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5G Spectrum
Long Version
@3g4gUK
©3G4G
THIS IS LONG VERSION – FOR SHORT VERSION CLICK ON THE LINK ON TOP RIGHT
©3G4G
©3G4G
Electromagnetic Spectrum covers Electromagnetic Waves with frequencies ranging from below
1 hertz to above 1025 hertz
©3G4G
The Radio Spectrum is part of spectrum from 3Hz to 3000GHz (3 THz)
©3G4G
5G is only looking at frequencies from 450
MHz to 52.6 GHz
3GPP has divided 5G frequencies in 2 parts:
• Frequency Range 1 (FR1): 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz
• Frequency Range 2 (FR2): 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
©3G4G
5G is only looking at frequencies from 450
MHz to 52.6 GHz
3GPP has divided 5G frequencies in 2 parts:
• Frequency Range 1 (FR1): 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz
• Frequency Range 2 (FR2): 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Technically mmWave starts from 30 GHz
but people refer to all frequencies in FR2 as
mmWave
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
Popular Frequency bands for different Technologies
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
2G, 3G, 4G
Non millimeter wave 5G Millimeter wave 5G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
2.4GHz Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth, etc.
5GHz Wi-Fi
WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi
Up to 6GHz 802.11ax
5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz) 5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz)
802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz) 802.11ad / 802.11ay
(57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz)
Wi-Fi Spectrum around the world
©3G4G
Summary: Popular Frequency bands for different Technologies
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
Millimeter wave 5G
2.4GHz Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth, etc.
5GHz Wi-Fi
WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi
Up to 6GHz 802.11ax
5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz)
5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz)
802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz)
802.11ad / 802.11ay
(57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz)
2G 2G/4G3G 4G
Non-mmWave5Gnon-mmWave 5G
10 GHz0 GHz
Summary of Spectrum Band Names
©3G4G
Note: Not according to scale
300MHz 1GHz 2GHz 3GHz 4GHz
UHF
8GHz 12GHz 18GHz 27GHz 30GHz 40GHz
SHF
75GHz 110GHz 300GHz
EHF
30MHz
VHF
millimetre wave (mmWave / mmW)centimetre wave (cmWave)
Microwaves
LIEEE Bands S C X Ku K Ka V W
ITU-R Bands
E E
86GHz57GHz
V
71-76, 81-86GHz
57-66GHz
ITU Band
Designation
Important Bands to remember:
• C band: 3.4 – 4.2, 4.5 – 4.8, 5.85 – 7.075 GHz
• Ku band: 12 – 18 GHz
• K band: 18 – 26.5 GHz
• Ka band: 26.5 – 40 GHz
• mmWave start from 30 GHz
C
3.4-4.2, 4.5-4.8,
5.85-7.075GHz
For more details, see: Rec. ITU-R V.431-7
DWaveguide Bands
110 - 170 GHz
Q
33 - 50 GHz
Importance of Frequency selection
©3G4G
2.1GHz 900MHz
Higher frequency
means faster
decay
Lower frequency means
more number of users in a
given cell
Higher frequency gets
reflected from walls and
have poor penetration
Lower frequency gets
attenuated from walls but
still penetrates
5G: Multiple Layers for multiple needs
©3G4G
Coverage Layer
Sub-1GHz
Capacity Layer
1GHz – 7.125GHz
High Throughput Layers
24.25GHz – 52.6GHz
5G Needs Different Frequency Bands
©3G4G
Coverage Layer
Sub-1GHz
Capacity Layer
1GHz – 7.125GHz
High Throughput Layers
24.25GHz – 52.6GHz
Non-mmWave 5G
mmWave 5G
Non-mmWave 5G
5G Frequency Study / Agreement Process
©3G4G
World Radio Conference (WRC)
• Every 4 years
• Last one was WRC-15
• Next one is WRC-19
WRC-15
• Spectrum agreed for IMT
under 6 GHz
• Agreed study of spectrum
for IMT above 6GHz
• Results discussed in WRC-19
(28 Oct – 22 Nov)
ITU-R
ITU-R Study
Groups
ITU-R SG5
(Terrestrial Services)
WRC-19 Studies Discussion
5G Spectrum
©3G4G
ITU WRC-
15 Report
from NTT
Docomo
Technical
Journal
Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands
©3G4G
600MHz (2x35MHz)
24.25-24.45GHz
24.75-25.25GHz
27.5-28.35GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.6–3.8GHz
3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz
4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz
3.6–4.2GHz
64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
