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NAME: NISHANT UPADHYAY
CLASS- XII ‘B’
ROLL NO. - 24
SESSION- 2015-16
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mr. Nishant
Upadhyay of class twelve, K.V
BONDAMUNDA has satisfactorily
completed the project in Biology for the
AISSCE as prescribed by CBSE in the
year 2015-16.
Date :
Registration No. :
Signature of Internal Examiner
Signature of External Examiner
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“There are times when silence speaks so
much more loudly than words of praise to
only as good as belittle a person, whose
words do not express, but only put a
veneer over true feelings, which are of
gratitude at this point of time.”
I would like to express my sincere
gratitude to my Biology mentor
Mrs___________ , for her vital
support, guidance and encouragement
– without which this project would not
have come forth. I would also like to
disclose the significance of resources
available on internet which helped me a
lot in completing this investigatory
project. They were really helping hand
to me.
BIOTECHNOLOGY:PRINCIPLES AND
PROCESSES
What is Biotechnology?
 General Definition
 The application of technology to improve
 a biological organism .
 Detailed Definition
 The application of the technology to modify
the biological function of an organism by
adding genes from another organism.
Biotechnology involves the modification of
a whole range of organism
• Here we see bean has many seed coat
colors and patterns in nature-
 But we know nature does not have all of
the traits we need.
 The photograph of bean seeds is a great
illustration of the variation in nature. You
can notice not only many different colors,
but also many different patterns. A large
array of interacting genes are responsible
for this variation.
 But man can always dream of a new use
for an organism. Biotechnology involves
added new traits to a species.
What controls this natural variation?
 Allelic differences at genes control a
specific trait
 Gene - a piece of DNA that controls the
expression of a trait
 Allele - the alternate forms of a gene
Example-
Plant height Seed shape
Tall(TT) Dwarf(tt) Smooth(RR) Wrinkled(rr)
 Genes control specific traits. Above are two
traits of pea that Gregor Mendel, the father
of genetics, studied.
 Hence, we can come up to the conclusion that
Genes control specific traits. This Implies a
Genetic Continuum
Gene Manipulation Starts At the DNA Level-
 This is the root of biotechnology.
 Chromosomes are the condensed form of
DNA.
 This is an important concept because it is
the basis of an important screening
process called hybridization.
Structure of a chromosome-
Genes Are Cloned Based On:
Similarity to known genes- Homology cloning
(mouse clone used to obtain human gene).
Protein sequence- Complementary genetics
(predicting gene sequence from protein).
Chromosomal location- Map-based cloning
(using genetic approach).
Homology cloning-
PCR Animation
Denaturation: DNA melts
Annealing: Primers bind
Extension: DNA is replicated
 This is an animation of one step in the PCR
process. Take a few minutes and let the
animation run through a number of times.
 It will recycle on its own. This step will
show the denaturation (converting the DNA
from single- to double-stranded state).
 The second step is annealing (the binding of
the primer to the single-stranded DNA).The
final step is extension .
Diagrammatic representation of PCR-
 Many feature of the PCR process is the
replication of one double-strand DNA
molecule into two. But the PCR process
does not involve just a single replication
cycle. Rather, the step is repeated
many times (35-50 times).
 This repetition leads to an exponential
increase in the amount of DNA. At the
end, a large amount of DNA is produced
that can be used for a number of
purposes.
 At the end, we have sufficient DNA to
use as a probe for library screening.
Map-based Cloning
Transformation Cassettes
It Contains-
 All transformation cassettes contain three
regions. The “gene of interest” region
contains the actual gene that is being
introduced into the plant. This is the gene
that provides the new function to the plant.
In this diagram, the region is shown in red.
Delivering the Gene to the Plant
Regardless of the delivery method, the delivery
system must use a plant tissue source that can
be manipulated to produce new plants.
