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Basics in good research data
management (RDM) for
reviewing DMPs
FOSTER & OpenAIRE webinar, 22nd October 2018
https://www.openaire.eu/open-access-week-2018
S. Venkataraman
Digital Curation Centre, Edinburgh
s.venkataraman@ed.ac.uk
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1461601
WHAT IS RESEARCH
DATA
MANAGEMENT?
What is Research Data Management?
Create
Document
Use
Store
Share
Preserve
“the active management
and appraisal of data
over the lifecycle of
scholarly and scientific
interest”
Data management is
part of
good research
practice
Concepts to cover
•Data formats
•Metadata
•Licensing
•Data repositories
•Persistent identifiers
These aspects are addressed specifically in Data Management Plans so here
we will help you review them
Choose a
appropriate file
formats
Data Formats
Different formats are good for different things
- open, lossless formats are more sustainable e.g. rtf, xml, tif, wav
- proprietary and/or compressed formats are less preservable but are
often in widespread use e.g. doc, jpg, mp3
One format for analysis then convert to a standard format
Data centres may suggest preferred formats for deposit
https://www.ukdataservice.ac.uk/manage-data/format/recommended-
formats
Data Formats
Type of data Recommended formats Acceptable formats
Tabular data with extensive metadata
variable labels, code labels, and defined missing values
SPSS portable format (.por)
delimited text and command ('setup') file (SPSS, Stata, SAS, etc.)
structured text or mark-up file of metadata information, e.g. DDI XML file
proprietary formats of statistical packages: SPSS (.sav), Stata (.dta), MS
Access (.mdb/.accdb)
Tabular data with minimal metadata
column headings, variable names
comma-separated values (.csv)
tab-delimited file (.tab)
delimited text with SQL data definition statements
delimited text (.txt) with characters not present in data used as delimiters
widely-used formats: MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx), MS Access (.mdb/.accdb), dBase
(.dbf), OpenDocument Spreadsheet (.ods)
Geospatial data
vector and raster data
ESRI Shapefile (.shp, .shx, .dbf, .prj, .sbx, .sbn optional)
geo-referenced TIFF (.tif, .tfw)
CAD data (.dwg)
tabular GIS attribute data
Geography Markup Language (.gml)
ESRI Geodatabase format (.mdb)
MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif) for vector data
Keyhole Mark-up Language (.kml)
Adobe Illustrator (.ai), CAD data (.dxf or .svg)
binary formats of GIS and CAD packages
Textual data Rich Text Format (.rtf)
plain text, ASCII (.txt)
eXtensible Mark-up Language (.xml) text according to an appropriate
Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema
Hypertext Mark-up Language (.html)
widely-used formats: MS Word (.doc/.docx)
some software-specific formats: NUD*IST, NVivo and ATLAS.ti
Image data TIFF 6.0 uncompressed (.tif) JPEG (.jpeg, .jpg, .jp2) if original created in this format
GIF (.gif)
TIFF other versions (.tif, .tiff)
RAW image format (.raw)
Photoshop files (.psd)
BMP (.bmp)
PNG (.png)
Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF/A, PDF) (.pdf)
Audio data Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) (.flac) MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (.mp3) if original created in this format
Audio Interchange File Format (.aif)
Waveform Audio Format (.wav)
Video data MPEG-4 (.mp4)
OGG video (.ogv, .ogg)
motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2)
AVCHD video (.avchd)
Documentation and scripts Rich Text Format (.rtf)
PDF/UA, PDF/A or PDF (.pdf)
XHTML or HTML (.xhtml, .htm)
OpenDocument Text (.odt)
plain text (.txt)
widely-used formats: MS Word (.doc/.docx), MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx)
XML marked-up text (.xml) according to an appropriate DTD or schema, e.g.
XHMTL 1.0
Document your
data as fully as
possible
Metadata and documentation
At a basic level, metadata supports data discovery, disambiguation and
citation
Rich metadata and documentation will support interoperability & reuse
Standards should be used. These can be general – such as Dublin Core, or
discipline specific
Data Documentation Initiative (DDI) – social science
Ecological Metadata Language (EML) - ecology
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) – astronomy
Where to find relevant standards?
