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CottonShoukat A. RatherMolecular Cytogenetics & Tissue CultureLab, Deptt of Crop Improvement,CSK HPKV, Palampur, Himachal ...
Botany• Warm season crop• C3 plant• Indeterminate growth habit• Dicot• Often cross pollinated crop– Extent of out crossing...
Production Scenario (2011-12)• India (1st in area and 2nd in production)– Area= 12.20 Mha– Production= 11.30 Mt• China (1s...
Economic importance• Cotton fiber is the major commercial productof cotton• Cotton fiber is spun into yarn or thread that ...
Two main groups• Old World cotton• Diploids (2n= 2x= 26)- Gossypium arboreum- G. herbaceum• New World cotton• Allo-tetrapl...
Progenitors• All New World tetraploid cottons contain OldWorld CytoplasmG. herbaceum x G. raimondii(AA) (DD)Tetraploid cot...
Centre of Origin• Centre Asiatic Centre (Vavilov, 1926)• G. arboreum- Indus Valley of India and Pakistan andthen spread ov...
Breeding objectives• Improved Fiber yield• Improved Fiber quality• Rapid fruiting & Early maturity• Resistance to biotic a...
Fiber yield• The fiber yield of a cotton plant is determinedby• number of bolls• size of the bolls• percentage of lint• Th...
• Boll size is expressed as the weight in grams ofseed cotton (lint + seeds) per boll• Cultivars that set a high percentag...
• Lint production is affected by the– seed-set (as lint is produced on the surface of theseed)– density of the lint on the...
Fiber quality• The spinning performance and quality ofcotton fiber is associated– Length– Strength– Fineness of the fibers
Rapid fruiting and early maturity• Flowering of the cotton plant is indeterminatewith bolls set over a period of time• Rap...
• Earliness is influenced by– Time of flowering initiation– Rate of development of new flowers– The time period required f...
Drought and heat tolerance• Water is often a limiting resource for cottonproduction in dry areas of the world• Genetic var...
• Recurrent selection under drought conditionscan be used to improve drought tolerance incotton strains• Selection of G. b...
• Several soil fungi reduce the potential yield of cotton by causingseed rotting and damping-off of cotton seedlings.– Fus...
Fusarium wilt and root knot nematodecomplex• Fusarium wilt is caused by a soil-inhabiting fungus,Fusarium oxysporum f. sp....
Multiple disease resistance (MDR)• Cotton seedlings may be simultaneously evaluatedfor resistance to several common pathog...
Steps for MDR• Germinate seeds in root knot nematode-infested soil• Inoculate seedlings with bacterial blight pathogen bys...
Insect resistance• Insect pests cause serious losses in cotton• Insect resistant cotton varieties are needed dueto the– de...
Cotton bollworm• Serious cotton insect pests– Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)– Pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypie...
• Resistance to the pink bollworm has beenreported in some diploid wild species• Characters that suppress insect populatio...
HISTORY OF Bt• Berliner coined the name Bacillus thuringiensis afterisolating the strain from a grain mill in German distr...
Other insect pests• Leafhoppers (Jassids)• Bugs• Resistance associated with heavy pubescenceof leaves
Seed Quality• Stand establishment is affected by thegermination and vigour of the seed planted• Increase in Gossypol conte...
• A glandless character associated withdecrease in Gossypol content controlled bytwo recessive genes– gl2– gl3• Insects ha...
Breeding methods• Introduction• Selection• Hybridization• Mutation
Introduction• Acclimatization plays a much greater role inthe development of introduced cottongermplasm
• The sources of variation may be naturalmutation, segregation within a populationand natural out-crossing• Commonly used ...
• Selection for improved yield of lint often results in areduction in fiber quality• In temperate climates, it is importan...
Mutation breeding• Employed when no natural variation exists forthe trait• Mutation breeding is not commonly used incotton...
Hybridization• This is the most widely used method ofdeveloping new cotton varieties• Employed to combine desirable featur...
Cotton hybridsBasis of classification Types of Hybrids Examples1. Species Involved 1. Intraspecific hybridsa. Intra-hirsut...
Institutes• International– International Institute for Cotton (IIC),Washington, USA• National Institutes– Central Institut...
References• Poehlman, J.M. and Sleper, D.A. 1995. Breeding Cotton. Breeding FieldCrops Fourth Edition , Iowa State Univers...