47.2-48.2GHz
5.9–6.4GHz
5.9–7.1GHz
600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
24.25-27.5GHz
26.5-27.5GHz
3.55- 3.7-
3.7GHz 4.2GHz
3.55-3.7 GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz
3.45-
2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz
Source: Qualcomm
Licensed
Unlicensed/shared
Existing band
New 5G band
Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study
Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands
©3G4G
600MHz (2x35MHz)
24.25-24.45GHz
24.75-25.25GHz
27.5-28.35GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.6–3.8GHz
3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz
4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz
3.6–4.2GHz
64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
47.2-48.2GHz
5.9–6.4GHz
5.9–7.1GHz
600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
24.25-27.5GHz
26.5-27.5GHz
3.55- 3.7-
3.7GHz 4.2GHz
3.55-3.7 GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz
3.45-
2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz
Source: Qualcomm
Licensed
Unlicensed/shared
Existing band
New 5G band
Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study
Non-mmWave 5G
Coverage Layer
Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands
©3G4G
600MHz (2x35MHz)
24.25-24.45GHz
24.75-25.25GHz
27.5-28.35GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.6–3.8GHz
3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz
4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz
3.6–4.2GHz
64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
47.2-48.2GHz
5.9–6.4GHz
5.9–7.1GHz
600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
24.25-27.5GHz
26.5-27.5GHz
3.55- 3.7-
3.7GHz 4.2GHz
3.55-3.7 GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz
3.45-
2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz
Source: Qualcomm
Licensed
Unlicensed/shared
Existing band
New 5G band
Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study
Non-mmWave 5G
Capacity Layer
Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands
©3G4G
600MHz (2x35MHz)
24.25-24.45GHz
24.75-25.25GHz
27.5-28.35GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz
3.6–3.8GHz
3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz
4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz
3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz
3.6–4.2GHz
64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
47.2-48.2GHz
5.9–6.4GHz
5.9–7.1GHz
600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz
37-37.6GHz
37.6-40GHz
24.25-27.5GHz
26.5-27.5GHz
3.55- 3.7-
3.7GHz 4.2GHz
3.55-3.7 GHz
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
700MHz (2x30 MHz)
5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz
3.45-
2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz
Source: Qualcomm Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study
mmWave 5G
High-Throughput Layer
Licensed
Unlicensed/shared
Existing band
New 5G band
Summary: Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands
©3G4G
Picture Source: Deutsche Telekom / T-Mobile USA
700 MHz – most
popular band
3.5 GHz – most
popular band
26/28 GHz – most
popular band
5G Bands Defined by 3GPP
©3G4G
New Bands in
5G, not in LTE
5G needs large amounts of bandwidth?
©3G4G
5G Deployment Options and Migration Strategy
©3G4G
EPC 5GC (NGCN)
SA
NSA
eNB EPC
Option 1: SA LTE connected to EPC Option 2: SA NR connected to 5GC
(Standalone)
(Non-Standalone)
[Dual Connectivity]
ng-eNBgNB 5GC
Option 5: SA LTE connected to 5GC
Option 3: NSA LTE assisted NR
connected to EPC
Option 4: NSA NR assisted LTE
connected to 5GC
Option 7: NSA LTE assisted NR
connected to 5GC
Migration
Strategy Option 1
↗ Option 2
↘ Option 3
Option 3
↗ Option 7
↘ Option 5
Option 3
↗ Option 3
↘ Option 2
Option 3
↗ Option 4
↘ Option 2
[EN-DC] [NE-DC] [NGEN-DC]
5GC
5GC
gNB
ng-eNB
5GC
gNB
ng-eNB
EPC
eNB
en-gNB
Non-Standalone 5G
Networks, Release-15, all 5G
networks today (SRIT)
Refarming the existing frequency bands
©3G4G
• T-Mobile USA launching 5G in 600 MHz
• 600 MHz used for 4G at present
4G 5G
Min 1.4 MHz
Max 20 MHz
Min 5 MHz
Max 20 MHz
Refarming the existing frequency bands
©3G4G
• Sprint USA launching 5G in 2.5 GHz
• 2.5 GHz used for 4G at present
4G 5G
Min 1.4 MHz
Max 20 MHz
Min 10 MHz
Max 100 MHz
5G needs large amounts of bandwidth?
