SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Benefits of Taxonomies
For content, information,
and knowledge management
February 2021
Heather Hedden
Excerpted from the Taxonomy 101 workshop
of KMWorld Connect conference, November 12, 2020
 Knowledge and data engineer, Semantic Web Company
 Instructor of online, virtual, and onsite taxonomy courses and workshops.
Hedden Information Management
 Former consultant; former staff taxonomist at Gale/Cengage Learning,
Viziant, First Wind
 Author of The Accidental Taxonomist (2010, 2016, Information Today, Inc.)
About Heather Hedden
2
© 2020 Heather Hedden
What is a taxonomy for?
 Terms/concepts are used to tag/index/categorize content to make it easier
to be found and retrieved
 supporting better findability than search alone
 The taxonomy is an intermediary that links the user to the desired content.
 The taxonomy should suit the content and the users.
Introduction to Taxonomies
3
Users
Content Taxonomy
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Two main approaches to taxonomies
1. A hierarchy of terms/concepts/topics/categories arranged with narrower
topics/subcategories displayed under their broader/parent categories.
 To guide users to find the desired topic (and its linked content of
pages or documents)
 Similar to navigation and site maps, but more topical and not just
based on page titles
2. A controlled vocabulary of metadata tags/labels to apply to pages, posts,
or documents, so that they can be more precisely and comprehensively
retrieved (than by search algorithms alone on keywords in text).
 Implemented as search suggestion terms, search refinement
filters, or related topics and searches
Which approach is most relevant to you? Complete the Zoom poll.
Introduction to Taxonomies
4
© 2020 Heather Hedden
5
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Craigslist Boston
boston.craigslist.org
6
© 2020 Heather Hedden
World Bank
https://data.worldbank.org
What is a taxonomy?
Controlled and organized
 A kind of controlled vocabulary or knowledge organization system,
based on unambiguous concepts, not just words
 Concepts/terms are arranged in a structure of hierarchies, categories, or
facets to organize the terms.
Why called “taxonomy”?
 From ancient Greek "taxis,” meaning arrangement + "nomia,” meaning
method.
 Originally meant the science and practice of naming and classifying.
 Aspect of "classification" is still relevant to the definition of taxonomies.
Introduction to Taxonomies
7
© 2020 Heather Hedden
8
350 Public administration & military science 360
Social problems & social services
370 Education
380 Commerce, communications & transportation
390 Customs, etiquette & folklore
400 Language
410 Linguistics
420 English & Old English languages
430 German & related languages
440 French & related languages
450 Italian, Romanian & related languages
460 Spanish & Portuguese languages
470 Latin & Italic languages
480 Classical & modern Greek languages
490 Other languages
500 Science
510 Mathematics
520 Astronomy
530 Physics
540 Chemistry
550 Earth sciences & geology
560 Fossils & prehistoric life
570 Life sciences; biology
580 Plants (Botany)
590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology
610 Medicine & health
620 Engineering
630 Agriculture
640 Home & family management
650 Management & public relations
660 Chemical engineering
670 Manufacturing
680 Manufacture for specific uses
690 Building & construction
700 Arts
710 Landscaping & area planning
720 Architecture
730 Sculpture, ceramics & metalwork
740 Drawing & decorative arts
750 Painting
760 Graphic arts
770 Photography & computer art
780 Music
790 Sports, games & entertainment
800 Literature, rhetoric & criticism
810 American literature in English
820 English & Old English literatures
830 German & related literatures
840 French & related literatures
850 Italian, Romanian & related literatures
860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures
870 Latin & Italic literatures
880 Classical & modern Greek literatures
890 Other literatures
900 History
910 Geography & travel
920 Biography & genealogy
930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)
940 History of Europe
950 History of Asia
960 History of Africa
970 History of North America
980 History of South America
990 History of other areas
000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
010 Bibliographies
020 Library & information sciences
030 Encyclopedias & books of facts
040 [Unassigned]
050 Magazines, journals & serials
060 Associations, organizations & museums
070 News media, journalism & publishing
080 Quotations
090 Manuscripts & rare books
100 Philosophy
110 Metaphysics
120 Epistemology
130 Parapsychology & occultism
140 Philosophical schools of thought
150 Psychology
160 Logic
170 Ethics
180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy
190 Modern western philosophy
200 Religion
210 Philosophy & theory of religion
220 The Bible
230 Christianity & Christian theology
240 Christian practice & observance
250 Christian pastoral practice & religious orders
260 Christian organization, social work & worship
270 History of Christianity
280 Christian denominations
290 Other religions
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
310 Statistics
320 Political science
330 Economics
340 Law
Dewey Decimal
Classification
100s level
Is a classification
system a
taxonomy?
Not really.
Introduction to Taxonomies
9
Taxonomy vs. a Classification System
Classification systems: LC Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, NAICS, etc.
Classification Systems Taxonomies
 Have codes
 Don’t have synonyms (alternate labels)
 Comprehensive and balanced coverage
of a domain
 Designed to be browsed hierarchically,
top-down
 Built for a domain but independent of
specific content