Cotton breeding
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Cotton breeding

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Cotton breeding

  1. 1. CottonShoukat A. RatherMolecular Cytogenetics & Tissue CultureLab, Deptt of Crop Improvement,CSK HPKV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh,IndiaShoukat.pbg@gmail.com
  2. 2. Botany• Warm season crop• C3 plant• Indeterminate growth habit• Dicot• Often cross pollinated crop– Extent of out crossing depends upon• Genotype• Location• Environment• Family- Malvaceae• Two types of branches– Sympodium (Vegetative)– Monopodium (Reproductive)
  3. 3. Production Scenario (2011-12)• India (1st in area and 2nd in production)– Area= 12.20 Mha– Production= 11.30 Mt• China (1st in production)– Area= 5.40 Mha– Production= 12.97 Mt• World– Area= 34.48 Mha– Production= 46.62 MtUnited States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
  4. 4. Economic importance• Cotton fiber is the major commercial productof cotton• Cotton fiber is spun into yarn or thread that isused in textile industry• Cottonseed oil and cake are secondaryproducts of cotton• Cottonseed meal is fed to poultry
  5. 5. Two main groups• Old World cotton• Diploids (2n= 2x= 26)- Gossypium arboreum- G. herbaceum• New World cotton• Allo-tetraploids (2n= 4x= 52)- G. hirsutum- G. barbadense
  6. 6. Progenitors• All New World tetraploid cottons contain OldWorld CytoplasmG. herbaceum x G. raimondii(AA) (DD)Tetraploid cotton(AADD)
  7. 7. Centre of Origin• Centre Asiatic Centre (Vavilov, 1926)• G. arboreum- Indus Valley of India and Pakistan andthen spread over Africa and Asia• G. herbaceum was first cultivated in Arab and Syria• G. hirsutum- cultivated first in Mexico• G. barbadense- PeruWendel, Jonathan F., Curt L. Brubaker, and Tosak Seelanan, 2010, The Origin and Evolution of Gossypium, in Physiology ofCotton, edited by James McD. Stewart, Derrick M. Oosterhuis, James J. Heitholt and Jackson R. Mauney, Springer, pp. 1-18
  8. 8. Breeding objectives• Improved Fiber yield• Improved Fiber quality• Rapid fruiting & Early maturity• Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses• Improved Seed quality
  9. 9. Fiber yield• The fiber yield of a cotton plant is determinedby• number of bolls• size of the bolls• percentage of lint• The character contributing most to fiber yieldis number of bolls per plantPoehlman and Sleper, 1995
  10. 10. • Boll size is expressed as the weight in grams ofseed cotton (lint + seeds) per boll• Cultivars that set a high percentage of five-lock bolls are superior in yielding ability tocultivars with four-lock bolls
  11. 11. • Lint production is affected by the– seed-set (as lint is produced on the surface of theseed)– density of the lint on the seed• Lint production is affected by the– seed-set (as lint is produced on the surface of theseed– density of the lint on the seed
  12. 12. Fiber quality• The spinning performance and quality ofcotton fiber is associated– Length– Strength– Fineness of the fibers
  13. 13. Rapid fruiting and early maturity• Flowering of the cotton plant is indeterminatewith bolls set over a period of time• Rapid fruiting and early maturity– reduce losses due to disease and insect pests– facilitates harvesting with a mechanical picker– increase production efficiency by reducing inputs offertilizer, protective chemicals & irrigation water
  14. 14. • Earliness is influenced by– Time of flowering initiation– Rate of development of new flowers– The time period required for the bolls to mature• Small compact plants and small bolls andseeds are generally associated with earlinessin a cotton cultivar
  15. 15. Drought and heat tolerance• Water is often a limiting resource for cottonproduction in dry areas of the world• Genetic variability for root growth and drymatter accumulation has been demonstratedamong various cotton strains under droughtconditions
  16. 16. • Recurrent selection under drought conditionscan be used to improve drought tolerance incotton strains• Selection of G. barbadense strains in periodsof high temperature at low elevations resultedin development of strains with greater heattolerance
  17. 17. • Several soil fungi reduce the potential yield of cotton by causingseed rotting and damping-off of cotton seedlings.– Fusarium sp.– Pythium sp.– Rhizoctonia solani– Thielaviopsis basicola• Cotton is particularly vulnerable to seedling diseases whenplanted in cold and wet soil• Selection criteria in cold & wet soils– rapid germination and– seedling vigourDisease resistance
  18. 18. Fusarium wilt and root knot nematodecomplex• Fusarium wilt is caused by a soil-inhabiting fungus,Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum• Fusarium wilt is most severe on light and sandy soils• The disease damages the water-conducting tissues of theplant, causing wilting and premature killing• The disease is associated with injury caused by the rootknot nematode Meloidogyne incognita which providesopenings through which the wilt fungus enters the root
