior
o Classroom management: need to teach what is appropriate use
o If parents asked to take their child’s iPads because of addiction or
inappropriate use of iPads, the students cannot use iPads
School Support
• Set up Wi-Fi
• Professional learning (workshops, conference, training)
• Provide teachers iTunes cards to purchase apps
• Provide technical support
• Support teachers to have enough time to be familiar with
iPads; Minimal pushback
Students’ thoughts
Limitations, Implications for Practice, Future research
• iPads can be useful tools in teaching and learning for students
with disabilities; more research is required to investigate how
iPads can be effectively used to support students with
disabilities
• School-district level support is important
• Teachers need to teach students appropriate use of technology
• Longitudinal study is required for deeper understanding
• Various special education class settings (e.g., life skill, modified English)
• Investigate effects of using iPads with younger students
(elementary or middle school students)
References
• Bouck, E. C., & Flanagan, S. (2009). Assistive technology and
mathematics: What is there and where can we go in
special education. Journal of Special Education Technology,
24(2), 17-30.
• Fitzgerald, G., Koury, K., & Mitchem, K. (2008). Research on
computer-mediated instruction for students with high
incidence disabilities. Journal of Educational Computing
Research, 38(2), 201-233. doi: 10.2190/EC.38.2.e
• Nirvi, S. (2011). Special education pupils find learning tool in
iPad applications. Education Week, 30(22), 16-17.
• Woodward, J., & Rieth, H. (1997). A historical review of
technology research in special education. Review of
Educational Research, 67(4), 503-536. doi: 10.2307/1170519

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Teaching and learning with iPads for high school students with disabilities (CEC 2013 Presentation)