 Allows for limited expansion
 Has categories for “not elsewhere
classified” or “other”
 Don’t have codes
 Often have synonyms (alternate labels)
 Just the concepts needed and may be
hierarchically unbalanced
 Designed to be browsed, searched, or may
not be fully displayed to end-users
 Custom-built to include the topics in the
content to be tagged
 Can grow and adapt without limits
 Do not have concepts for the miscellaneous
© 2020 Heather Hedden
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Benefits of taxonomies/controlled vocabularies
1. Controlled vocabulary
Brings together different wordings (synonyms) for the same concept
 Helps people search for information by different names
2. Classification and structure
Organizes information into a logical structure
 Helps people browse or navigate for information
 Provides context and meaning for concepts, to support indexing and
retrieval
Benefits and Uses
10
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Benefits and Uses
11
© 2020 Hedden Information Management
Synonym Control
As a controlled vocabulary…
A search restricted on the controlled vocabulary retrieves concepts not just
words.
 Documents excluded for mere text-string matches
(e.g. monitors for computers, not the verb “observes”)
 Improves accuracy and precision in retrieving information
Gathers synonyms, acronyms, variant spellings, etc.
 Documents not missed due to use of different words
(e.g. Automobiles, instead of Cars)
 Improves comprehensive recall of information
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Benefits and Uses
12
Text may contain:
Oil and gas industry
Oil companies
Big oil
Oil producers
Oil industry
Oil & gas industry
Oil and gas industry
Oil & gas industries
Oil and gas industries
Petroleum industry
Oil companies
Big oil
Oil producers
Petroleum companies
Users may enter:
Oil industry
Oil & gas industry
Oil & gas industries
Petroleum industry
Controlled Vocabulary
contains all synonyms:
Applications and uses
1. Indexing support
a) Manual indexing
b) Automated indexing
2. Findability or retrieval support
a) In browsing
b) In searching
c) In faceted search-browse
Benefits and Uses
13
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Indexing Support
As a structured list of agreed-upon terms to ensure consistent indexing
 Across multiple documents or content items, where different synonyms
describe the same concepts
 By multiple indexers working on the same collection
 By machine-aided indexing / autoclassification, where taxonomy terms
have rules, clues, or sample tuned documents
Benefits and Uses
14
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Indexing Support
Benefits and Uses
15
Manual indexing
example
Cengage/Gale
Subject Thesaurus
Internal indexer
alphabetical browse
view
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Retrieval support: in browse
Alphabetical browse
Display method for thesauri, name/proper noun lists, and book-style indexes
Example of an alphabetical browse thesaurus:
ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Thesaurus
Institute of Education Sciences
https://eric.ed.gov/?ti=all
Benefits and Uses
16
© 2020 Heather Hedden
17
Terms in italics are
variants/alternative labels
redirecting to the
preferred label of the
concept.
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Retrieval
Support
Benefits and Uses
18
Hierarchical browse
taxonomy
 Categorization scheme for
information organization,
classification, guided
search
 More often for end-users
guidance than for indexers
Example:
Craigslist Boston
https://boston.craigslist.org
Benefits and Uses
19
Hierarchy purposes
1. Serving users who are browsing, exploring, discovering, not searching, to whom
the hierarchy is displayed.
 Users don’t even have to know the first word or few letters, as in search or
alphabetical browsing.
2. Instructing users on appropriate classification
3. Providing context to terms for manual indexers/taggers so that they apply the
correct term.
4. Providing the context of a broader concept and thus meaning to aid in auto-
classification.
5. Enabling “recursive”/“rolled up” retrieval results (A term retrieves what is indexed
to it and what is indexed to each on of its narrower terms, all together.)
© 2020 Heather Hedden
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Retrieval support: in search
Benefits and Uses
20
Type-ahead Search-suggest
© 2020 Heather Hedden
Benefits and Uses
21
Retrieval support: in faceted search-browse
 Ensures comprehensive tagging and comprehensive
search/retrieval by multiple different aspects/vocabulary
types.
 Supports filtering search results by different
aspects/vocabulary types.
 Supports more complex search queries by users.
 Allows users to control the search refinement, narrowing
or broadening in any manner or order.
 Provides guided Boolean “AND” searching upon a
combination of terms in different facets.
© 2020 Hedden Information Management
Purposes and uses of controlled vocabularies
 Consistent tagging/indexing
 Topic/category browsing
 Search (matching search strings to concepts)
 Discovery (related concept links or contents sharing the same concepts)
 Filtering results
 Sorting results
 Content management workflow (rights, audience, retention, etc.)
 Consistent metadata for identification, comparison, analysis
 Visualization of topics (importance and/or relations)
 Curated content in feeds or info boxes.
 Automatic linking of relevant topics for personalization or recommendation
systems.
Benefits and Uses
22
Heather Hedden
Data & Knowledge Engineer
Semantic Web Company, Inc.
Boston, MA
www.semantic-web.com
www.poolparty.biz
heather.hedden@semantic-web.com
www.hedden-information.com
accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com
heather@hedden.net
Questions/Contact
23
© 2020 Heather Hedden