  19. 19. Multiple disease resistance (MDR)• Cotton seedlings may be simultaneously evaluatedfor resistance to several common pathogens• The procedure consists of sequential inoculation ofcotton seedlings growing in controlledenvironments with different pathogens
  20. 20. Steps for MDR• Germinate seeds in root knot nematode-infested soil• Inoculate seedlings with bacterial blight pathogen byscratching the cotyledon with a bacterial-laden toothpick• Inject Fusarium wilt pathogen into stem• Inject Verticillium wilt pathogen into stem of the plant• Discard susceptible plants after each step and inoculateonly resistant plants in next step
  21. 21. Insect resistance• Insect pests cause serious losses in cotton• Insect resistant cotton varieties are needed dueto the– development of tolerance by cotton insects tochemical insecticides– high cost of insecticidal control– environmental concerns and legal restrictions on useof chemicals
  22. 22. Cotton bollworm• Serious cotton insect pests– Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)– Pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)
  23. 23. • Resistance to the pink bollworm has beenreported in some diploid wild species• Characters that suppress insect populationdevelopment are– glabrous leaves– high gossypol content• Resistance to Lepidoptera insects by insertion ofthe Bt gene from Bacillus thuringiensis throughgenetic engineering
  24. 24. HISTORY OF Bt• Berliner coined the name Bacillus thuringiensis afterisolating the strain from a grain mill in German districtof Thuriengien• First commercial preparation prepared in 1927• First large scale Bt based product released for sale in1957 by Sandoz Corp.• It was a Bt variety kurstaki strain marketed as“Thuricide”
  25. 25. Other insect pests• Leafhoppers (Jassids)• Bugs• Resistance associated with heavy pubescenceof leaves
  26. 26. Seed Quality• Stand establishment is affected by thegermination and vigour of the seed planted• Increase in Gossypol content in seeds causes– discoloration in cottonseed oil– reduces availability of lysine in cottonseedprotein– toxicity to young swine or poultry
  27. 27. • A glandless character associated withdecrease in Gossypol content controlled bytwo recessive genes– gl2– gl3• Insects have a preference for glandless cotton
  28. 28. Breeding methods• Introduction• Selection• Hybridization• Mutation
  29. 29. Introduction• Acclimatization plays a much greater role inthe development of introduced cottongermplasm
  30. 30. • The sources of variation may be naturalmutation, segregation within a populationand natural out-crossing• Commonly used selection methods inhandling the segregating populationdeveloped through hybridization arepedigree, bulk and mass selectionSelection
  31. 31. • Selection for improved yield of lint often results in areduction in fiber quality• In temperate climates, it is important that the bolls beset early so that most of the bolls will mature andonly few immature bolls remain on the plant when itis killed by frost
  32. 32. Mutation breeding• Employed when no natural variation exists forthe trait• Mutation breeding is not commonly used incotton now
  33. 33. Hybridization• This is the most widely used method ofdeveloping new cotton varieties• Employed to combine desirable features ofdifferent cotton cultivars
  34. 34. Cotton hybridsBasis of classification Types of Hybrids Examples1. Species Involved 1. Intraspecific hybridsa. Intra-hirsutum hybridsH 4, H 6,H 8,H 10,JKHy 1, JKHy 2,PKV Hy 2, NHH 44, Savita,Surya, Fateh, LHH 144,Dhanlaxmi, Maruvikas,Omshankar, DHH 11, CICRHH 1b. Intra-arboreum hybrids2. Interspecific hybridsa. Tetraploid hybridsb. Diploid hybridsLDH 11, AAH1Varalaxmi, DCH 32,NHB 12, HB 224, DHB 105,TCHB 213, NHB 302, SruthiDH 7, DH 9, DDH 2, pha 462. Ploidy Level 1. Tetraploid hybrids2. Diploid hybridsAll intra hirsutum andinterspecific hybrids betweenG.hirsutum andG.barbadenseAll intra arboreum andinterspecific hybrids betweenG.herbaceum andG. arboreum3. Methods of HybridSeed Production1. Conventional hybrids2. Male sterility basedhybridsAll the above mentionedhybrids.Sununa, PKV Hy3, PKVHy4, MECH 4, AAH 1
  35. 35. Institutes• International– International Institute for Cotton (IIC),Washington, USA• National Institutes– Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR),Nagpur, Maharashtra– Cotton Research Station, Junagadh AgriculturalUniversity, Gujarat
  36. 36. References• Poehlman, J.M. and Sleper, D.A. 1995. Breeding Cotton. Breeding FieldCrops Fourth Edition , Iowa State University Press/Ames, SB 185.7.P63, p369-387.• Chaudry, M.R. and Guitchounts,A. 2003. Cotton Facts. Technical PaperNo.25 of the Common Fund for Commodities, International CottonAdvisory Committe, ISBN 0-9704918-3-2, p158.• Barut, A. 2004. Türkiye’de Uygulanmakta Olan Pamuk Islah Metotları, BitkiIslahı Kursu Notları, Nazilli Pamuk Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, 12-16.07.2004, Nazilli/Aydın, 23s.• Harem, E. 2010. Pamuk Islahı ve Tarımı, GAP Toprak-Su Kaynakları veTarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Şanlıurfa, Yayın No: 164,136s.

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