Metadata Standards Directory
Broad, disciplinary listing of
standards and tools. Maintained
by RDA group
https://rdamsc.dcc.ac.uk
FAIRsharing
•A portal of data standards, databases,
and policies
•Focused on life, environmental and
biomedical sciences, but expanding to
other disciplines
https://fairsharing.org
Value of controlled vocabularies
“MTBLS1: A metabolomic study of urinary changes in type 2 diabetes in……”
Example courtesy of Ken Haug, European
Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI)
Controlled vocabularies
• e.g. SNOMED CT (clinical terms) or MeSH
• Include ontologies as well
• Defined terms + taxonomy
• Useful for selecting keywords to tag datasets
• Example: compare anatomical components in two distinct species of organism…
➢Organism A
➢Term A1
➢Term A2
➢Term A3
➢Term B1
➢Term B2
➢Term C4
➢.
➢.
➢.
➢Term n
►Organism B
►Term A1
►Term A2
►Term A3
►Term B1
►Term B2
►Term C4
►.
►.
►.
►Term n
Ensure your data is
as visible as
possible
Dataset licensing
Horizon 2020
guidelines point
to:
or
EUDAT licensing tool
https://ufal.github.io/public-license-selector
Choose a suitable
repository
Data repositories
www.re3data.org
The EC guidelines point to Re3data as one of the registries that can be
searched to find a home for data
www.fosteropenscience.eu/content/re3data-demo
Considerations when selecting repositories
• Often preferable to use a subject specific repository if available
• Useful if repositories assign a persistent identifier
• Look for certification as a ‘Trustworthy Digital Repository’ with an explicit
ambition to keep the data available in long term.
• Generic repositories are also available e.g. Zenodo or institutional
repositories Icons to note
open access,
licenses, PIDs,
certificates…
Make sure that data
can be accessed in
perpetuity
Persistent Identifiers
• a long-lasting reference to a document, file or other object
• PIDs come in various forms e.g. ARK, DOI, URN, PURL, Handles...
• Typically they’re actionable i.e. type it into web browser to access
• Many repositories will assign them on deposit
Persistent Identifiers
A specific example: ORCID
https://orcid.org/blog/2017/10/04/building-information-infrastructure-
research-institutions
https://orcid.org/blog/2016/10/31/organization-identifier-project-way-
forward
Thanks for watching!
More info at:
www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/
https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/
https://www.openaire.eu/

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Basics of Research Data Management

  • 1. Basics in good research data management (RDM) for reviewing DMPs FOSTER & OpenAIRE webinar, 22nd October 2018 https://www.openaire.eu/open-access-week-2018 S. Venkataraman Digital Curation Centre, Edinburgh s.venkataraman@ed.ac.uk https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1461601
  • 3. What is Research Data Management? Create Document Use Store Share Preserve “the active management and appraisal of data over the lifecycle of scholarly and scientific interest” Data management is part of good research practice
  • 4.
  • 5. Concepts to cover •Data formats •Metadata •Licensing •Data repositories •Persistent identifiers These aspects are addressed specifically in Data Management Plans so here we will help you review them
  • 7. Data Formats Different formats are good for different things - open, lossless formats are more sustainable e.g. rtf, xml, tif, wav - proprietary and/or compressed formats are less preservable but are often in widespread use e.g. doc, jpg, mp3 One format for analysis then convert to a standard format Data centres may suggest preferred formats for deposit https://www.ukdataservice.ac.uk/manage-data/format/recommended- formats
  • 8. Data Formats Type of data Recommended formats Acceptable formats Tabular data with extensive metadata variable labels, code labels, and defined missing values SPSS portable format (.por) delimited text and command ('setup') file (SPSS, Stata, SAS, etc.) structured text or mark-up file of metadata information, e.g. DDI XML file proprietary formats of statistical packages: SPSS (.sav), Stata (.dta), MS Access (.mdb/.accdb) Tabular data with minimal metadata column headings, variable names comma-separated values (.csv) tab-delimited file (.tab) delimited text with SQL data definition statements delimited text (.txt) with characters not present in data used as delimiters widely-used formats: MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx), MS Access (.mdb/.accdb), dBase (.dbf), OpenDocument Spreadsheet (.ods) Geospatial data vector and raster