Modern Examples
 More recently, such varied traits as salt
tolerance and mercury resistance have
been introduced into plants transferring
genes for specific protein.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
NCERT Textbook (class 12)
S. Chand’s Biology
www.google.co.in
Wikipedia

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Biotechnology- Principles and processes investigatory project.

  • 1. NAME: NISHANT UPADHYAY CLASS- XII ‘B’ ROLL NO. - 24 SESSION- 2015-16
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Nishant Upadhyay of class twelve, K.V BONDAMUNDA has satisfactorily completed the project in Biology for the AISSCE as prescribed by CBSE in the year 2015-16. Date : Registration No. : Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “There are times when silence speaks so much more loudly than words of praise to only as good as belittle a person, whose words do not express, but only put a veneer over true feelings, which are of gratitude at this point of time.” I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my Biology mentor Mrs___________ , for her vital support, guidance and encouragement – without which this project would not have come forth. I would also like to disclose the significance of resources available on internet which helped me a lot in completing this investigatory project. They were really helping hand to me.
  • 4. BIOTECHNOLOGY:PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES What is Biotechnology?  General Definition  The application of technology to improve  a biological organism .  Detailed Definition  The application of the technology to modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from another organism. Biotechnology involves the modification of a whole range of organism
  • 5. • Here we see bean has many seed coat colors and patterns in nature-  But we know nature does not have all of the traits we need.  The photograph of bean seeds is a great illustration of the variation in nature. You can notice not only many different colors, but also many different patterns. A large array of interacting genes are responsible for this variation.  But man can always dream of a new use for an organism. Biotechnology involves added new traits to a species.
  • 6. What controls this natural variation?  Allelic differences at genes control a specific trait  Gene - a piece of DNA that controls the expression of a trait  Allele - the alternate forms of a gene Example- Plant height Seed shape Tall(TT) Dwarf(tt) Smooth(RR) Wrinkled(rr)  Genes control specific traits. Above are two traits of pea that Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics, studied.  Hence, we can come up to the conclusion that Genes control specific traits. This Implies a Genetic Continuum
  • 7. Gene Manipulation Starts At the DNA Level-  This is the root of biotechnology.  Chromosomes are the condensed form of DNA.  This is an important concept because it is the basis of an important screening process called hybridization. Structure of a chromosome-
  • 8. Genes Are Cloned Based On: Similarity to known genes- Homology cloning (mouse clone used to obtain human gene). Protein sequence- Complementary genetics (predicting gene sequence from protein). Chromosomal location- Map-based cloning (using genetic approach). Homology cloning-
  • 9. PCR Animation Denaturation: DNA melts Annealing: Primers bind Extension: DNA is replicated  This is an animation of one step in the PCR process. Take a few minutes and let the animation run through a number of times.  It will recycle on its own. This step will show the denaturation (converting the DNA from single- to double-stranded state).  The second step is annealing (the binding of the primer to the single-stranded DNA).The final step is extension .
  • 10. Diagrammatic representation of PCR-  Many feature of the PCR process is the replication of one double-strand DNA molecule into two. But the PCR process does not involve just a single replication cycle. Rather, the step is repeated many times (35-50 times).  This repetition leads to an exponential increase in the amount of DNA. At the end, a large amount of DNA is produced that can be used for a number of purposes.  At the end, we have sufficient DNA to use as a probe for library screening.
  • 12. Transformation Cassettes It Contains-  All transformation cassettes contain three regions. The “gene of interest” region contains the actual gene that is being introduced into the plant. This is the gene that provides the new function to the plant. In this diagram, the region is shown in red.
  • 13. Delivering the Gene to the Plant Regardless of the delivery method, the delivery system must use a plant tissue source that can be manipulated to produce new plants.
  • 14. Modern Examples  More recently, such varied traits as salt tolerance and mercury resistance have been introduced into plants transferring genes for specific protein.
  • 15. BIBLIOGRAPHY NCERT Textbook (class 12) S. Chand’s Biology www.google.co.in Wikipedia