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Taxonomy standards and architecture
A brief introduction to SKOS
Taxonomy Boot Camp London
17 October 2018
Presented by
Heather Hedden
Senior Vocabulary Editor
Gale, A Cengage Company
Controlled Vocabulary Standards
2
Standards are of two basic types
1. Standards for design - supports an expected experience and results by varied users
without requiring training
2. Standards for specifications (measurements, protocols, coding, etc.) – supports
exchange and interoperability.
Standards for controlled vocabularies of each type
1. Standards for design: ISO 25964 Information and documentation - Thesauri and
interoperability with other vocabularies;
ANSI/NISO Z39.19 Guidelines for Construction, Format, and Management of
Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies
2. Standards for specifications and interoperability: Dublin Core, MARC, ZThes,
DD 8723-5, RDF, OWL and SKOS)
http://accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com/2017/06/standards-for-taxonomies.html
SKOS Background
3
SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) model
▪ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation.
▪ Released in 2005 as a working draft and in 2009 as a recommendation.
▪ “A common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the
Web” and
“A data-sharing standard, bridging several different fields of knowledge, technology
and practice” https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/
▪ Encoded using RDF (Resource Description Framework) as a triple (subject-predicate-
object).
▪ Can be expressed in various serialization formats: XML, N3, Turtle, JSON-LD.
▪ To enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data.
▪ Can also be queried using standard query language SPARQL.
A Brief Introduction to SKOS
SKOS Elements
5
Concepts
Labels &
Notation
Documentation
Semantic
Relations
Mapping
Properties
Collections
Concept prefLabel note broader broadMatch Collection
ConceptScheme altLabel changeNote narrower narrowMatch orderedCollection
inScheme hiddenLabel definition related relatedMatch member
hasTopConcept notation editorialNote broaderTransitive closeMatch memberList
topConceptOf example narrowerTransitive exactMatch
historyNote semanticRelation mappingRelation
scopeNote
Example URI: skos:prefLabel
SKOS in Elements in XML
6
https://www.sti.nasa.gov/thesvol1.pdf
Example concept from the NASA Thesaurus in SKOS in XML
https://www.sti.nasa.gov/nasa-thesaurus/#.WoG0uainGM8
<skos:Concept rdf:about="#37804">
<skm:termUpdate>add</skm:termUpdate>
<skos:prefLabel>A-3 aircraft</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:altLabel>A3D aircraft</skos:altLabel>
<skos:altLabel>Skywarrior aircraft</skos:altLabel>
<zthes:termID>37804</zthes:termID>
<zthes:termVocabulary>NASA Thesaurus</zthes:termVocabulary>
<skm:UF rdf:resource="#182148" rdf:ID="r37804-182148" />
<skm:UF rdf:resource="#185586" rdf:ID="r37804-185586" />
<skos:broader rdf:resource="#39556" rdf:ID="r37804-39556" />
<skos:broader rdf:resource="#41969" rdf:ID="r37804-41969" />
<skos:broader rdf:resource="#45801" rdf:ID="r37804-45801" />
<skos:broader rdf:resource="#47765" rdf:ID="r37804-47765" />
<skos:related rdf:resource="#38167" rdf:ID="r37804-38167" />
</skos:Concept>
7
SKOS in Elements in Vocabulary Management Software
SKOS model in Synaptica
8
SKOS model in PoolParty
A taxonomy or thesaurus comprises terms/concepts
Thesaurus Model vs. SKOS Model
9
Thesaurus model:
Terms
Of two types:
1. Preferred terms
2. Nonpreferred terms
Content is indexed/tagged to
preferred terms only.
SKOS vocabulary model:
Concepts
Which each have:
▪ Preferred labels (one in each language)
▪ Alternative labels
Content is indexed/tagged to concepts as
described by preferred labels.
The preferred term/label is displayed. Selecting a nonpreferred term or alternative label
redirects and points to the associated concept/preferred term.
Thesaurus Model vs. SKOS Model
10
Hierarchical relationships
▪ Thesaurus designation of BT / NT (Broader term / Narrower term)
▪ SKOS designation: Broader concept / Narrower concept
Associative relationships
▪ Thesaurus designation of RT (Related term)
▪ SKOS designation: Related concept
Terms in multiple languages
▪ Most vocabulary management software supports multilingual vocabularies.
▪ The SKOS model is especially suited for multilingual vocabularies.
─ A single concept has a preferred label in each language and alternative
labels in each language.
─ Preferred labels must be exact translations for the vocabulary to function
bi-directionally.
─ Alternative labels do not link to translations of each other, so may vary for
each language.
Example: EuroVoc - Multilingual Thesaurus of the European Union
SKOS for Multilingual Vocabularies
11
Synonyms, Alternative Labels, Nonpreferred Terms
12
SKOS model: PoolParty
SKOS model: Alternative labels and other languages
http://oek1.fao.org/skosmos/agrovoc/en/page/c_3850
SKOS Hidden Labels
13
Displayed vs. non-displayed variants
SKOS model also has Hidden Label (hidden Label) for these uses.
Non-displayed variants are useful for:
▪ Common misspellings, slang, or deprecated, or potentially offensive terms
not displayed to users but can match searches
▪ Auto-categorization support but not intended for manual indexing
▪ Search support but not intended for type-ahead display
▪ Changed preferred name, making the former preferred name nonpreferred,
but not meeting the criteria for a displayed variant. Pates (Food) USE Pates.