data ESRI Shapefile (.shp, .shx, .dbf, .prj, .sbx, .sbn optional) geo-referenced TIFF (.tif, .tfw) CAD data (.dwg) tabular GIS attribute data Geography Markup Language (.gml) ESRI Geodatabase format (.mdb) MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif) for vector data Keyhole Mark-up Language (.kml) Adobe Illustrator (.ai), CAD data (.dxf or .svg) binary formats of GIS and CAD packages Textual data Rich Text Format (.rtf) plain text, ASCII (.txt) eXtensible Mark-up Language (.xml) text according to an appropriate Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema Hypertext Mark-up Language (.html) widely-used formats: MS Word (.doc/.docx) some software-specific formats: NUD*IST, NVivo and ATLAS.ti Image data TIFF 6.0 uncompressed (.tif) JPEG (.jpeg, .jpg, .jp2) if original created in this format GIF (.gif) TIFF other versions (.tif, .tiff) RAW image format (.raw) Photoshop files (.psd) BMP (.bmp) PNG (.png) Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF/A, PDF) (.pdf) Audio data Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) (.flac) MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (.mp3) if original created in this format Audio Interchange File Format (.aif) Waveform Audio Format (.wav) Video data MPEG-4 (.mp4) OGG video (.ogv, .ogg) motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2) AVCHD video (.avchd) Documentation and scripts Rich Text Format (.rtf) PDF/UA, PDF/A or PDF (.pdf) XHTML or HTML (.xhtml, .htm) OpenDocument Text (.odt) plain text (.txt) widely-used formats: MS Word (.doc/.docx), MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx) XML marked-up text (.xml) according to an appropriate DTD or schema, e.g. XHMTL 1.0
  • 9. Document your data as fully as possible
  • 10. Metadata and documentation At a basic level, metadata supports data discovery, disambiguation and citation Rich metadata and documentation will support interoperability & reuse Standards should be used. These can be general – such as Dublin Core, or discipline specific Data Documentation Initiative (DDI) – social science Ecological Metadata Language (EML) - ecology Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) – astronomy
  • 11. Where to find relevant standards? Metadata Standards Directory Broad, disciplinary listing of standards and tools. Maintained by RDA group https://rdamsc.dcc.ac.uk FAIRsharing •A portal of data standards, databases, and policies •Focused on life, environmental and biomedical sciences, but expanding to other disciplines https://fairsharing.org
  • 12. Value of controlled vocabularies “MTBLS1: A metabolomic study of urinary changes in type 2 diabetes in……” Example courtesy of Ken Haug, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI)
  • 13. Controlled vocabularies • e.g. SNOMED CT (clinical terms) or MeSH • Include ontologies as well • Defined terms + taxonomy • Useful for selecting keywords to tag datasets • Example: compare anatomical components in two distinct species of organism… ➢Organism A ➢Term A1 ➢Term A2 ➢Term A3 ➢Term B1 ➢Term B2 ➢Term C4 ➢. ➢. ➢. ➢Term n ►Organism B ►Term A1 ►Term A2 ►Term A3 ►Term B1 ►Term B2 ►Term C4 ►. ►. ►. ►Term n
  • 14. Ensure your data is as visible as possible
  • 18. Data repositories www.re3data.org The EC guidelines point to Re3data as one of the registries that can be searched to find a home for data www.fosteropenscience.eu/content/re3data-demo
  • 19. Considerations when selecting repositories • Often preferable to use a subject specific repository if available • Useful if repositories assign a persistent identifier • Look for certification as a ‘Trustworthy Digital Repository’ with an explicit ambition to keep the data available in long term. • Generic repositories are also available e.g. Zenodo or institutional repositories Icons to note open access, licenses, PIDs, certificates…
  • 20. Make sure that data can be accessed in perpetuity
  • 21. Persistent Identifiers • a long-lasting reference to a document, file or other object • PIDs come in various forms e.g. ARK, DOI, URN, PURL, Handles... • Typically they’re actionable i.e. type it into web browser to access • Many repositories will assign them on deposit
  • 22. Persistent Identifiers A specific example: ORCID https://orcid.org/blog/2017/10/04/building-information-infrastructure- research-institutions https://orcid.org/blog/2016/10/31/organization-identifier-project-way- forward
  • 23. Thanks for watching! More info at: www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/ https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/ https://www.openaire.eu/