©3G4G
3.3 3.8
4.2
4.4 5.0
24.25 27.5
29.5 37 40
26.5
n78 n79
n77
n258
n260
n261
28.35
n257
Bandwidth
900 MHz
500 MHz
600 MHz
3000 MHz (3 GHz)
3250 MHz (3.25 GHz)
3000 MHz (3 GHz)
850 MHz
• 3GPP defines new NR (New Radio) bands in FR1 and FR2 in 3GPP
Rel.15 NR
• FR1: 450 MHz – 6 GHz
• Upper range is changing to 7.125 GHz
• FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
5G needs large amounts of bandwidth?
©3G4G
5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – South Korea
©3G4G
Further Reading: Operator Watch Blog
South Korea: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – Japan
©3G4G
Further Reading: Operator Watch Blog
Japan: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – Italy
©3G4G
Source
Italy: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
UK mobile spectrum holdings (present)
©3G4G
Source: Ofcom
Total amount of spectrum with MNOs = 919.9 MHz
UK: Only non-mmWave 5G right now
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
USA: Mix of mmWave & non-mmWave
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
Switzerland: Only non-mmWave 5G right now
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
Finland: Only non-mmWave 5G right now
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
Australia: Only non-mmWave 5G right now
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
5G Spectrum Challenge
©3G4G
f1 f2 f3 f4
LTE Carrier Aggregation
4G / LTE
f1 f2 f3 f4
Dual Connectivity (DC)
5G NSA
f5
• In theory
f6
LTE Carrier Aggregation 5G NR Carrier Aggregation
While LTE-A supported up to 5 Component
Carriers (CC), each with a max of 20 MHz for
Carrier Aggregation, LTE-A Pro supports 32 CCs
5G NR supports up to 16 CCs of max 400 MHz
5G Spectrum Challenge
©3G4G
f1 f2 f3 f4
LTE Carrier Aggregation
4G / LTE
f1 f2 f3 f4
Dual Connectivity (DC)
5G NSA
f5
• In practice
f6
LTE Carrier Aggregation 5G NR Carrier Aggregation
While LTE-A supported up to 5 Component
Carriers (CC), each with a max of 20 MHz for
Carrier Aggregation, LTE-A Pro supports 32 CCs
5G NR supports up to 16 CCs of max 400 MHz
5G Spectrum Challenge – Interference
©3G4G
• With so many different bands in use, there is a small possibility of interference between them
• A recent whitepaper from Keysight points out that the 5G Uplink transmission in 3.5 GHz band
might significantly interfere with 4G in the 1.8 GHz band in downlink direction. Maybe bad news,
especially in Europe, where these are heavily used
Popular mmWave Frequency bands for different Technologies
©3G4G
0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz
Millimeter wave 5G
2.4GHz Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth, etc.
5GHz Wi-Fi
WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi
Up to 6GHz 802.11ax
5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz)
5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz)
802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz)
802.11ad / 802.11ay
(57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz)
2G 2G/4G3G 4G
Non-mmWave5Gnon-mmWave 5G
10 GHz0 GHz
mmWave
Various Satellite Based Services
(including Satellite Broadband)
Satellite Services using frequencies above 10 GHz
©3G4G
• Satellite TV is deployed into Ku-band between 8 GHz and 12 GHz (predominantly
between 11.7 and 12.7 GHz, which is what most of us watch at home), and in Ka-
band at 18.3–18.8 GHz and 19.7–20.2 GHz.
• The Ka-band allocation (18.3–18.8 GHz + 19.7–20.2 GHz) is used for superhigh-
definition and ultra-high definition TV.