More Related Content

What's hot

How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
4Science
 
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdfSharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
Innovate Vancouver
 
Taxonomies and Metadata
Taxonomies and MetadataTaxonomies and Metadata
Taxonomies and Metadata
Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar
 
IEEE LOM
IEEE LOMIEEE LOM
IEEE LOM
Bram Vandeputte
 
Subject analysis, an introduction
Subject analysis, an introductionSubject analysis, an introduction
Subject analysis, an introduction
Richard.Sapon-White
 
Taxonomy 101
Taxonomy 101Taxonomy 101
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
`Shweta Bhavsar
 
Taxonomies and Folksonomies
Taxonomies and FolksonomiesTaxonomies and Folksonomies
Taxonomies and Folksonomies
Heather Hedden
 
Metadata an overview
Metadata an overviewMetadata an overview
Metadata an overview
robin fay
 
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
Janet Leu
 
Taxonomy Design for SharePoint
Taxonomy Design for SharePointTaxonomy Design for SharePoint
Taxonomy Design for SharePoint
Heather Hedden
 
Dublin core Presentation
Dublin core PresentationDublin core Presentation
Dublin core Presentation
Mary Jo Chrabasz
 
M365 Structure & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
M365 Structure  & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...M365 Structure  & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
M365 Structure & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
Innovate Vancouver
 
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other VocabulariesISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
Marcia Zeng
 
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
Enterprise Knowledge
 
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization SystemIntroduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
Fulvio Corno
 
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
UDAYA VARADARAJAN
 
Subject analysis, subject heading principles
Subject analysis, subject heading principlesSubject analysis, subject heading principles
Subject analysis, subject heading principles
Richard.Sapon-White
 
POPSI
POPSIPOPSI
POPSI
silambu111
 
FRBR
FRBRFRBR

What's hot (20)

How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
How to enhance your DSpace repository: use cases for DSpace-CRIS, DSpace-RDM,...
 
