Intro on different waste treatment technologies by Bernard Ammoun


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This document is a summary of the different waste treatment options developed by Bernard Ammoun as part of his recommendation to the Lebanese Government 2010

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Intro on different waste treatment technologies by Bernard Ammoun

  1. 1. Waste to Energy Technology Options for Lebanon Green Future Ltd
  2. 2. Green Future <ul><li>Green Future is a UK based company with a track record in the clean tech and alternative energy sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Co-founder and manager of the Masdar- Clean Tech Fund, a $250 million fund created by the government of Abu Dhabi along with CBG, Credit Suisse, Siemens and a pool of private equity investors </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative energy advisory service to the government of Jordan 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>CDM and clean technology project developer </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  3. 3. Defining Waste to Energy <ul><li>An energy recovery process through which waste is converted into heat or electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Convert: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liability into an asset (raw material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic waste into energy & CO2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic waste into reduced ash or inert vitreous slag </li></ul></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  4. 4. What is Sustainability? <ul><li>Meeting the needs of the present </li></ul><ul><li>without </li></ul><ul><li>Compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs </li></ul><ul><li>Main challenging factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Growth : increasing consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Growth : fewer resources per head </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Why is Sustainability Important? <ul><li>Fewer resources for future generations leading to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage in food and water and widespread famine and plagues </li></ul></ul>Higher GHG emissions and more abrupt climate change and widespread natural disasters Photo by: Kevin Carter
  7. 7. Green House Gases (GHG) 100 YR GWP Lifetime YRs Lifetime 100 Yr GWP % of emissions CO2 200 1 77% CH4 10 23 14% N2O 115 296 8.0% HFC 250 12000 0.5% PFC 2500 5500 0.2% SF6 3200 22200 1.0%
  8. 8. Source: The Stern Review
  9. 9. Link to Climate Change
  10. 10. Effect of Climate Change Source: The Economics of Climate Change; Nicholas Stern
  11. 11. Shifting weather & Inconsistent rainfall Source: Climate Directorate of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Reading <ul><li>Blue shading indicates that most models (>75%) show an increase in annual rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Red shading indicates that most models show a decrease in rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Lightly shaded areas are where models show inconsistent results </li></ul>
  12. 12. Everyday News in the near future
  13. 13. Source: Greenpeace 2001 Source: CDL, WB
  14. 14. Lebanon MSW Profile
  15. 15. How is waste treated in Lebanon <ul><li>Waste treatment in Lebanon is treating garbage to obtain a different kind of garbage </li></ul>“ ”
  16. 16. Waste in Lebanon <ul><li>Lebanon has been paying for the past ten years one of the highest tipping fees in the world (in excess of $160/ ton of waste) costing the government in excess of $200 million annually </li></ul><ul><li>The tipping fee would cover collection, transportation and land filling with minimal separation or treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Landfills are reaching saturation one after the other: Dora, Saida, Na2meh, Tripoli and little options are left with the scarcity of arid land suitable for landfill usage in Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>Waste dumping has been in open or uncontrolled landfills with an irresponsible mixing of organic, hazardous and inorganic wastes resulting in leaching and methane emission </li></ul><ul><li>Many proposals have been submitted to the government for landfill treatment, composting, Incineration, separation but none has seen light due to technical, environmental, regulatory and economical reasons </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  17. 17. Typical Dumpsites
  18. 18. Time Bombs in the heart of Nature <ul><li>Most open dumpsites are located on a water stream bed or vertical slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal dumpsites alone discharge 225,000 mt/ an of leachate </li></ul><ul><li>An equivalent quantity is discharged by open dumpsites in rural areas </li></ul>
  19. 19. Clean Technologies <ul><li>The only way to sustain life </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  20. 20. Modern Waste Management Chain
  21. 21. Major Waste to Energy Technologies Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  22. 22. Biochemical Conversion <ul><li>Is a process through which bacteria breaks down the organic component of waste into simpler molecular forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early stage composting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open dumpsite decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic digestion (in the absence of Oxygen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late stage decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. H2O CO2 H2O CO2 Aerobic Anaerobic CH4 H2S
  23. 23. Controlled Anaerobic Digestion <ul><li>Controlled digestion of liquid or solid organic waste under the action of bacteria in a retained digester for a duration of 15 (fruits) to 30 (paper and hay) days </li></ul><ul><li>The biogas produced ranges from 180 (cattle manure) up to 900 (fruits) liters of biogas per solid kg of waste </li></ul><ul><li>The biogas will contain 50 to 70% methane </li></ul><ul><li>Organic part of MSW will generate around 380 lit/ dry kg of which 50% is methane </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  24. 24. Landfill Natural Anaerobic Digestion <ul><li>Natural decomposition process of the organic component of waste in a controlled and capped landfill to reclaim the emitted methane gas and use it for power generation. </li></ul><ul><li>A very low efficiency process due to the uneven recovery of energy and high capital investment required </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  25. 25. Thermal Treatment <ul><li>Thermal processing usually involves the RDF (refuse derived fuel) or organic part of waste to have a positive net energy outflow </li></ul><ul><li>RDF is obtained by separating the recyclable and non-combustible (including moisture) components have been separated at a high temperature and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>RDF can be used directly in heat intensive processes or as a raw material for power/ steam generation </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. Avg. Heat Value MJ/Kg MSW 8 to 12 Dry Wood 19 Lignite 15 Coal 22 Plastics 33 Wet Compostable 4 to 6 Natural Gas 56