• V-band and W-band are used heavily for Military, Commercial, and Automotive
Radar
• Satellite Operator Avanti uses Ka band extensively (up to 31 GHz) for providing
connectivity to Defence aircrafts, Enterprises, Consumer Broadband and Cellular
Backhaul
• Many of the new LEO satellite constellations like OneWeb, O3b, etc. have proposed
to use mmWave spectrum as all other spectrum bands are congested and large
chunks of contiguous spectrum are not otherwise available
Further Reading on this topic: ‘5G and Satellite Spectrum, Standards, and Scale’ by Geoff Varrall
mmWave use for Mobile Backhaul
©3G4G
• Mobile backhaul makes
extensive use of
frequencies above 10
GHz
• V-Band and E-Band are
used extensively today,
with D-Band and W-
Band primed for future
use.
Further Reading:
• ETSI White Paper No. 25: Microwave and
Millimetre wave for 5G Transport
• GSMA Mobile backhaul options:
Spectrum analysis and recommendations
Summary
©3G4G
• There are three types of 5G bands; Coverage Layer, Capacity Layer and
High Throughput Layer that is needed for an ideal 5G rollout
• In terms of frequency, there is non-mmWave 5G and mmWave 5G.
• Most of the initial rollouts is mainly non-mmWave 5G
• mmWave 5G will only be available in Urban and Dense-urban areas,
not everywhere
• 5G could be rolled out in existing frequency bands by re-farming the
spectrum
• While in theory 5G needs large amounts of bandwidth, there is no
reason why 5G can’t be rolled out with small bandwidths
• mmWave spectrum is already in use today and it will be complemented
by 5G rollouts in that spectrum as well soon.
Thank You
To learn more, visit:
3G4G Website – http://www.3g4g.co.uk/
3G4G Blog – http://blog.3g4g.co.uk/
3G4G Small Cells Blog – http://smallcells.3g4g.co.uk/
Operator Watch - http://operatorwatch.3g4g.co.uk/
Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/3g4gUK
Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3g4gUK/
Follow us on Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/3g4g
Follow us on Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/3G4GLtd
Follow us on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/3G4G5G
©3G4G

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Beginners: 5G Spectrum - Long Version

  • 2. ©3G4G THIS IS LONG VERSION – FOR SHORT VERSION CLICK ON THE LINK ON TOP RIGHT
  • 4. ©3G4G Electromagnetic Spectrum covers Electromagnetic Waves with frequencies ranging from below 1 hertz to above 1025 hertz
  • 5. ©3G4G The Radio Spectrum is part of spectrum from 3Hz to 3000GHz (3 THz)
  • 6. ©3G4G 5G is only looking at frequencies from 450 MHz to 52.6 GHz 3GPP has divided 5G frequencies in 2 parts: • Frequency Range 1 (FR1): 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz • Frequency Range 2 (FR2): 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
  • 7. ©3G4G 5G is only looking at frequencies from 450 MHz to 52.6 GHz 3GPP has divided 5G frequencies in 2 parts: • Frequency Range 1 (FR1): 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz • Frequency Range 2 (FR2): 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Technically mmWave starts from 30 GHz but people refer to all frequencies in FR2 as mmWave
  • 8. ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 9. Popular Frequency bands for different Technologies ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz 2G, 3G, 4G Non millimeter wave 5G Millimeter wave 5G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz 2.4GHz Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. 5GHz Wi-Fi WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi Up to 6GHz 802.11ax 5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz) 5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz) 802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz) 802.11ad / 802.11ay (57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz)
  • 10. Wi-Fi Spectrum around the world ©3G4G
  • 11. Summary: Popular Frequency bands for different Technologies ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz Millimeter wave 5G 2.4GHz Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. 5GHz Wi-Fi WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi Up to 6GHz 802.11ax 5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz) 5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz) 802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz) 802.11ad / 802.11ay (57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz) 2G 2G/4G3G 4G Non-mmWave5Gnon-mmWave 5G 10 GHz0 GHz