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdfSharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
SharePoint Site IA Architecture Design Considerations - Innovate Vancouver.pdf
 
Taxonomies and Metadata
Taxonomies and MetadataTaxonomies and Metadata
Taxonomies and Metadata
 
IEEE LOM
IEEE LOMIEEE LOM
IEEE LOM
 
Subject analysis, an introduction
Subject analysis, an introductionSubject analysis, an introduction
Subject analysis, an introduction
 
Taxonomy 101
Taxonomy 101Taxonomy 101
Taxonomy 101
 
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
WHAT ARE METADATA STANDARDS? EXPLAIN DUBLIN CORE IN DETAIL.
 
Taxonomies and Folksonomies
Taxonomies and FolksonomiesTaxonomies and Folksonomies
Taxonomies and Folksonomies
 
Metadata an overview
Metadata an overviewMetadata an overview
Metadata an overview
 
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
Taxonomy, ontology, folksonomies & SKOS.
 
Taxonomy Design for SharePoint
Taxonomy Design for SharePointTaxonomy Design for SharePoint
Taxonomy Design for SharePoint
 
Dublin core Presentation
Dublin core PresentationDublin core Presentation
Dublin core Presentation
 
M365 Structure & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
M365 Structure  & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...M365 Structure  & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
M365 Structure & Document Managment Architecture Design Overview - Innovate ...
 
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other VocabulariesISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
ISO 25964: Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies
 
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
Taxonomy 101: Presented at Taxonomy Boot Camp 2019
 
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization SystemIntroduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
Introduction to SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
 
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements f...
 
Subject analysis, subject heading principles
Subject analysis, subject heading principlesSubject analysis, subject heading principles
Subject analysis, subject heading principles
 
POPSI
POPSIPOPSI
POPSI
 
FRBR
FRBRFRBR
FRBR
 

Similar to Benefits of Taxonomies

Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexingTaxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
Heather Hedden
 
Taxonomy made easy
Taxonomy made easyTaxonomy made easy
Taxonomy made easy
Earley Information Science
 
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
Fred Leise
 
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-IndexingTaxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
Heather Hedden
 
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. RitChapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
JinElias52
 
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdfThe Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
Enterprise Knowledge
 
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFSSWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
Mariano Rodriguez-Muro
 
7 advanced uses of rdfs
7 advanced uses of rdfs7 advanced uses of rdfs
7 advanced uses of rdfs
Mariano Rodriguez-Muro
 
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic EnrichmentEmpowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
The Digital Group
 
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search FinalMarlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
Marlabs
 
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
Ryan Scicluna
 
Taxonomy design best practices
Taxonomy design best practices Taxonomy design best practices
Taxonomy design best practices
voginip
 
Implementing Semantic Search
Implementing Semantic SearchImplementing Semantic Search
Implementing Semantic Search
Paul Wlodarczyk
 
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
Lars Marius Garshol
 
Using metadata repositories with search
Using metadata repositories with searchUsing metadata repositories with search
Using metadata repositories with search
Jean Graef
 
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
martingarland
 
Document repositories-and-metadata
Document repositories-and-metadataDocument repositories-and-metadata
Document repositories-and-metadata
Earley Information Science
 
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnycSharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
Vincent Biret
 
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
Vincent Biret
 
Taxonomy And Metadata
Taxonomy And MetadataTaxonomy And Metadata
Taxonomy And Metadata
David Champeau
 

Similar to Benefits of Taxonomies (20)

Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexingTaxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
Taxonomies for Text Analytics and Auto-indexing
 
Taxonomy made easy
Taxonomy made easyTaxonomy made easy
Taxonomy made easy
 
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
Why Are Taxonomies Necessary?
 
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-IndexingTaxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
Taxonomies for Human vs Auto-Indexing
 
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. RitChapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
Chapter 9Enterprise Content and Record ManagementSt. Rit
 
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdfThe Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
The Role of Taxonomy and Ontology in Semantic Layers - Heather Hedden.pdf
 
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFSSWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
SWT Lecture Session 7 - Advanced uses of RDFS
 
7 advanced uses of rdfs
7 advanced uses of rdfs7 advanced uses of rdfs
7 advanced uses of rdfs
 
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic EnrichmentEmpowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
Empowering Search Through 3RDi Semantic Enrichment
 
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search FinalMarlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
Marlabs - Navigation vs Search Final
 
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabul...
 