  • 1. TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH IPADS FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES The University of Texas at Austin Minwook Ok & Joan E. Hughes Council of Exceptional Children (CEC) 2013
  • 2. Background & Rationale • Technology-based instruction can support students with disabilities to enhance their academic learning, motivation, attention, on-time task and independence (Bouck & Flanagan, 2009; Fitzgerald, Koury, & Mitchem, 2008; Woodward & Rieth, 1997) • iPads have gained popularity recently and researchers, parents, teachers have demonstrated iPads can be useful tools for teaching students with disabilities (Nirvi, 2011) • However, there is little empirical research investigating the effects of using iPads in the teaching and learning of students with disabilities; More research is required
  • 3. Purpose & Research Question • To understand the recent phenomenon of iPad integration into PK-12 schools, especially in a special education class • How do iPads support teaching and learning in a modified high school biology class?
  • 4. Participants and Setting • A special educator o 11 years teaching experience in special education o Teaching a modified biology class • Four students o 9th - 10th graders o 2 students with LD, 1 student with TBI, 1 student with CP • High school in an affluent suburban area in US o Serves 2,500 students o 74% White, 11% Hispanic, 10% Asian, 4% Multi-Race, 1% African- Americans, 3% economically disadvantaged, 2% ELL o High achievement school o Invests heavily in digital technologies for classrooms o 1:1 iPad initiative started in May 2011 • A modified high school biology classroom
  • 5. Research Design • Qualitative research design: Ethnography • Data collection • Field notes of weekly observation in classes • Formal teacher interview at the beginning and at the end of semester • Informal chats with the teacher • Duration • One academic semester (Feb-May in 2012)
  • 6. Modified Biology Class • Teaching basic cellular chemistry (e.g., atoms, molecules, bonding animal cells, cellular respiration, ATP production, classification system, human systems, organization of life) • Duration: 45 minutes • Biology class can be difficult for students with disabilities because of difficult vocabularies and concepts • Designed to help students with disabilities to learn biology • Small group instruction class
  • 7. Teaching and Pedagogy • Teacher o Built personal rapport with her students o Has passion about teaching students with disabilities o Built classroom environment where students can feel safe; if they make mistakes they are not going to be ridiculed. Safe place to try and learn o Likes to integrate technology in her instruction • Mainly provided “Small group, direct instruction with class discussions” o A teacher opens PDF class notes on Smartboard, provides lectures on concepts, fills out the blanks on the note, asks questions to students; students are asked to open the notes on their iPads and take notes followed by the teacher • Teacher believes iPads enhance more student-centered instruction and project-based learning • Break down to smaller contents, Review contents, Re-teach if needed, Various materials (e.g., PDF class notes, textbooks, video, pictures)
  • 8. Use of iPads in Teaching and Learning • Mainly rely on using PDF files (class notes, tests, test review materials) to take notes during class or work on tests on their iPads • E-mail communication o Teacher sends class notes or test to students o Students send homework/completed test to the teacher o Teacher provides frequent feedback o Teacher sends class notes to students who miss class o Student group work
  • 9. Use of iPads in Teaching and Learning • Apps o Screen Chomp: Whiteboard app - Formative assessment o Noterize: Note taking app- Personalized document (e.g., different color, handwriting) o Voice flash cards- Auditory scaffolding o Edmodo: social secure learning network, class site o Lab app (Toss-up): 3D coin-toss up for teaching gender probability o Dictionary, spell checker, calculator o iMovie: Develop student project o Facetime: Student group work • Web-browser use • Edmodo (a free social secure learning network for teachers and students) • E-mails • Search information
  • 10. Assessment • At least two short quizzes per chapter, frequent pop-quizzes • Multiple choice, short answers, fill out blanks, vocabularies, open-ended questions • Assessment tools • Edmodo (Teacher uploads pop-quiz, test review, or announcement) • Noterize app (Open test file on the app to complete test forms) • Extra credit: Screen-chomp app (formative and summative assessment- students can create a short video to show their knowledge of contents)
  • 11. Advantages • Mobility & Extended learning (learn anywhere & anytime) • Communication (send notes to students who missed class; enhance teacher- student/student-student interaction; increase feedback) • Engagement & Motivation • Organization • Collaboration (Facetime, Edmodo, e-mail) • Easy accommodation for individual students (e.g., larger font, different color); No need to go to testing center (e.g., read aloud test) • Independent study tool (providing scaffolding) • Builds Confidence
  • 12. Barriers • Limited time for professional learning • Charging & Updating (going things slow down) • Limited Memory • No Flash capability (does not work with Smartbaord) • Distractions & off-task behavior o Classroom management: need to teach what is appropriate use o If parents asked to take their child’s iPads because of addiction or inappropriate use of iPads, the students cannot use iPads
  • 13. School Support • Set up Wi-Fi • Professional learning (workshops, conference, training) • Provide teachers iTunes cards to purchase apps • Provide technical support • Support teachers to have enough time to be familiar with iPads; Minimal pushback
  • 15. Limitations, Implications for Practice, Future research • iPads can be useful tools in teaching and learning for students with disabilities; more research is required to investigate how iPads can be effectively used to support students with disabilities • School-district level support is important • Teachers need to teach students appropriate use of technology • Longitudinal study is required for deeper understanding • Various special education class settings (e.g., life skill, modified English) • Investigate effects of using iPads with younger students (elementary or middle school students)
  • 16. References • Bouck, E. C., & Flanagan, S. (2009). Assistive technology and mathematics: What is there and where can we go in special education. Journal of Special Education Technology, 24(2), 17-30. • Fitzgerald, G., Koury, K., & Mitchem, K. (2008). Research on computer-mediated instruction for students with high incidence disabilities. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(2), 201-233. doi: 10.2190/EC.38.2.e • Nirvi, S. (2011). Special education pupils find learning tool in iPad applications. Education Week, 30(22), 16-17. • Woodward, J., & Rieth, H. (1997). A historical review of technology research in special education. Review of Educational Research, 67(4), 503-536. doi: 10.2307/1170519

Editor's Notes

  1. Interesting, unique, organization, portability, new way to learn, review, study any time, anyplace, communication, learn about new technology, collaboration, confidence