  • 12. Summary of Spectrum Band Names ©3G4G Note: Not according to scale 300MHz 1GHz 2GHz 3GHz 4GHz UHF 8GHz 12GHz 18GHz 27GHz 30GHz 40GHz SHF 75GHz 110GHz 300GHz EHF 30MHz VHF millimetre wave (mmWave / mmW)centimetre wave (cmWave) Microwaves LIEEE Bands S C X Ku K Ka V W ITU-R Bands E E 86GHz57GHz V 71-76, 81-86GHz 57-66GHz ITU Band Designation Important Bands to remember: • C band: 3.4 – 4.2, 4.5 – 4.8, 5.85 – 7.075 GHz • Ku band: 12 – 18 GHz • K band: 18 – 26.5 GHz • Ka band: 26.5 – 40 GHz • mmWave start from 30 GHz C 3.4-4.2, 4.5-4.8, 5.85-7.075GHz For more details, see: Rec. ITU-R V.431-7 DWaveguide Bands 110 - 170 GHz Q 33 - 50 GHz
  • 13. Importance of Frequency selection ©3G4G 2.1GHz 900MHz Higher frequency means faster decay Lower frequency means more number of users in a given cell Higher frequency gets reflected from walls and have poor penetration Lower frequency gets attenuated from walls but still penetrates
  • 14. 5G: Multiple Layers for multiple needs ©3G4G Coverage Layer Sub-1GHz Capacity Layer 1GHz – 7.125GHz High Throughput Layers 24.25GHz – 52.6GHz
  • 15. 5G Needs Different Frequency Bands ©3G4G Coverage Layer Sub-1GHz Capacity Layer 1GHz – 7.125GHz High Throughput Layers 24.25GHz – 52.6GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G Non-mmWave 5G
  • 16. 5G Frequency Study / Agreement Process ©3G4G World Radio Conference (WRC) • Every 4 years • Last one was WRC-15 • Next one is WRC-19 WRC-15 • Spectrum agreed for IMT under 6 GHz • Agreed study of spectrum for IMT above 6GHz • Results discussed in WRC-19 (28 Oct – 22 Nov) ITU-R ITU-R Study Groups ITU-R SG5 (Terrestrial Services) WRC-19 Studies Discussion
  • 17. 5G Spectrum ©3G4G ITU WRC- 15 Report from NTT Docomo Technical Journal
  • 18. Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands ©3G4G 600MHz (2x35MHz) 24.25-24.45GHz 24.75-25.25GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.6–3.8GHz 3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz 4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz 3.6–4.2GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 47.2-48.2GHz 5.9–6.4GHz 5.9–7.1GHz 600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 24.25-27.5GHz 26.5-27.5GHz 3.55- 3.7- 3.7GHz 4.2GHz 3.55-3.7 GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz 3.45- 2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz Source: Qualcomm Licensed Unlicensed/shared Existing band New 5G band Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study
  • 19. Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands ©3G4G 600MHz (2x35MHz) 24.25-24.45GHz 24.75-25.25GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.6–3.8GHz 3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz 4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz 3.6–4.2GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 47.2-48.2GHz 5.9–6.4GHz 5.9–7.1GHz 600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 24.25-27.5GHz 26.5-27.5GHz 3.55- 3.7- 3.7GHz 4.2GHz 3.55-3.7 GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz 3.45- 2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz Source: Qualcomm Licensed Unlicensed/shared Existing band New 5G band Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study Non-mmWave 5G Coverage Layer
  • 20. Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands ©3G4G 600MHz (2x35MHz) 24.25-24.45GHz 24.75-25.25GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.6–3.8GHz 3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz 4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz 3.6–4.2GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 47.2-48.2GHz 5.9–6.4GHz 5.9–7.1GHz 600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 24.25-27.5GHz 26.5-27.5GHz 3.55- 3.7- 3.7GHz 4.2GHz 3.55-3.7 GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz 3.45- 2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz Source: Qualcomm Licensed Unlicensed/shared Existing band New 5G band Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study Non-mmWave 5G Capacity Layer