Taxonomy design best practices
Taxonomy design best practices Taxonomy design best practices
Taxonomy design best practices
 
Implementing Semantic Search
Implementing Semantic SearchImplementing Semantic Search
Implementing Semantic Search
 
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?
 
Using metadata repositories with search
Using metadata repositories with searchUsing metadata repositories with search
Using metadata repositories with search
 
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
Expert Webinar Series 2: Designing Information Architecture for SharePoint: M...
 
Document repositories-and-metadata
Document repositories-and-metadataDocument repositories-and-metadata
Document repositories-and-metadata
 
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnycSharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
SharePoint Saturday New york City - The importance of metadata #spsnyc
 
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
#SPSVancouver 2016 - The importance of metadata
 
Taxonomy And Metadata
Taxonomy And MetadataTaxonomy And Metadata
Taxonomy And Metadata
 

More from Heather Hedden

Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdfIntroduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
Heather Hedden
 
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
Heather Hedden
 
Taxonomies in Support of Search
Taxonomies in Support of SearchTaxonomies in Support of Search
Taxonomies in Support of Search
Heather Hedden
 
A Brief Introduction to SKOS
A Brief Introduction to SKOSA Brief Introduction to SKOS
A Brief Introduction to SKOS
Heather Hedden
 
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and OntologiesMapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
Heather Hedden
 
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge GraphsA Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
Heather Hedden
 
Managing Taxonomy Tagging
Managing Taxonomy TaggingManaging Taxonomy Tagging
Managing Taxonomy Tagging
Heather Hedden
 
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPressTaxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
Heather Hedden
 
Customer-Focused Thesauri
Customer-Focused ThesauriCustomer-Focused Thesauri
Customer-Focused Thesauri
Heather Hedden
 
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred TermsSynonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
Heather Hedden
 
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan TermsManaging Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
Heather Hedden
 
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy DesignTaxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
Heather Hedden
 
Testing Taxonomies
Testing TaxonomiesTesting Taxonomies
Testing Taxonomies
Heather Hedden
 
Taxonomies for E-commerce
Taxonomies for E-commerceTaxonomies for E-commerce
Taxonomies for E-commerce
Heather Hedden
 
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual TaxonomiesMapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
Heather Hedden
 
Making Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
Making Decisions in Creating TaxonomiesMaking Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
Making Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
Heather Hedden
 

More from Heather Hedden (16)

Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdfIntroduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
Introduction to Knowledge Graphs for Information Architects.pdf
 
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
Thesauri for Indexing Support / Thesauri zur Unterstützung der Registererstel...
 
Taxonomies in Support of Search
Taxonomies in Support of SearchTaxonomies in Support of Search
Taxonomies in Support of Search
 
A Brief Introduction to SKOS
A Brief Introduction to SKOSA Brief Introduction to SKOS
A Brief Introduction to SKOS
 
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and OntologiesMapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
Mapping Taxonomies, Thesauri, and Ontologies
 
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge GraphsA Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
A Brief Introduction to Knowledge Graphs
 
Managing Taxonomy Tagging
Managing Taxonomy TaggingManaging Taxonomy Tagging
Managing Taxonomy Tagging
 
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPressTaxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
Taxonomies, Categories, and Tags in WordPress
 
Customer-Focused Thesauri
Customer-Focused ThesauriCustomer-Focused Thesauri
Customer-Focused Thesauri
 
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred TermsSynonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, and Nonpreferred Terms
 
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan TermsManaging Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
Managing Mature Taxonomies: Resolving Orphan Terms
 
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy DesignTaxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
Taxonomy Displays: Bridging UX & Taxonomy Design
 
Testing Taxonomies
Testing TaxonomiesTesting Taxonomies
Testing Taxonomies
 
Taxonomies for E-commerce
Taxonomies for E-commerceTaxonomies for E-commerce
Taxonomies for E-commerce
 
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual TaxonomiesMapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
Mapping, Merging, and Multilingual Taxonomies
 