  26. 26. Electricity Production from MSW
  27. 27. Direct Combustion or Incineration Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. <ul><li>Incineration is considered to be the least efficient of thermal processes with total system efficiency of 12 to 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions from mass burners or incinerators have to be treated to neutralize pollutants </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Gasification Process <ul><li>Gasification is a thermal process which involves heating components which are mainly organic (waste, biomass, etc.) in an atmosphere which contains no air. Carbon-containing components react with steam and CO2 at a temperature of 850°C in endothermic thermo-chemical transformation reactions, known as gasification: </li></ul><ul><li>C + H2O CO + H2 C + CO2 2CO C + 2H2 CH4 </li></ul><ul><li>What is principally obtained is therefore a gas made up of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called synthesis gas, or Syngas. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of this process lies in its ability to convert solid components into hot gas, whose calorific value is recovered to produce electricity whereas the non-combustible part is neutralized as a white ash which can be used in building material </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Plasma Arc Process <ul><li>“ Fourth State” of matter; Lightning is an example from nature </li></ul><ul><li>Ionized gas at high temperature capable of conducting electrical current </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures 4,000°C to over 7,000°C </li></ul><ul><li>A pyrolysis and/or gasification process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not an incineration process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazardous & toxic compounds broken down to elemental constituents by high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Organic materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasified or melted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted to fuel gases (H 2 & CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid gases readily neutralized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residual materials (inorganic, heavy metals, etc.) immobilized in a rock-like vitrified mass which is highly resistant to leaching </li></ul>
  30. 30. Key Material & Energy Flow
  31. 31. Electricity Conversion comparative Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. <ul><li>Plasma Arc Gasification </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Gasification </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrolysis & Gasification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Thermoselect Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pyrolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mitsui R21 Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mass Burn Technology </li></ul></ul>Waste to Energy Process 816 685 685 571 544 Net Electricity to Grid (kWh/ton MSW)
  32. 32. Typical layout with Power generation Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. <ul><li>Daily capacity of 180 tons can be achieved with three process trains of 60 tons each. Larger capacities can be achieved by increasing the capacities of the individual process trains and / or by adding more process trains. </li></ul><ul><li>Foul odors can be controlled through the use of a negative pressure filtration system </li></ul>
  33. 33. Highly Automated Systems <ul><li>Operator interface by touch-screen controls. </li></ul><ul><li>SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) data logging capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time remote monitoring by technical staff. </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  34. 34. Advantages of the dual gasification process plant <ul><li>Large-capacity, continuous-feed, two-stage thermal gasification in single or double vertical reaction chambers for consistent wastes such as biomass and household waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, robust design with very few moving parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative hearth design eliminates complicated moving grates and fluidized beds found in mass burn incinerators. </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated controls for air, waste feed, and auxiliary fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Lower capital, labor, and other operating costs than other conversion technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds EU & US emissions standards with the emission control equipment. </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  35. 35. Typical Gasification Plant Indicators <ul><li>Working days per annum: 365 with partial shutdowns of 30 days for maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Required surface area: 5,800 sq. meters </li></ul><ul><li>Max. MSW treatment Capacity: 180 tons per day (eq. 65,000 tons per annum) </li></ul><ul><li>Max. Power generated: 8.0 Mw </li></ul><ul><li>Max. Ash produced: 10 cubic meters daily can be converted into building blocks </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  36. 36. Potential Avoided Capital Cost Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd. In the case Syngas is directly fed into the kiln of an adjacent heat intensive industry, a major capital cost can be avoided and energy conversion can be maximized Equipment Eliminated Combustion Chamber
  37. 37. Project Development Milestones Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  38. 38. Risk Factors <ul><li>War risk which will increase the capital cost </li></ul><ul><li>Variable waste composition which might increase operational cost </li></ul><ul><li>Volume commitment where prices will be considerably higher in case of failure to meet the agreed upon quotas </li></ul><ul><li>Timing where delay in commitment and deployment will result in longer lead times for commissioning </li></ul><ul><li>Power off-take assurance due to the lack of the regulatory framework which regulates it </li></ul>Proprietary information Of Green Future ltd.
  39. 39. For Contacts or further questions: [email_address] Office: +961(01) 999 515 +961(01) 999 525 +961(01)61 22 00