  • 21. Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands ©3G4G 600MHz (2x35MHz) 24.25-24.45GHz 24.75-25.25GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 3.4–3.8GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.46–3.8GHz 26GHz 3.6–3.8GHz 3.3–3.6GHz 4.8–5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 26.5-29.5GHz 4.4–4.9GHz 26.5-28.5GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 39GHz 3.6–4.2GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 47.2-48.2GHz 5.9–6.4GHz 5.9–7.1GHz 600MHz (2x35MHz) 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz 37-37.6GHz 37.6-40GHz 24.25-27.5GHz 26.5-27.5GHz 3.55- 3.7- 3.7GHz 4.2GHz 3.55-3.7 GHz 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 700MHz (2x30 MHz) 5GHz4GHz3GHz<1GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz 3.45- 2.5GHz (LTE B41) 3.55GHz Source: Qualcomm Red highlights frequencies not approved for ITU study mmWave 5G High-Throughput Layer Licensed Unlicensed/shared Existing band New 5G band
  • 22. Summary: Most Popular 5G Frequency Bands ©3G4G Picture Source: Deutsche Telekom / T-Mobile USA 700 MHz – most popular band 3.5 GHz – most popular band 26/28 GHz – most popular band
  • 23. 5G Bands Defined by 3GPP ©3G4G New Bands in 5G, not in LTE
  • 24. 5G needs large amounts of bandwidth? ©3G4G
  • 25. 5G Deployment Options and Migration Strategy ©3G4G EPC 5GC (NGCN) SA NSA eNB EPC Option 1: SA LTE connected to EPC Option 2: SA NR connected to 5GC (Standalone) (Non-Standalone) [Dual Connectivity] ng-eNBgNB 5GC Option 5: SA LTE connected to 5GC Option 3: NSA LTE assisted NR connected to EPC Option 4: NSA NR assisted LTE connected to 5GC Option 7: NSA LTE assisted NR connected to 5GC Migration Strategy Option 1 ↗ Option 2 ↘ Option 3 Option 3 ↗ Option 7 ↘ Option 5 Option 3 ↗ Option 3 ↘ Option 2 Option 3 ↗ Option 4 ↘ Option 2 [EN-DC] [NE-DC] [NGEN-DC] 5GC 5GC gNB ng-eNB 5GC gNB ng-eNB EPC eNB en-gNB Non-Standalone 5G Networks, Release-15, all 5G networks today (SRIT)
  • 26. Refarming the existing frequency bands ©3G4G • T-Mobile USA launching 5G in 600 MHz • 600 MHz used for 4G at present 4G 5G Min 1.4 MHz Max 20 MHz Min 5 MHz Max 20 MHz
  • 27. Refarming the existing frequency bands ©3G4G • Sprint USA launching 5G in 2.5 GHz • 2.5 GHz used for 4G at present 4G 5G Min 1.4 MHz Max 20 MHz Min 10 MHz Max 100 MHz
  • 28. 5G needs large amounts of bandwidth? ©3G4G 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.4 5.0 24.25 27.5 29.5 37 40 26.5 n78 n79 n77 n258 n260 n261 28.35 n257 Bandwidth 900 MHz 500 MHz 600 MHz 3000 MHz (3 GHz) 3250 MHz (3.25 GHz) 3000 MHz (3 GHz) 850 MHz • 3GPP defines new NR (New Radio) bands in FR1 and FR2 in 3GPP Rel.15 NR • FR1: 450 MHz – 6 GHz • Upper range is changing to 7.125 GHz • FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz
  • 29. 5G needs large amounts of bandwidth? ©3G4G
  • 30. 5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – South Korea ©3G4G Further Reading: Operator Watch Blog
  • 31. South Korea: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 32. 5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – Japan ©3G4G Further Reading: Operator Watch Blog
  • 33. Japan: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 34. 5G Spectrum Plans / Allocation – Italy ©3G4G Source
  • 35. Italy: Both non-mmWave & mmWave 5G ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 36. UK mobile spectrum holdings (present) ©3G4G Source: Ofcom Total amount of spectrum with MNOs = 919.9 MHz
  • 37. UK: Only non-mmWave 5G right now ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 38. USA: Mix of mmWave & non-mmWave ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 39. Switzerland: Only non-mmWave 5G right now ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 40. Finland: Only non-mmWave 5G right now ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 41. Australia: Only non-mmWave 5G right now ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz FR1: 450 MHz – 7.125 GHz FR2: 24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz Non-mmWave 5G mmWave 5G