Making Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
Making Decisions in Creating TaxonomiesMaking Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
Making Decisions in Creating Taxonomies
 

Recently uploaded

Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdfSonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
SubhamMandal40
 
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
digitalxplive
 
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptxRPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
SynapseIndia
 
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
aakash malhotra
 
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
Jimmy Lai
 
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technologyTypes of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
ldtexsolbl
 
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSECHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
kumarjarun2010
 
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdfFigma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
Management Institute of Skills Development
 
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending PlantPigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
LINUS PROJECTS (INDIA)
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
alexjohnson7307
 
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyActive Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
RaminGhanbari2
 
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT StandardizationThe importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
Axel Rennoch
 
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS InfrastructureRecent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
KAMAL CHOUDHARY
 
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptxIntroduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
313mohammedarshad
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Zilliz
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
Neo4j
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Steven Carlson
 
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.pptCiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
moinahousna
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
Priyanka Aash
 
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and DisadvantagesBLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
SAI KAILASH R
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdfSonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
 
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
 
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptxRPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
RPA In Healthcare Benefits, Use Case, Trend And Challenges 2024.pptx
 
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
 
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
 
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technologyTypes of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
Types of Weaving loom machine & it's technology
 
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSECHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
CHAPTER-8 COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM CLASS 9 CBSE
 
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdfFigma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
Figma AI Design Generator_ In-Depth Review.pdf
 
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending PlantPigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
 
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyActive Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
 
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT StandardizationThe importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
The importance of Quality Assurance for ICT Standardization
 
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS InfrastructureRecent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
Recent Advancements in the NIST-JARVIS Infrastructure
 
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptxIntroduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
 
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.pptCiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
CiscoIconsLibrary cours de réseau VLAN.ppt
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
 
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and DisadvantagesBLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
 