Questions/contact
14
Heather Hedden
Senior Vocabulary Editor
Gale, A Cengage Company
20 Channel Center Street
Boston, MA 02210 U.S.A.
heather.hedden@cengage.com
www.cengage.com, www.gale.com
www.cengage.co.uk, www.gale.cengage.co.uk

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A Brief Introduction to SKOS

  • 1. 1 Taxonomy standards and architecture A brief introduction to SKOS Taxonomy Boot Camp London 17 October 2018 Presented by Heather Hedden Senior Vocabulary Editor Gale, A Cengage Company
  • 2. Controlled Vocabulary Standards 2 Standards are of two basic types 1. Standards for design - supports an expected experience and results by varied users without requiring training 2. Standards for specifications (measurements, protocols, coding, etc.) – supports exchange and interoperability. Standards for controlled vocabularies of each type 1. Standards for design: ISO 25964 Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies; ANSI/NISO Z39.19 Guidelines for Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies 2. Standards for specifications and interoperability: Dublin Core, MARC, ZThes, DD 8723-5, RDF, OWL and SKOS) http://accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com/2017/06/standards-for-taxonomies.html
  • 3. SKOS Background 3 SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) model ▪ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation. ▪ Released in 2005 as a working draft and in 2009 as a recommendation. ▪ “A common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Web” and “A data-sharing standard, bridging several different fields of knowledge, technology and practice” https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/ ▪ Encoded using RDF (Resource Description Framework) as a triple (subject-predicate- object). ▪ Can be expressed in various serialization formats: XML, N3, Turtle, JSON-LD. ▪ To enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data. ▪ Can also be queried using standard query language SPARQL.
  • 5. SKOS Elements 5 Concepts Labels & Notation Documentation Semantic Relations Mapping Properties Collections Concept prefLabel note broader broadMatch Collection ConceptScheme altLabel changeNote narrower narrowMatch orderedCollection inScheme hiddenLabel definition related relatedMatch member hasTopConcept notation editorialNote broaderTransitive closeMatch memberList topConceptOf example narrowerTransitive exactMatch historyNote semanticRelation mappingRelation scopeNote Example URI: skos:prefLabel
  • 6. SKOS in Elements in XML 6 https://www.sti.nasa.gov/thesvol1.pdf Example concept from the NASA Thesaurus in SKOS in XML https://www.sti.nasa.gov/nasa-thesaurus/#.WoG0uainGM8 <skos:Concept rdf:about="#37804"> <skm:termUpdate>add</skm:termUpdate> <skos:prefLabel>A-3 aircraft</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel>A3D aircraft</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel>Skywarrior aircraft</skos:altLabel> <zthes:termID>37804</zthes:termID> <zthes:termVocabulary>NASA Thesaurus</zthes:termVocabulary> <skm:UF rdf:resource="#182148" rdf:ID="r37804-182148" /> <skm:UF rdf:resource="#185586" rdf:ID="r37804-185586" /> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#39556" rdf:ID="r37804-39556" /> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#41969" rdf:ID="r37804-41969" /> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#45801" rdf:ID="r37804-45801" /> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#47765" rdf:ID="r37804-47765" /> <skos:related rdf:resource="#38167" rdf:ID="r37804-38167" /> </skos:Concept>
  • 7. 7 SKOS in Elements in Vocabulary Management Software SKOS model in Synaptica
  • 8. 8 SKOS model in PoolParty
  • 9. A taxonomy or thesaurus comprises terms/concepts Thesaurus Model vs. SKOS Model 9 Thesaurus model: Terms Of two types: 1. Preferred terms 2. Nonpreferred terms Content is indexed/tagged to preferred terms only. SKOS vocabulary model: Concepts Which each have: ▪ Preferred labels (one in each language) ▪ Alternative labels Content is indexed/tagged to concepts as described by preferred labels. The preferred term/label is displayed. Selecting a nonpreferred term or alternative label redirects and points to the associated concept/preferred term.
  • 10. Thesaurus Model vs. SKOS Model 10 Hierarchical relationships ▪ Thesaurus designation of BT / NT (Broader term / Narrower term) ▪ SKOS designation: Broader concept / Narrower concept Associative relationships ▪ Thesaurus designation of RT (Related term) ▪ SKOS designation: Related concept
  • 11. Terms in multiple languages ▪ Most vocabulary management software supports multilingual vocabularies. ▪ The SKOS model is especially suited for multilingual vocabularies. ─ A single concept has a preferred label in each language and alternative labels in each language. ─ Preferred labels must be exact translations for the vocabulary to function bi-directionally. ─ Alternative labels do not link to translations of each other, so may vary for each language. Example: EuroVoc - Multilingual Thesaurus of the European Union SKOS for Multilingual Vocabularies 11
  • 12. Synonyms, Alternative Labels, Nonpreferred Terms 12 SKOS model: PoolParty SKOS model: Alternative labels and other languages http://oek1.fao.org/skosmos/agrovoc/en/page/c_3850
  • 13. SKOS Hidden Labels 13 Displayed vs. non-displayed variants SKOS model also has Hidden Label (hidden Label) for these uses. Non-displayed variants are useful for: ▪ Common misspellings, slang, or deprecated, or potentially offensive terms not displayed to users but can match searches ▪ Auto-categorization support but not intended for manual indexing ▪ Search support but not intended for type-ahead display ▪ Changed preferred name, making the former preferred name nonpreferred, but not meeting the criteria for a displayed variant. Pates (Food) USE Pates.
  • 14. Questions/contact 14 Heather Hedden Senior Vocabulary Editor Gale, A Cengage Company 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 U.S.A. heather.hedden@cengage.com www.cengage.com, www.gale.com www.cengage.co.uk, www.gale.cengage.co.uk