  • 42. 5G Spectrum Challenge ©3G4G f1 f2 f3 f4 LTE Carrier Aggregation 4G / LTE f1 f2 f3 f4 Dual Connectivity (DC) 5G NSA f5 • In theory f6 LTE Carrier Aggregation 5G NR Carrier Aggregation While LTE-A supported up to 5 Component Carriers (CC), each with a max of 20 MHz for Carrier Aggregation, LTE-A Pro supports 32 CCs 5G NR supports up to 16 CCs of max 400 MHz
  • 43. 5G Spectrum Challenge ©3G4G f1 f2 f3 f4 LTE Carrier Aggregation 4G / LTE f1 f2 f3 f4 Dual Connectivity (DC) 5G NSA f5 • In practice f6 LTE Carrier Aggregation 5G NR Carrier Aggregation While LTE-A supported up to 5 Component Carriers (CC), each with a max of 20 MHz for Carrier Aggregation, LTE-A Pro supports 32 CCs 5G NR supports up to 16 CCs of max 400 MHz
  • 44. 5G Spectrum Challenge – Interference ©3G4G • With so many different bands in use, there is a small possibility of interference between them • A recent whitepaper from Keysight points out that the 5G Uplink transmission in 3.5 GHz band might significantly interfere with 4G in the 1.8 GHz band in downlink direction. Maybe bad news, especially in Europe, where these are heavily used
  • 45. Popular mmWave Frequency bands for different Technologies ©3G4G 0 10 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz 100 GHz Millimeter wave 5G 2.4GHz Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. 5GHz Wi-Fi WiGig – 60GHz Wi-Fi Up to 6GHz 802.11ax 5G FR1 (450 MHz – 7.125 GHz) 5G FR2 (24.25 GHz – 52.6 GHz) 802.11be EHT (1 GHz – 7.125 GHz) 802.11ad / 802.11ay (57.24 GHz – 70.20 GHz) 2G 2G/4G3G 4G Non-mmWave5Gnon-mmWave 5G 10 GHz0 GHz mmWave Various Satellite Based Services (including Satellite Broadband)
  • 46. Satellite Services using frequencies above 10 GHz ©3G4G • Satellite TV is deployed into Ku-band between 8 GHz and 12 GHz (predominantly between 11.7 and 12.7 GHz, which is what most of us watch at home), and in Ka- band at 18.3–18.8 GHz and 19.7–20.2 GHz. • The Ka-band allocation (18.3–18.8 GHz + 19.7–20.2 GHz) is used for superhigh- definition and ultra-high definition TV. • V-band and W-band are used heavily for Military, Commercial, and Automotive Radar • Satellite Operator Avanti uses Ka band extensively (up to 31 GHz) for providing connectivity to Defence aircrafts, Enterprises, Consumer Broadband and Cellular Backhaul • Many of the new LEO satellite constellations like OneWeb, O3b, etc. have proposed to use mmWave spectrum as all other spectrum bands are congested and large chunks of contiguous spectrum are not otherwise available Further Reading on this topic: ‘5G and Satellite Spectrum, Standards, and Scale’ by Geoff Varrall
  • 47. mmWave use for Mobile Backhaul ©3G4G • Mobile backhaul makes extensive use of frequencies above 10 GHz • V-Band and E-Band are used extensively today, with D-Band and W- Band primed for future use. Further Reading: • ETSI White Paper No. 25: Microwave and Millimetre wave for 5G Transport • GSMA Mobile backhaul options: Spectrum analysis and recommendations
  • 48. Summary ©3G4G • There are three types of 5G bands; Coverage Layer, Capacity Layer and High Throughput Layer that is needed for an ideal 5G rollout • In terms of frequency, there is non-mmWave 5G and mmWave 5G. • Most of the initial rollouts is mainly non-mmWave 5G • mmWave 5G will only be available in Urban and Dense-urban areas, not everywhere • 5G could be rolled out in existing frequency bands by re-farming the spectrum • While in theory 5G needs large amounts of bandwidth, there is no reason why 5G can’t be rolled out with small bandwidths • mmWave spectrum is already in use today and it will be complemented by 5G rollouts in that spectrum as well soon.
  • 49. Thank You To learn more, visit: 3G4G Website – http://www.3g4g.co.uk/ 3G4G Blog – http://blog.3g4g.co.uk/ 3G4G Small Cells Blog – http://smallcells.3g4g.co.uk/ Operator Watch - http://operatorwatch.3g4g.co.uk/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/3g4gUK Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3g4gUK/ Follow us on Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/3g4g Follow us on Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/3G4GLtd Follow us on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/3G4G5G ©3G4G