Benefits of Taxonomies

  • 1. Benefits of Taxonomies For content, information, and knowledge management February 2021 Heather Hedden Excerpted from the Taxonomy 101 workshop of KMWorld Connect conference, November 12, 2020
  • 2.  Knowledge and data engineer, Semantic Web Company  Instructor of online, virtual, and onsite taxonomy courses and workshops. Hedden Information Management  Former consultant; former staff taxonomist at Gale/Cengage Learning, Viziant, First Wind  Author of The Accidental Taxonomist (2010, 2016, Information Today, Inc.) About Heather Hedden 2 © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 3. What is a taxonomy for?  Terms/concepts are used to tag/index/categorize content to make it easier to be found and retrieved  supporting better findability than search alone  The taxonomy is an intermediary that links the user to the desired content.  The taxonomy should suit the content and the users. Introduction to Taxonomies 3 Users Content Taxonomy © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 4. Two main approaches to taxonomies 1. A hierarchy of terms/concepts/topics/categories arranged with narrower topics/subcategories displayed under their broader/parent categories.  To guide users to find the desired topic (and its linked content of pages or documents)  Similar to navigation and site maps, but more topical and not just based on page titles 2. A controlled vocabulary of metadata tags/labels to apply to pages, posts, or documents, so that they can be more precisely and comprehensively retrieved (than by search algorithms alone on keywords in text).  Implemented as search suggestion terms, search refinement filters, or related topics and searches Which approach is most relevant to you? Complete the Zoom poll. Introduction to Taxonomies 4 © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 5. 5 © 2020 Heather Hedden Craigslist Boston boston.craigslist.org
  • 6. 6 © 2020 Heather Hedden World Bank https://data.worldbank.org
  • 7. What is a taxonomy? Controlled and organized  A kind of controlled vocabulary or knowledge organization system, based on unambiguous concepts, not just words  Concepts/terms are arranged in a structure of hierarchies, categories, or facets to organize the terms. Why called “taxonomy”?  From ancient Greek "taxis,” meaning arrangement + "nomia,” meaning method.  Originally meant the science and practice of naming and classifying.  Aspect of "classification" is still relevant to the definition of taxonomies. Introduction to Taxonomies 7 © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 8. 8 350 Public administration & military science 360 Social problems & social services 370 Education 380 Commerce, communications & transportation 390 Customs, etiquette & folklore 400 Language 410 Linguistics 420 English & Old English languages 430 German & related languages 440 French & related languages 450 Italian, Romanian & related languages 460 Spanish & Portuguese languages 470 Latin & Italic languages 480 Classical & modern Greek languages 490 Other languages 500 Science 510 Mathematics 520 Astronomy 530 Physics 540 Chemistry 550 Earth sciences & geology 560 Fossils & prehistoric life 570 Life sciences; biology 580 Plants (Botany) 590 Animals (Zoology) 600 Technology 610 Medicine & health 620 Engineering 630 Agriculture 640 Home & family management 650 Management & public relations 660 Chemical engineering 670 Manufacturing 680 Manufacture for specific uses 690 Building & construction 700 Arts 710 Landscaping & area planning 720 Architecture 730 Sculpture, ceramics & metalwork 740 Drawing & decorative arts 750 Painting 760 Graphic arts 770 Photography & computer art 780 Music 790 Sports, games & entertainment 800 Literature, rhetoric & criticism 810 American literature in English 820 English & Old English literatures 830 German & related literatures 840 French & related literatures 850 Italian, Romanian & related literatures 860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures 870 Latin & Italic literatures 880 Classical & modern Greek literatures 890 Other literatures 900 History 910 Geography & travel 920 Biography & genealogy 930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499) 940 History of Europe 950 History of Asia 960 History of Africa 970 History of North America 980 History of South America 990 History of other areas 000 Computer science, knowledge & systems 010 Bibliographies 020 Library & information sciences 030 Encyclopedias & books of facts 040 [Unassigned] 050 Magazines, journals & serials 060 Associations, organizations & museums 070 News media, journalism & publishing 080 Quotations 090 Manuscripts & rare books 100 Philosophy 110 Metaphysics 120 Epistemology 130 Parapsychology & occultism 140 Philosophical schools of thought 150 Psychology 160 Logic 170 Ethics 180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy 190 Modern western philosophy 200 Religion 210 Philosophy & theory of religion 220 The Bible 230 Christianity & Christian theology 240 Christian practice & observance 250 Christian pastoral practice & religious orders 260 Christian organization, social work & worship 270 History of Christianity 280 Christian denominations 290 Other religions 300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology 310 Statistics 320 Political science 330 Economics 340 Law Dewey Decimal Classification 100s level Is a classification system a taxonomy? Not really.
  • 9. Introduction to Taxonomies 9 Taxonomy vs. a Classification System Classification systems: LC Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, NAICS, etc. Classification Systems Taxonomies  Have codes  Don’t have synonyms (alternate labels)  Comprehensive and balanced coverage of a domain  Designed to be browsed hierarchically, top-down  Built for a domain but independent of specific content  Allows for limited expansion  Has categories for “not elsewhere classified” or “other”  Don’t have codes  Often have synonyms (alternate labels)  Just the concepts needed and may be hierarchically unbalanced  Designed to be browsed, searched, or may not be fully displayed to end-users  Custom-built to include the topics in the content to be tagged  Can grow and adapt without limits  Do not have concepts for the miscellaneous © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 10. © 2020 Heather Hedden Benefits of taxonomies/controlled vocabularies 1. Controlled vocabulary Brings together different wordings (synonyms) for the same concept  Helps people search for information by different names 2. Classification and structure Organizes information into a logical structure  Helps people browse or navigate for information  Provides context and meaning for concepts, to support indexing and retrieval Benefits and Uses 10
  • 11. © 2020 Heather Hedden Benefits and Uses 11 © 2020 Hedden Information Management Synonym Control As a controlled vocabulary… A search restricted on the controlled vocabulary retrieves concepts not just words.  Documents excluded for mere text-string matches (e.g. monitors for computers, not the verb “observes”)  Improves accuracy and precision in retrieving information Gathers synonyms, acronyms, variant spellings, etc.  Documents not missed due to use of different words (e.g. Automobiles, instead of Cars)  Improves comprehensive recall of information
  • 12. © 2020 Heather Hedden Benefits and Uses 12 Text may contain: Oil and gas industry Oil companies Big oil Oil producers Oil industry Oil & gas industry Oil and gas industry Oil & gas industries Oil and gas industries Petroleum industry Oil companies Big oil Oil producers Petroleum companies Users may enter: Oil industry Oil & gas industry Oil & gas industries Petroleum industry Controlled Vocabulary contains all synonyms:
  • 13. Applications and uses 1. Indexing support a) Manual indexing b) Automated indexing 2. Findability or retrieval support a) In browsing b) In searching c) In faceted search-browse Benefits and Uses 13 © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 14. Indexing Support As a structured list of agreed-upon terms to ensure consistent indexing  Across multiple documents or content items, where different synonyms describe the same concepts  By multiple indexers working on the same collection  By machine-aided indexing / autoclassification, where taxonomy terms have rules, clues, or sample tuned documents Benefits and Uses 14 © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 15. Indexing Support Benefits and Uses 15 Manual indexing example Cengage/Gale Subject Thesaurus Internal indexer alphabetical browse view
  • 16. © 2020 Heather Hedden Retrieval support: in browse Alphabetical browse Display method for thesauri, name/proper noun lists, and book-style indexes Example of an alphabetical browse thesaurus: ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Thesaurus Institute of Education Sciences https://eric.ed.gov/?ti=all Benefits and Uses 16
  • 17. © 2020 Heather Hedden 17 Terms in italics are variants/alternative labels redirecting to the preferred label of the concept.
  • 18. © 2020 Heather Hedden Retrieval Support Benefits and Uses 18 Hierarchical browse taxonomy  Categorization scheme for information organization, classification, guided search  More often for end-users guidance than for indexers Example: Craigslist Boston https://boston.craigslist.org
  • 19. Benefits and Uses 19 Hierarchy purposes 1. Serving users who are browsing, exploring, discovering, not searching, to whom the hierarchy is displayed.  Users don’t even have to know the first word or few letters, as in search or alphabetical browsing. 2. Instructing users on appropriate classification 3. Providing context to terms for manual indexers/taggers so that they apply the correct term. 4. Providing the context of a broader concept and thus meaning to aid in auto- classification. 5. Enabling “recursive”/“rolled up” retrieval results (A term retrieves what is indexed to it and what is indexed to each on of its narrower terms, all together.) © 2020 Heather Hedden
  • 20. © 2020 Heather Hedden Retrieval support: in search Benefits and Uses 20 Type-ahead Search-suggest
  • 21. © 2020 Heather Hedden Benefits and Uses 21 Retrieval support: in faceted search-browse  Ensures comprehensive tagging and comprehensive search/retrieval by multiple different aspects/vocabulary types.  Supports filtering search results by different aspects/vocabulary types.  Supports more complex search queries by users.  Allows users to control the search refinement, narrowing or broadening in any manner or order.  Provides guided Boolean “AND” searching upon a combination of terms in different facets. © 2020 Hedden Information Management
  • 22. Purposes and uses of controlled vocabularies  Consistent tagging/indexing  Topic/category browsing  Search (matching search strings to concepts)  Discovery (related concept links or contents sharing the same concepts)  Filtering results  Sorting results  Content management workflow (rights, audience, retention, etc.)  Consistent metadata for identification, comparison, analysis  Visualization of topics (importance and/or relations)  Curated content in feeds or info boxes.  Automatic linking of relevant topics for personalization or recommendation systems. Benefits and Uses 22
  • 23. Heather Hedden Data & Knowledge Engineer Semantic Web Company, Inc. Boston, MA www.semantic-web.com www.poolparty.biz heather.hedden@semantic-web.com www.hedden-information.com accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com heather@hedden.net Questions/Contact 23 © 2020 Heather Hedden

Editor's Notes

  1. Which approach have you had to taxonomies (if any)? Show of hands
  2. Although taxonomies have a classification aspect, they are not classification systems. Taxonomy can be and usually are more user-focused than classification systems. Taxonomies comprise concepts not categories, hence there can be no concept of miscellaneous.